Handbook on the Geographies of Innovation
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Handbook on the Geographies of Innovation

Edited by Richard Shearmu, Christophe Carrincazeaux and David Doloreux

The geography of innovation is changing. First, it is increasingly understood that innovative firms and organizations exhibit a wide variety of strategies, each being differently attuned to diverse geographic contexts. Second, and concomitantly, the idea that cities, clusters and physical proximity are essential for innovation is evolving under the weight of new theorizing and empirical evidence. In this Handbook we gather 28 chapters by scholars with widely differing views on what constitutes the geography of innovation. The aim of the Handbook is to break with the many ideas and concepts that emerged during the course of the 1980s and 1990s, and to fully take into account the new reality of the internet, mobile communication technologies, personal mobility and globalization. This does not entail the rejection of well-established and supported ideas, but instead allows for a series of new ideas and authors to enter the arena and provoke debate.
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Chapter 10: Intelligent cities and the evolution toward technology-enhanced, global and user-driven territorial systems of innovation

Nicos Komninos


The aim of this chapter is to present key aspects of the intelligent city landscape referring to the concept, structure, planning and operation of these socio-technical systems, and contribute to the understanding of intelligent cities as a distinct type of innovation environment and territorial system of innovation characterized by digital proximity and collaboration, global information and technology flows, user-driven innovation and resource optimization. The era of intelligent cities opened with academic publications on networking and technopolitan development in the early 1990s (Batty, 1990; Gibson et al., 1992; Laterasse, 1992), unfolded with limited experimentations in Web 1.0 technologies and a few publications in the early 2000s, and culminated in a massive explosion of papers and smart city solutions after 2010. Currently, big multinational companies are involved and large-scale initiatives are taken by cities worldwide. This orientation, however, has its roots in the fertile background created by the move of cities and regions to technology and innovation as sources of competitive advantage, productivity growth and sustainable development (Scott, 1988; Pyke et al., 1990; Storper, 1993; Cooke and Morgan, 1997; Simmie, 1997; Keeble et al., 1998, Doloreux and Parto, 2005). Within this tradition, intelligent cities promote the understanding that geographical proximity together with institutions offer the binding agents that enable innovation systems to emerge and operate, and cities and regions to profit from digital technology and innovation to create environments and systems propelling innovation.

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