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Legal Theory and the Media of Law

Thomas Vesting

As many disciplines in the humanities have experienced a focus on culture’s impact in recent decades, questions surrounding the significance of media such as writing, print and computer networks have become increasingly relevant. This book seeks to demonstrate that a media and cultural theory perspective can also be highly productive for legal theory.
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Index

Thomas Vesting

absolute metaphors 315, 319, 399, 402–3, 439, 490

absolute monarchy 321, 326, 328, 331–4, 339–41, 343–4, 346–51, 370

absolute power 329, 341, 358, 375, 427

abstraction of genus 180, 227–8, 234, 247

acentric order 296, 369, 448

acoustic space 440, 446, 453

acoustics 32, 44, 105, 300

modern 415

administration of justice 22, 116, 155, 213, 336

jurisdiction 100, 114, 221, 230, 246, 389, 440, 536

administrative law 458, 506, 526

admissible legal interpretation 263

Adorno, Theodor W. 419, 427, 439, 442, 512

Agamben, Giorgio 214–16, 354, 395, 407, 507

agora107, 120

see also marketplace

aletheia116, 177

see also truth

Althusser, Louis 346

alphabetic writing 108, 111, 144, 147, 175, 177, 226, 305–6

alphabet 105, 144, 147, 173, 178, 255, 261, 305

analog v digital 138–9

Ancien Régime 336, 340–3, 348–50, 365, 367, 370–1, 373–5, 398–9

anthropological place 356

anthropology x–xi, 14, 38, 51, 73, 103, 141, 199

Aquinas, Thomas 256, 289

Aramaic 145, 262, 292

arbitration 21, 82, 85, 100–1, 119–22, 149, 488, 491

archaic societies 74, 81, 84, 86, 91, 101, 118

Arendt, Hannah 489

aristocratic culture 159, 243–5, 247–8, 338, 342, 404, 421, 431

Aristotle 32, 128, 148, 150, 176–7, 180, 211, 441

art of division/differentiation 179–80, 233–4, 284

see also diairesis

Assmann

Aleida 24, 171–2, 496

Jan 65, 68, 75–6, 90, 93, 165–6, 181, 192

associations 395, 437–8, 514, 516, 520, 522, 526–7, 553

see also interest groups

assumptions, normative 390–1, 477, 479, 506, 508, 516–17, 551, 553

Athens 114–15, 158–60, 204–6, 208–10, 230–1, 233, 246–7, 275–7

see also Greece

auctoritas see authority

auditory synthesis 67, 112, 115, 123, 439–40

Augé, Marc 74, 83

Augustine 278, 284, 298–9, 338, 380, 539

Aulus Gellius 239–40

Austin, John 101, 115, 218, 361

authenticity 149, 205, 222, 291, 323–4, 335, 363–4, 546

authority 250–2, 256–7, 260–1, 266, 281–3, 354–5, 466–70, 531

of the father 531

of the law 250, 261, 266, 329, 369

monarchic 507, 549–50

personal 155, 252, 405, 468

personalization 466

political 101, 231

symbolic 253, 531, 535

autobiographies 185, 305, 383, 387, 392, 550

autopoietic systems 10, 13, 44, 49–50, 243, 461–2, 544

awareness, focal v subsidiary 17

Axial Age 164, 186, 287, 298, 301

Azande 62–3, 83, 91

Bachelard, Gaston 313

Badiou, Alain 22, 360

Baecker, Dirk 10, 49, 448, 462

Barresi, John 385

Barth, Frederik 84, 91, 148, 212

Barthes, Roland 460

basic norm 24

basic rights 523, 551

see also civil rights

basileis115, 126

see also magistrates

beginninglessness 12–13, 22, 26, 50, 172

being-in-the-world 352, 443, 450

beliefs 27, 32, 60, 95, 103, 499, 501, 508

religious 320, 378

Benjamin, Walter 31, 187, 419, 426, 435, 442, 501, 508

Ben-Menahem, Hanin 260, 263

Benveniste, Émile 245

Bercovitch, Sacvan 379

Berman, Harold J. 334, 337

Bernstein, Richard J. 172

Bildungsroman406, 415, 550

see also modern novel

biology 12

modern 133

molecular 456, 458

Blanning, Tim 304, 371–2

blood money 113, 121

Blumenberg, Hans 12, 46, 64, 93, 402, 490, 535, 540

body 74, 199–201, 333–4, 340–1, 343–5, 361, 373, 375–6

corporate 237–8, 514, 549

human 54, 234, 256, 311, 324, 347, 380, 499

of the king 195, 332, 338–42, 365, 370, 496, 515

politic 214, 334, 340, 343–4, 347, 351

sacramental 330, 333, 340–1, 351, 370

book markets 159, 304, 310, 383, 406, 415, 537

book printing 139, 168, 170, 185, 242, 304–8, 311

books, printed 4, 26–7, 303–6, 310–11, 314–16, 318–20, 493–4, 539

Bottéro, Jean 143, 154, 199

boundaries 9, 20, 92, 94, 234, 236, 449–50, 464–5

drawing of 9, 15, 234, 236

bourgeois 343, 454, 466, 504–5, 512, 541, 545, 548

society 397, 507, 551

Bretone, Mario 245

brocarda152, 284, 286–7

bronze tablets 160, 172, 212, 216

Bruckstein, Almut 292

bureaucracies 231, 395, 426, 433, 458, 474

Byung-Chul, Han 555

