Emerging Markets and the Future of the BRIC Nations
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Emerging Markets and the Future of the BRIC Nations

Edited by Ben L. Kedia and Kelly Aceto

After a decade of unprecedented growth, the BRIC nations’ economies have unexpectedly slowed. In this innovative book, expert contributors diagnose and examine the factors that might be responsible for the economic regression in Brazil, Russia, India, and China.
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Chapter 4: Environmental sustainability as competitive driver in emerging markets

Rahul Mitra


With the onset of globalization and new technologies that enable more efficient production of goods, delivery of services, and social connectedness, the issue of competitiveness has become more relevant than ever across different disciplines. Scholars have theorized that economic competitiveness results from a variety of factors, ranging from but not limited to the development of strong institutional and factor (raw material) markets, the liberalization of trade, implementation of policies conducive to innovation and intellectual property rights, and the proper management of inputs and resources (e.g. Aiginger, 2006a; Barney, 2001; Cohn, 2013; Peteraf and Bergen, 2003; Porter, 1980, 1990). Moreover, with the rise of “the rest” economies, researchers and commentators have argued the need to examine models of economic growth and human development in contexts other than the United States and Western Europe (e.g. Kvint, 2009; O’Neill, 2001), paying particular attention to how capitalism is appropriated in particular ways by the socio-political-economic systems in developing and emerging nations, such as the BRICS group (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) (e.g. Jamali and Neville, 2011; Kedia, Gaffney, and Clampit, 2012; Mitra, Green, and Dutta, 2013). This chapter extends this focus on how alternative models of organizing and economic growth, especially in emerging markets, might shape competitiveness in two ways.

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