The Changing Global Economy and its Impact on International Entrepreneurship
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The Changing Global Economy and its Impact on International Entrepreneurship

Edited by Hamid Etemad, Stefano Denicolai, Birgit Hagen and Antonella Zuchella

The Changing Global Economy and its Impact on International Entrepreneurship addresses different changes and challenges which small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) face in an economy where they need to compete at home and cannot refrain from participating in international markets. This volume presents a collection of 12 carefully selected chapters that highlight challenging real-world cases to illustrate a variety of difficult problems. The book presents an analytical framework with three levels of analysis – entrepreneurial level, firm level, and institutional level – to document comprehensive, realistic and experientially-based entrepreneurial initiatives, potent firm and public policy strategies with solid results.
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Chapter 9: Value chain activities in Born Global companies

Ingemar Wictor


Today, globalization is focused on rapid technological development regarding transport and communication, lower trade barriers and increased international competition. Therefore, increasingly more firms start their international activities during the first year of operation, or very soon after their establishment, and a significant part of their total sales comes from foreign markets. These types of firms are known by several terms – early internationalizing firms, Born Global firms or international new ventures (Oviatt and McDougall 1994). The most common concept is probably Born Global, and the term will be used in this study (Rennie 1993; Knight and Cavusgil 1996; Andersson and Wictor 2003; Madsen and Servais 1997; Rialp et al. 2005). Although the area has been researched for some time, further developments in theory and concepts could contribute to a better understanding and to help explain Born Globals (Autio 2005; Keupp and Gassman 2009). The concept is relatively new although it is applied by an increasing number of companies. One drawback with earlier research on Born Global firms is that the focus has only been on the marketing and selling aspects of such companies. Many definitions of Born Global are based on their sales turnover in foreign markets (Andersson and Wictor 2003). This imbalance is also found in other studies dealing with international business, and there is a need to include both the marketing and supplying side of business to understand firms’ international behaviour, for example a holistic view of the Born Global market is needed (Andersson and Servais 2010).

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