University–Industry Interactions in the Global South
Edited by Eduardo Albuquerque, Wilson Suzigan, Glenda Kruss and Keun Lee
Chapter 7: Matrices of university–firm interactions in Latin America
Investigations of interactions between firms and universities have a long tradition in the evolutionary economics literature. The subject of this chapter – matrices that relate economic sectors to science and engineering (S & E) fields – builds on this tradition. We refer to the contributions by Rosenberg (1972, 1982) on lessons from history; Freeman and Soete (1997) and Colyvas et al. (2002) on case studies of technologies, inventions, and technology transfer from universities and research institutes to firms; Schmoch (1997) on patents from research institutes and papers from firms; Narin and Noma (1985), Narin et al. (1997), NSB (2002, 2004, 2006), Verbeek et al. (2002), Callaert et al. (2006) and Ribeiro et al. (2010) on non-patent references in patents; Zitt et al. (2003) on geographical co-localization of patents and papers; and finally Klevorick et al. (1995) and Cohen et al. (2002) on sources of technological opportunities and how US manufacturing firms use and value knowledge flows from universities and research institutes. The last two contributions, the Yale survey on industrial research and development (Yale survey) and the Carnegie Mellon survey on industrial research and development (R & D) (CM survey), are particularly relevant to the purposes of this chapter because they both use survey data. Cohen et al. (2002) prepared the first matrix of interaction between industrial sectors and S & E fields for the US.
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