calendars 52, 164, 223–4, 253, 403

calligraphy 303–4

Calvinism 350, 381–2, 387, 393

canon 85, 187, 263, 283, 290, 321, 471

canon law 216, 284, 293, 295, 338

canonization 161, 255, 262, 282, 502

capital 86, 263, 304

social 79, 88, 301

capitalism 7, 304, 307, 448, 511

Cassirer, Ernst 222, 442

Castoriadis, Cornelius 7, 424

categorical imperative 300

catenae 279, 282–3, 293

Catholic Church 320, 332, 341, 361, 370, 378, 393

causality 63, 82, 86, 88, 242

Cavell, Stanley 321, 404, 452, 541

celebrity culture 345

censorship 342, 432, 481, 548

ceremonies 36, 89, 94, 102, 163, 341–2, 421, 431

certainties 21, 64, 74, 330, 351, 390, 496

Chinese script 139, 145, 147, 175, 185, 306

Chomsky, Noam 34

Christian logic of incarnation 288, 292, 294, 377–8

Christianity 275–6, 287–91, 294–6, 298–9, 301, 318–20, 323, 334

as pocketbook religion 277, 290

Cicero 148, 150–2, 161, 228–9, 232, 238–9, 243, 309

cinema culture 512–13

city-states 158, 171, 200, 203, 238

civil jurisprudence 225–31, 233–4, 238, 240, 242, 248

civil law 216, 218, 220–1, 225, 227–32, 234–5, 237–44, 248–9

civil liberties 369, 373, 389–95, 550–2, 554, 556–7

as human rights 369, 389–92, 394

media-related 554, 556–7

civil rights 391, 393, 438, 481–3, 491, 496

civil society 100, 321, 328, 332, 334, 351, 388

see also societas civilis

civilization 92, 217, 421, 489, 492, 495–6

global 493, 495–6

Clanchy, Michael T. 279

clans 73, 83, 87, 95, 121, 128, 204, 217

clay tablets 143, 154, 184

clerks 104, 152–3, 195

clichés 75, 107, 150, 247, 426

Code of Hammurabi 84, 92, 154–5, 172, 198, 200–1, 203, 207

codification 201, 203, 264, 280–3, 326, 335, 481, 483

coercion 99–100, 114, 122, 184, 213, 325

co-evolution 39, 72

cognition 5–6, 14, 38, 66, 183, 187, 241, 312–13

economy of 38, 40, 81

cognitive communities 14, 38–9, 53, 56–7, 165, 170

coherence 33, 352, 357, 425, 463, 545

ritual 65, 166

textual 65, 166

cohesion, social 78, 193, 331, 514

collections of laws 191, 289, 331

collective identity 79, 140, 171, 291, 345, 358–9, 371, 373

collective knowledge 16, 69, 72, 77, 148, 453

collective memory 67–70, 169–70, 172, 199, 201, 308, 392, 420

collective orders 16, 23, 56, 352, 355, 358–9, 367, 374

College of Pontiffs 160, 211, 220, 223

colonies 117, 370, 379, 383, 387, 392, 404, 470

comitology 526

commandments xi, 186–7, 203, 250–1, 253, 255, 380

commentary 258, 260–1, 280, 282–3, 293, 295, 316, 320

explanatory 263, 290

prohibition on 293

text and 138, 260, 282, 320

commerce 236, 395, 436, 505–6

common knowledge 40–1, 56–7, 59–61, 65–6, 68–72, 109, 168–70, 388–90

common law 97, 102, 198, 200, 206, 210, 227, 230–1

common practical knowledge 69, 82, 97, 100, 233–4, 271, 529

commonplaces 150–1, 160, 246–7, 286

communication 30–1, 40–1, 43–5, 48–51, 76–80, 309–10, 547–9, 556–7

digital 447, 557–8

jurisprudential 234, 261

legal 90, 92, 196–7, 200–2, 209, 219–20, 226, 235–7

linguistic 23, 142, 411, 452, 470

oral 59, 71, 111, 149, 165, 173, 181, 289

political 194, 549–50

public 341, 343, 370, 406, 430, 473, 482, 520–2

social 44, 48–9, 110, 113, 189, 194, 390–1, 396

verbal 3, 37, 150–1, 166, 179

written 166, 168, 212

communicative memory 68, 171–2, 455

community of courts 257, 261

community of mind 411, 413

competition 122, 261, 291, 502, 521, 538

completeness 314–15, 317, 319–20, 329, 395, 399, 402, 482

complexity 19, 39, 43–4, 49, 183–4, 225–6, 481, 484

social 424, 464, 514

technological 444, 556

computer culture 19, 170, 446

computer networks x–xi, 23, 27, 444–6, 454, 457, 518–19, 554–6

computer technology 5, 23, 34, 133, 446, 518

computers 5–6, 9–10, 15, 441, 444–7, 453–4, 458, 517–18

concept of truth 116, 182

Condillac 315–17

conditional programs 99, 516

conflicts 96–7, 100, 121, 341, 343, 385, 393, 401

legal 27, 232, 235, 267, 492

connective justice 56, 90, 187, 193–4, 200

conscience 296, 325, 348, 382–3, 387, 389, 393, 466

as a forum internum382

freedom of 393, 501

consciousness 14–15, 43, 46–51, 72–3, 183–4, 188–9, 323–4, 428–9

individual 46, 49, 61, 68, 72, 75, 81, 141

intentionality of 310, 429

reflexive 76

states of 48, 73

systems of 48–50

consensual contracts 216, 234–5, 237, 245

consent 232, 237, 245, 257, 328, 346

consonantal alphabets 173, 253, 263

consonantal systems 139, 144, 146

consonants 145–7, 173–4, 178, 262–4

