Economic Reform in Asia
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Economic Reform in Asia

China, India, and Japan

Sara Hsu

Economic Reform in Asia compares and analyzes the reform and development patterns of China, India, and Japan from both historical and developmental perspectives. Sara Hsu specifically focuses on China’s reform and opening-up in 1979, India’s accelerated liberalization in 1991, and the outset of the Meiji Restoration in Japan in 1878. This detailed overview of growth patterns in Asia’s largest economies is invaluable, especially in its determination to understand which development policies work, what role institutions play in development, and what issues may arise during said development.
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Chapter 6: Poverty and inequality in China, India, and Japan

Sara Hsu


Poverty is the condition of being poor, through income, health, education, or choice. China, India, and Japan have all experienced a dramatic reduction in poverty and an increase in the standard of living. Still, poverty remains a problem in China and India. At the same time, inequality is on the rise. Inequality is a relative measure, looking at the gap between society’s rich and poor. Inequality is increasing in China and India, and has created resentment among the poor of the burgeoning wealthy and middle classes. In this chapter, we discuss the situation of poverty and inequality in each country, looking first at poverty and inequality in development theory.

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