Environmental Impact Assessment in the Arctic
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Environmental Impact Assessment in the Arctic

A Guide to Best Practice

Timo Koivurova, Pamela Lesser, Sonja Bickford, Paula Kankaanpää and Marina Nenasheva

Significant growth in economic activity in the Arctic has added weight to the argument that projects must be developed responsibly and sustainably. Addressing growing concerns regarding the exploitation of the Arctic’s natural resources, this timely book presents and evaluates examples of best practice in Arctic environmental impact assessment.
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Chapter 5: Finland

Timo Koivurova, Pamela Lesser, Sonja Bickford, Paula Kankaanpää and Marina Nenasheva

Extract

Although the concept of environmental impact assessment was first discussed in Finland in the early 1980s, Finnish EIA legislation did not enter into force until 1994. As a Member State of the European Union (EU), Finland is required to transpose the EU’s Environmental Impact Assessment Directive 2014/52/EU on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment. This was first accomplished via the Act on Environmental Impact Assessment Procedure (468/1994, last amended in 2009, which implemented the original EIA Directive 85/337/EEC). The Act first came into force on 1 September 1994 and applies to all projects that may potentially have significant adverse environmental impacts. The Act details the actual EIA procedure. The related Decree on Environmental Impact Assessment Procedure (713/2006, last amended in 2011), first adopted in 1994 (792/1994), lists the types of projects for which the EIA process is mandatory in Section 6. It also provides a more detailed description of the type of information necessary to include in the Assessment Program and Assessment Report. The Ministry of Environment is responsible for developing Finland’s EIA policy and legislation and the implementation of the EIA process is overseen by the Centres for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment (ELY Centres).

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