constitutional courts 257, 389, 478

constitutional law 475, 478, 485, 488–9, 491, 530, 536, 547

constitutional monarchy 406, 430–1, 475

constitutional movements 362, 394, 470, 524

constitutional theory 360, 362, 436, 438, 440, 475–6, 480

constitutionalism xi, 258, 469–97

constitutionalization 486–91, 497

constructivism 241–2, 340

contingency 58, 63, 90, 93, 98, 399, 404, 412–13

situational 83, 164, 201, 225

continuity 10, 12, 33, 35, 67, 69, 365–6, 452–3

of tradition 63, 65, 68, 70, 91, 93, 96, 108

contracts 88–9, 154–5, 159–60, 226–7, 230, 232, 236–7, 244–5

consensual 216, 234–5, 237, 245

control 23, 30, 336, 342, 348–50, 355, 502, 509–10

centralized 196, 357, 396

social x, 100, 333, 349, 425, 519

state 393, 552–3

convention 175, 263

copperplate engravings 342, 344, 348, 363, 549

copyright law 383, 547, 552

corporate society 337–8, 346, 507

corporation 237, 294, 330, 336–8, 346, 511, 514, 552–3

corporeality 31, 54, 62, 202, 256, 333–4, 345, 347

corpus Christi294, 341

corpus mysticum238, 294, 340–1, 347, 374

corpus verum340

cosmology 124

cosmos 11, 13, 76, 117, 124–5, 183, 196, 199

Coulmas, Florian 262

counting systems 142–3, 152, 154

coupling, structural 43, 48–9, 231, 368

court, royal 343–4, 372

court society 344, 370, 549

courts 120, 122–3, 156, 159, 197, 206–7, 293, 515

Athenian 209

constitutional 257, 389, 478

coutumes335

see also legal customs

Crete 111, 126–7, 203, 221

criminal law 23, 82, 264, 336, 551

cult practices 142, 163, 166, 194

cultic religions 287–8, 299, 301

cultivation 109, 147, 226, 246, 406, 416, 533, 539–40

cults 101, 160, 270, 540

cultural architecture 41–2, 45, 399

cultural evolution 40–1, 69, 72, 140–2, 182, 188–9, 517–18, 528

cultural frameworks 380–1, 387–9, 397–9, 401, 403, 405–7, 435, 501–2

cultural history 354, 401–2, 413, 422

cultural knowledge 8, 45, 56, 517, 531, 533, 535, 540

cultural meaning 65, 420, 469, 482, 518, 523

cultural memory 12, 68, 171–2, 500

cultural networks 72, 231, 305, 324, 548

culture x–xi, 162–73, 183–90, 386–90, 418–22, 469–73, 499–503, 544–51

aristocratic 159, 243–5, 247–8, 338, 342, 404, 421, 431

democratic 377, 401, 403, 405, 545

legal 25–6, 217–18, 225, 236–7, 242, 251–2, 254–5, 268–9

mass 411–40, 446–8, 472–3, 475–7, 509–10, 512, 514–16, 531–3

of meaning 460, 546

network 448–9, 462–4, 467, 517–19, 523–5, 534–6, 545–7, 554–8

oral 57–67, 69–71, 73–5, 77–9, 83–95, 97–9, 101–3, 163–9

practical 23, 27, 52, 56, 102, 104, 473

of representation 340–3, 348, 351, 414, 417, 430, 434, 453

scientific 7, 24–5

of shame 47

customs 11, 14, 16, 111, 115, 117–18, 329–30, 551

cybernetic subjectivity 460, 556

cybernetics 5, 12–14, 444, 462

Darwin, Charles 13, 411–12

de Saussure, Ferdinand 29, 31–4, 52, 133–5, 150, 174, 339, 356

Decalogue172, 213, 260

decision-making processes 122, 150, 200, 472, 474, 515, 522, 525

deities 61, 116, 142, 199, 382

Deleuze, Gilles 7, 462

democracy 398–401, 403–5, 475–6, 499, 501, 503, 507–9, 521–7

American 404–5

Athenian 209

direct 439, 523

group-oriented 523–4

modern 355, 359, 376, 397–9, 401–2, 406, 524–5

and statehood 499–527

democratic culture 377, 401, 403, 405, 545

Derrida, Jacques 9, 11, 13, 21, 137, 141, 269, 310

Descartes 57, 316, 318, 324, 347, 374, 400, 459

Descombes, Vincent 550

diairesis148, 179, 226–7, 233–4, 284

diairetic procedure 180, 236, 238–41, 244

dialectic method 178–9, 226, 228, 233, 241, 264

dialectics 165, 177, 179–80, 225, 227–9, 233–4, 247–8, 283–4

and diairesis233–4

Platonic 226, 228–9, 233, 247

Ramist 314

dichotomies 119, 124, 180, 227, 234, 311, 314, 326

Diderot, Denis 255, 314, 322

dies fasti160, 224

différance9, 11, 137–8, 419

differences 8–9, 11–13, 21–2, 43–4, 71, 137–9, 146–9, 495–8

differentiation 9, 18, 20, 37, 40, 177, 179–80, 234–5

functional 309, 484

mutual 227, 234, 457

dikaiosyne (spirit of justice) 36, 146, 177

dike (performance of law) 112–17, 121, 146, 150, 206, 214, 235

Diringer, David 143, 147

discovery 305, 312, 456, 531–2

process of 17, 57

diskasteria206, 209

dispersed knowledge 57, 171, 188

disputes 82, 85, 119, 121, 123, 126–8, 230, 488

distal knowledge 38

divination 27, 63, 70, 128, 153–4, 166, 198–200, 228

divine law 161, 260, 387

divine revelation 24, 256, 259–60

divine right of kings 334, 394

divine transcendence 268, 369, 387, 419

divine word 255, 266, 288, 321

Donald, Merlin 14, 38, 47, 56, 72, 411

Draconian law 205–6

Dreros 126, 155, 157, 172, 203–4

see also Crete

Dumont, Louis 298, 380–1, 423

Durkheim, Émile 47, 68, 88, 102, 214, 420, 423, 494

dynamic stability 18, 52, 271

early Greek law 104–5, 114, 119–21, 123, 126, 128, 202, 205

early Roman law 211–12, 215, 221–2, 254

economy 8, 415, 420, 485–6, 490, 505, 511, 533

of cognition 38, 40, 81

edicts 229, 231, 233, 241, 243, 282, 330, 366

education xi, 78, 127, 151, 170, 308–9, 537–43, 545–6

see also mental development

public 538, 542–3, 546

educational constitution 484, 544–6

Egypt

Ancient 64–5, 153–6, 163, 168–9, 187, 191–2, 194–8, 200

Pharaonic 90, 195, 198

Egyptian wisdom literature 153, 193, 200

Ehrenberg, Alain 425

Ehrlich, Eugen 92

Eisenstein, Elizabeth 306–7

elections 399, 436, 475, 515

electroacoustic space 415

electronic media 414, 417, 429–30, 441, 466–7, 511, 513, 517

Elias, Norbert 420

emancipation 88, 219, 230, 508

embedded memory 68

embodied memory 68

emotions 175, 296, 385–6, 391, 550

empirical reality 229, 378, 425

empiricism 174, 228

employee culture 426, 534

enculturation 61, 72

see also paideia

encyclopedia, oral 108–9, 112, 126–7, 129, 169, 191, 195, 200

energy 67, 135, 188, 198, 393

enforcement 73, 101, 192, 201, 335, 394, 489

engravings, copperplate 342, 344, 348, 363, 549

Enlightenment 313, 370, 374, 380, 384, 419, 482, 487

Scottish 404, 450

entertainment 113, 205, 416, 439, 509, 520, 550, 554

epics 60–1, 104–13, 115–16, 118–20, 123–5, 127–9, 154, 183

epieikeia211

see also fairness

epistemic communities 189, 266, 455, 457–8, 485, 513, 516

epistemic formalism 217, 229, 232, 234, 240–2, 293

epistemic knowledge 173, 175–7, 179, 181–2, 221, 223, 225, 228–9

epistemology 3–6, 18–19, 311–15, 317–19, 445–7, 449–51, 455, 457–61

historical 6, 312–13, 321, 391, 456, 474

of networks 7, 15, 455, 457–8

of printing 399, 453

social 5–6, 164, 313, 434, 450–1, 453, 477

epistolary novel 383–7

epithets 37, 65, 106–7, 150, 178, 223, 341

equal rights 406, 496, 530, 533

equality 206, 391, 485, 533, 536–7

formal 18, 497

legal 296

equilibrium 33, 86, 111, 338

Esposito

Elena 70

Roberto 214, 466

Ess, Charles 460

essential ideas, given 108, 110

ethics 17–18, 65, 70, 298, 301, 316–17, 323–4, 503

ethnological research 47, 74, 90, 101, 171

ethos 47, 118, 177, 322, 477

etiquette 62, 549–50

Euripides 206, 297

European Community law 526

Evans-Pritchard, Edward E. 62–3, 83, 124, 167

everyday knowledge 312, 429, 450, 459, 506

everyday life 77, 405, 412, 419, 429–30, 453–4, 499–500, 507

everyday practice 83, 103, 197, 352, 512, 518, 533

evolution 14, 37–8, 40–1, 45–8, 144, 255, 296–7, 411–13

human 38–9, 69, 380, 411–12

of language 37, 340, 411

of law 26–7, 99, 119, 203, 212, 231, 242

of media 23, 49, 486, 493, 500

of practical knowledge 71, 92

evolutionary psychology 14, 38, 46–7, 56, 72, 411

evolutionary theory 13, 56, 81, 173, 225, 263, 411–13

evolutionism 144, 262

excarnation 202, 352–3, 355, 357, 359, 361, 363, 365

of law 155, 161, 202, 325

of sovereignty 352–79

exchange

of gifts 87–9, 96, 217

of women 87, 217

expectations 57, 89, 424, 426, 483, 485, 506, 508

normative 99, 268, 494, 506, 516

experience 53–5, 319–20, 352, 379–80, 398, 427–9, 450–1, 454–5

of difference 379, 523

practical 53–4, 56

subjective 75, 323

experiential knowledge 17, 434, 454, 473, 505–7, 515, 522, 526

experimental systems 456, 458

expert knowledge 165, 396, 454, 458, 481, 513, 517

expertise 26–7, 198, 225, 228, 338, 453, 542, 546

legal 27, 102, 120, 231, 258, 264, 282, 290

explicit knowledge 16–17, 55, 451–3, 546

Expressionism 416

Ezrahi, Yaron 185

fairness 22, 202, 211, 248

faith 232, 236, 238, 298, 301, 357, 359, 479

family 83, 87, 244, 247, 348, 353, 528–38, 542

see also kinship, groups

paternal 530–2, 536

fantasy 323, 335, 376, 400, 425, 507, 539

fathers 56, 213, 215–16, 230, 353, 467–8, 528–31, 535

Faur, José 257, 263, 290, 292, 294

Fauré, Christine 366

featureless vessel 449

Fellman, Ferdinand 429

Ferrari, Silvio 295

festivals 64, 89, 95, 110, 148, 156, 163, 166–7

fiction 137, 173, 212, 252–3, 268, 293, 370–1, 405–6

fictionalization 323, 338, 417

fidelity 151, 245–6

to the law 252, 267

film 414, 416–17, 419, 422, 441, 510, 512–13, 533–4

Fish, Stanley 260

Fleck, Ludwik 313, 451, 474

fleetingness of spoken language 111–12, 169

flow of spoken language 146–7, 163, 277

fluctuance 3, 35–6, 446

focal awareness 17

Foerster, Heinz von 13, 34

Fögen, Marie Theres 118, 212

force of law 8, 21, 195, 269, 301, 353

form, as a drawing of boundaries 9, 15, 234, 236

formalism 218, 221–2

descriptive 218

epistemic 217, 229, 232, 234, 240–2, 293

legal 217–18, 234

oral 216–19, 221, 226, 229

strict 160, 236, 248

strict word 230, 262

formula-building 70, 83, 110

formulaic language 82, 106–7

formulaic phrases/expressions 106–7, 123, 139, 150–1, 218–19, 222, 230

formulaic sayings 101, 219, 286, 290

formulary system 225, 229–32, 236, 246

formulas 91, 113–17, 216–18, 223–4, 229, 231, 233, 291

legal 80, 84, 115, 122, 153, 161, 213, 220

Forsthoff, Ernst 477

Fortes, Meyer 47, 73, 75, 92

Foucault, Michel 76, 357, 460, 507

founding myths 160, 172, 187, 205, 211–13

fragmentation 454–5, 464, 482, 489–91, 497, 504, 517–18, 520

France 331–2, 335–6, 343–4, 366–7, 370–3, 377–8, 394, 403–7

Catholic 364, 378, 393

Constitution 378, 391, 470

Revolution 336, 343, 370, 372, 375–8, 391, 394, 476

Franklin, Benjamin 367, 384, 392, 551

free will 327–8, 405, 475

freedom 327, 372, 399, 473–4, 481–4, 549–50, 553–4, 558

academic 474, 485

of conscience 393, 501

individual 390, 484, 501, 516, 536, 549, 551–2

of the press 368, 473–4, 481

of speech 488, 491, 547, 549–51, 557

Freud, Sigmund 171–2, 251, 257, 298, 300, 353–4, 531, 534

friendship 52–3, 89, 151, 177–8, 244–6, 447

Fukuyama, Francis 78, 88

Fuller, Steve 5

function memory 24, 171–2, 200, 226, 308, 500, 502, 510

functional differentiation 309, 484

fundamental rights 473, 475, 478, 481–6, 488–91, 517, 552, 557

Furet, François 524

Gadamer, Hans-Georg 34, 52, 211, 427

Gagarin, Michael 119, 122, 127

Galileo 316, 396

Gauchet, Marcel 333, 549

Gay, Peter 436

Geertz, Clifford x–xi, 140, 420–1

Gehlen, Arnold 420, 477

Gelb, Ignace J. 144, 146–7, 173, 255, 261

gender relationships 531–2

George, Stefan 421

German Idealism 317–18, 528

Germany 368, 394–5, 405–6, 414–15, 514–15, 544, 551–2, 554

Basic Law 477–8, 536–8

Civil Code 84, 244

constitutional law 477–8, 543

Empire 415, 417, 432–3, 435

Weimar 439, 467

Weimar Republic 433–5, 438–9, 472–6, 478, 490, 510, 533, 540

Gernet, Louis 119, 245

gestural communication 141

gesture 30–1, 58, 72, 74, 80–2, 85, 141–2, 188–9

Giesecke, Michael 307

gift-giving 81, 87, 89, 96, 103, 300–1, 529

culture 301

gifts 40, 46, 86–9, 91, 102, 125, 128, 300–1

exchange 87–9, 96, 217

given essential ideas 108, 110

global civilization 493, 495–6

global constitution 486–8, 491

global law 257–8, 488–9

globalization 488–9, 491, 495, 524–5

God 125–6, 199, 251–3, 255–60, 321, 329–30, 332–4, 380–4

transcendent 267, 380

goddesses 61, 101, 110, 117, 125–6

god-kingdoms 195–6, 206, 217

good faith 232, 245

Goodman, Nelson 42, 134, 138, 142, 255

Goody, Jack xi, 98, 149, 442

Gortyn, Code of 155, 157, 172, 203–4

governance 152, 467, 516

grammar 3, 16, 39, 165, 170, 177–80, 453–4, 458

universal 34, 39

graphemes 136, 138, 142, 145, 184

graphism 58, 67, 133, 138–9, 141–2, 152, 164, 173

Gratian 284, 292

Greece 104–5, 119, 125–7, 156, 181–2, 185–7, 202–3, 228

see also Athens

Ancient 47, 59–60, 65, 67, 110, 113–15, 118, 124–6

law 105, 120, 210, 235, 237, 248

Greek alphabet 139–40, 147–8, 156, 173–5, 177–8, 181–2, 261–2, 264

Greek law, early 104–5, 114, 119–21, 123, 126, 128, 202, 205

Greek philosophy 165, 176–7, 186, 208, 238, 255, 260, 264

Greek tragedy 205

Gregorian Reforms 283, 338

grouping, logic of 435

group-oriented democracy 523–4

group-oriented logic 448, 453, 460, 472–3, 475, 510, 514, 516

group-oriented pluralism 484, 511, 514–15, 519–20, 552–4, 557

Groys, Boris 8, 30, 433

Guattari, Félix 7, 462

guilt 47, 78, 103, 300, 302, 382, 424

Gutenberg 4, 303, 305–7, 414

Habermas, Jürgen 89, 343, 371, 524

Hacking, Ian 313, 451

Hamann, Johann Georg 29, 50

Hammurabi see Code of Hammurabi

handwriting 304–5, 343, 347, 370

Hart, Herbert L. 36, 99, 113, 353

Havelock, Eric A. xi, 4, 6, 69, 108–9, 146–7, 413, 419

Hayek, Friedrich August von 17, 56

Hebrew alphabet 253, 256, 263

Hebrew Bible 153, 161, 184, 262–3, 294, 325

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich xi, 296, 298, 317–18, 367, 370, 441, 449

Heidegger, Martin 30, 40, 42, 214, 216, 427

Herder, Johann Gottfried 29, 105, 406

hermeneutics 70, 263–4, 287, 289, 299, 306, 320, 382

horizontal 291–2, 295

vertical 295

Hermogenes 32, 178

Herodotus 67, 115, 159

Hesiod 91, 96, 104–5, 108, 110, 114–19, 125–8, 176

hexameter 107, 120, 125, 128

hierarchical structures 101, 156, 242, 426, 496

hierarchy 15, 171, 190, 194, 256, 295, 367, 443

Hilbert, David 5, 25

Hindenburg, Paul von 433, 510

historical epistemology 6, 312–13, 321, 391, 456, 474

historical time 36, 41, 66, 70, 167, 171, 259, 266

Hobbes, Thomas 326, 329, 333, 344–5, 347–50, 374–5, 391, 396

Hobsbawm, Eric 431

Homer 54, 104–19, 121–9, 150, 157–8, 176, 178, 183

homo sacer214–15, 507

Honneth, Axel 524

honoratiores228, 231, 248

horizontal hermeneutics 291–2, 295

Horkheimer, Max 38

Hörl, Erich 430, 445, 459–60, 546

hospitality 87, 113, 119, 254

human beings 29–31, 37–40, 45–7, 71–3, 101–2, 140–2, 320, 322–4

inner person 73, 76, 206, 296–9, 380–1, 386, 388, 538–9

psychological architecture 71, 75

human body 54, 234, 256, 311, 324, 347, 380, 499

human consciousness see consciousness

human evolution 38–9, 69, 380, 411–12

human nature 6, 39, 49, 211, 317, 387, 420, 463

human rights 366, 369, 389–95, 399, 406, 486–7, 489–90, 493–7

civil liberties as 369, 389–92, 394

evolution 390–1

universal 492–5, 497

humanism, legal 326

humanitarianism 492–4, 496

Humboldt, Wilhelm von 29–30, 36, 43, 49–51, 133, 539–42, 544, 546

Hume, David 73, 296, 466

Hunt, Lynn 384, 391

Husserl, Edmund 12, 43, 421, 427–9, 459

hyper-reality 339

hypertext 107

Ibsen, Henrik 419, 532

ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) 488, 491

iconography 342, 344, 347, 373

Idealism, German 317–18, 528

identity 33, 75, 323, 345, 347, 385–6, 425–6, 462–4

ancien régime of 345, 349, 384

collective 79, 140, 171, 291, 345, 358–9, 371, 373

individual 352, 354, 359, 392, 545

narrative 323, 329

personal 75, 349, 388, 392

social 348, 373

uncertain 425, 464

idiosyncrasies 41, 73, 93, 221, 223, 456

idolatry 169, 256

image(s) 123–5, 136, 186, 312–13, 343–5, 358–9, 377–9, 507

see also pictograms; pictography

prohibition 186, 255, 298

imaginary order 358, 360, 370, 372, 431–3, 466, 468–70, 525

imagination 123, 323, 353, 406, 417, 454, 483, 539

imitation 37, 40, 54, 141, 148, 265, 270, 368

immanence 267–8, 319–20, 329, 376–7, 397, 400, 419, 422

implicit knowledge 54, 84, 89, 107, 242, 246, 451–2, 458

incarnation 194, 292, 294–5, 328–9, 331, 341, 347, 377–8

Christian logic of 288, 292, 294, 377–8

incest 22, 62–3, 83, 85–7, 91, 94, 96, 217

India 65, 186, 309

individual consciousness 46, 49, 61, 68, 72, 75, 81, 141

individual freedoms 390, 484, 501, 516, 536, 549, 551–2

individual identity 352, 354, 359, 392, 545

individual psyche 270, 360, 384, 386, 423

individual rights 349, 530, 547, 552, 554, 556

individualism 101, 387–9, 406–7, 424–5, 464, 468, 534–6, 550–1

individuality 71–5, 182–3, 321, 383–5, 387–8, 404–5, 463, 466

individuals 95–6, 347–8, 462–6, 483–5, 502, 511–12, 514–17, 551–4

industrial society 509, 514, 542

inflexibility 156, 161, 217

information, genetic 14

infrastructure 78, 89, 103, 191, 244, 256, 336

normative 406, 477, 489

social 73, 192

initiation rites 82–3, 95, 403

injustice 119, 121, 123, 196, 198, 207, 269, 300

inner life 297, 322, 349, 385, 425

inner person 73, 76, 206, 296–9, 380–1, 386, 388, 538–9

inner self 185, 188, 299, 301

inner unity 102, 359, 433

inner world 46, 49, 207, 419, 450, 540

inner-directedness 424–6

innovation 163, 165–9, 171–3, 175, 189–90, 207–8, 232, 243–4

legal 21, 207

inscriptions 153, 156–7, 160, 194, 197–205, 209, 211, 213

legal 187, 191, 198, 200, 202–3, 208

institutions 181–3, 354–6, 394–5, 423–5, 483–5, 524–6, 533–7, 553–4

legal 197, 206, 216, 234, 238–9, 264, 486, 530

political 129, 368, 376, 466, 553

public 230, 243, 525, 529

social 329, 331, 334, 354, 380, 424, 516

integration 71, 75, 112, 114, 233, 436, 458, 460

theory 435–6

intelligence, practical 17, 40, 52, 56

intentionality 429, 445

horizonal 428–9

of consciousness 310, 429

phenomenological 436

shared 72, 141, 188, 411

intentions 45–6, 87, 89, 105–6, 267, 270, 311, 313

interest groups 504, 511, 553

see also associations

interfaces 75, 231, 445, 461, 464, 518, 529, 535

interiority 189–90, 296, 298–9, 380, 383, 385, 405–7, 539–40

internalization 69, 79, 182, 257, 353, 424, 426, 466–7

international law 486–90, 494, 496–7

constitutionalization 486, 488, 491, 497

internet 464, 466, 486, 495, 518, 520, 522, 524

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) 488, 491

interpretation 121–2, 221–2, 257–61, 263–4, 267, 290–2, 310–11, 479–80

process 288, 555

rabbinic 290

of scripture 257–9

interpretive communities 17, 186–7, 250, 256, 258, 311, 357, 363

intersubjectivity 81, 253, 388, 429

intertextuality 280, 311–12, 369, 379, 469, 471

network of 280, 295, 357, 444, 471, 479, 494, 508

inventories 72, 78, 110–11, 158, 170, 175, 308, 311

investiture controversy see Gregorian Reforms

Israel xi, 156, 165, 169, 181, 185, 254, 257

ancient 27, 105, 126, 138, 161, 185, 191, 222

Italy 278–9, 282, 325

iterability 11, 111, 265

ius honorarium230–1

iustitia connectiva see connective justice

Jabès, Edmond 263, 298, 463

Jacobins 375, 403

Jakobson, Roman 77, 167, 173

Jansenism 370, 393, 550

Jaspers, Karl 164

Jefferson, Thomas 367, 540–1

Jellinek, Georg 350, 393

Jerusalem 253, 262, 288, 290, 319

Jewish law 96, 165, 186–7, 286, 289, 379, 479

comprehensive text of 250–71

Jewish religion 186, 252, 254–6, 270, 298, 320, 380

Jewish tradition 173, 181, 185, 258–9, 264–5, 268–9, 292, 301

Jhering, Rudolf von 214, 218, 222, 224

journalism 60, 370, 373, 384, 431, 534, 553, 558

Jousse, Marcel 4, 59, 139, 167, 265, 279, 289, 419

Judaism 186, 287–8, 299, 301, 320, 436, 440, 539

rabbinic 288–9, 291, 299

judgement of the dead 153, 194

juridical knowledge 224, 228, 242, 246, 285, 314

jurisdiction 100, 114, 221, 230, 246, 389, 440, 536

jurisprudence 19, 22, 24–5, 97, 285–6, 289, 293, 295

pontifical 220, 222

jury trials (dikasteria) 206

justice 21, 90–2, 115–17, 193–4, 196–8, 202, 206–7, 267–9

connective 56, 90, 187, 194, 200

as contingency formula 269

divine 269, 328

and law 21, 90, 116, 193–4, 196, 198, 207, 350

Ma’at101, 151, 154–5, 165, 187, 191, 193–8, 207

Justinian’s codifications 281–5

Kant, Immanuel 15, 18, 21, 50–1, 296, 317–18, 324–6, 427–8

Kantorowicz, Ernst 340–1

Kapauku Papuans 84, 86, 90, 100–1

Kauffman, Louis 9

Kaufmann, Jean-Claude 424

Kelsen, Hans 22, 24–5, 48, 82, 86, 88, 96, 99

Kerckhove, Derrick de 140

kingdom xi, 156, 159, 187, 191, 195, 199, 208

king 200–2, 330–6, 338–45, 351–2, 360–1, 365–7, 369–72, 395–7

body 195, 332, 338–42, 365, 370, 496, 515

of justice/righteousness 155, 194, 198, 349

two bodies doctrine 334, 340, 361, 376, 397

kinship 87, 91, 151, 244, 246, 447, 529, 536

groups 74, 124, 128

Kittler, Friedrich 418, 533

Kittsteiner, Heinz Dieter 382

Klabbers, Jan 486

klēos andron65, 112, 126, 128

knowableness 318, 320

knowing how, and knowing that 242

knowledge

cognitive 192, 358

collective 16, 69, 72, 77, 148, 453

common practical 69, 82, 97, 100, 233–4, 271, 529

cultural 8, 45, 56, 517, 531, 533, 535, 540

dispersed 57, 171, 188

distal 38

distanced 164–5, 181, 185, 255

epistemic 173, 175–7, 179, 181–2, 221, 223, 225, 228–9

everyday 312, 429, 450, 459, 506

experiential 17, 434, 454, 473, 505–7, 515, 522, 526

expert 165, 396, 454, 458, 481, 513, 517

explicit 16–17, 55, 451–3, 546

generation 5, 7, 60, 148, 313, 450, 456

implicit 54, 84, 89, 107, 242, 246, 451–2, 458

juridical 224, 228, 242, 246, 285, 314

latent 169–70, 172, 199, 239, 308–9, 311

legal see legal knowledge

linguistic 52–4, 72, 78, 80, 163, 182, 370, 513

new 25, 57, 71, 208, 297, 455–6, 472, 482

orders of 38, 453, 458, 514

practical see practical knowledge

scientific 6, 16, 312–13, 317, 443, 450–1, 455, 474

shared 23, 390, 425, 454, 546

subjective 14, 45, 52–3

technical 220, 516, 542

testimonial 165, 312, 450

theoretical 16, 60–1, 165, 177, 181

transmission of 59, 61, 65, 67, 166, 169, 172, 307–8

unity and completeness of 314–15, 319, 395, 402, 482

world 52–4, 60, 72, 80, 163, 165, 182, 370

written 99, 165, 193, 223, 242, 279

Kofman, Sarah 268

Koran, mother of the book (umm al-kitab) 319

Koschorke, Albrecht 373–4, 384, 449

Koyré, Alexandre 316

Kracauer, Siegfried 419, 426, 442, 512

Krämer, Sybille 5, 17, 56, 137, 353, 439, 442, 450

labor constitution 473, 484

labor unions 426, 438, 516

Lacan, Jacques 45–6, 189, 345, 353–4, 356, 359, 531–2, 534

Lacanian psychoanalysis 47, 189, 329, 352, 356–7, 359, 530–1

Ladeur, Karl-Heinz 19, 22, 258, 267, 502, 511, 519, 546

landed estate 244

language 3–4, 29–37, 39–53, 80–3, 177–8, 338–40, 356, 417–21

binary coding 78, 138, 219

everyday 222, 234, 236, 242

evolution of 37, 340, 411

legal 80, 83, 97, 99, 204, 222

natural 138, 446, 452

oral 82, 97–8, 135, 138, 142, 177, 199, 275

philosophy of 16, 35–6, 42, 99, 352, 354

spoken 26–7, 29–31, 36–40, 42–4, 69–70, 80–3, 133–8, 144–8

theory xi, 36–7, 43, 50, 73, 78, 178, 443

langue33–6, 57, 59, 105, 133, 150, 356

and parole33–6, 164, 456

Last Judgement 294, 299, 387

latent knowledge 169–70, 172, 199, 239, 308–9, 311

law

binding force of 125, 218, 329, 335, 468

criminal 23, 82, 264, 336, 551

development of 85, 99, 216, 556

Egyptian 191–2

Jewish see Jewish law

and justice 21, 90, 116, 193–4, 196, 198, 207, 350

liberal xi, 389, 391, 503, 506, 508, 517, 551

living (nomos empsychos) 187, 195, 215, 251

media of x–xii, 23, 25–8, 413, 420–2, 441–3, 447–8, 468–9

national 516, 528, 547, 554, 557

natural 96, 211, 241, 248, 330, 335, 390–1

police 92, 506–8

private 22, 119, 216, 264, 485, 491

procedural 119, 121, 216, 219–20, 230, 232, 238, 264

public 23, 216, 231, 243–4, 343, 351, 371, 553

sacred 160, 220–2, 224

theory of 14, 19, 23–4, 36, 314, 473

validity of 22, 25, 93, 99, 219, 329

lawfulness 25, 117, 400

lawgivers 251, 267, 295, 330

lawmaking 82, 98, 101, 251, 435, 488

laws of nature 90, 95, 316, 324, 330

lawsuits 119, 123, 151, 198, 209, 221–2, 227

Lazarsfeld, Paul 522

leather scrolls 275

lectio279, 299

Lefort, Claude 339, 352, 358–9, 367, 376, 398, 524

legal actions 160, 209, 224, 230, 246

legal anthropology 86, 97, 267

legal codes 85, 203, 282, 331, 336, 363, 395

legal communication 90, 92, 196–7, 200–2, 209, 219–20, 226, 235–7

legal community 80, 100, 161, 256

legal cultures 25–6, 217–18, 225, 236–7, 242, 251–2, 254–5, 268–9

oral 80–129, 192–3, 200–1, 203–4, 213, 216–17, 220, 254

legal customs 248, 285, 293, 327–8, 335, 338, 391

legal decisions 84, 92, 154, 200–1, 288, 290, 292, 326

legal expertise 27, 102, 120, 231, 258, 264, 282, 290

legal form 23, 86, 91, 98, 100, 225, 375, 505

legal formalism 217–18, 234

legal formulas 80, 84, 115, 122, 153, 161, 213, 220

legal inscriptions 187, 191, 198, 200, 202–3, 208

legal institutions 197, 206, 216, 234, 238–9, 264, 486, 530

legal knowledge 80, 82, 89–90, 92, 221, 242, 246, 313

written 102, 242

legal language 80, 83, 97, 99, 204, 222

legal memory 83

legal norms 85, 113, 192, 239, 391

legal orders 20–1, 23, 92–3, 212, 214–16, 242, 244, 486–7

legal persons 215, 234, 238, 347, 350, 406, 472, 475

legal pluralism 258, 489

legal positivism 100, 192, 206, 264, 389, 475

legal practice 21–2, 24, 82, 118, 125, 200–1, 205, 208

legal procedures 120, 160

legal proceedings 27–8, 120, 246, 489

legal property 235

legal propositions 27, 85, 140, 287, 326, 477

legal relationships 81, 216, 222, 227, 232, 235–7, 472, 475

legal scribality 158

legal structures 365, 502, 505, 508, 516–17, 519

legal subjectivity 206, 251, 346–7, 349, 438, 482

legal subjects 187, 252, 267, 301, 327, 396, 504, 515

legal systems 19–20, 22–3, 100, 102, 241, 243, 268, 326–7

autonomous 268, 327, 390

legal texts 99, 152, 161, 191, 198, 201, 225, 292

legal theory xi–xii, 3, 5–6, 8, 15–16, 19–28, 87, 506–7

legal transactions 82, 197, 212, 218–19, 221–2, 236–7, 354

Legendre, Pierre 294

legibus solutus330

legis actio procedure 204, 219–20, 222, 231–2, 236, 246

legislation 21, 114, 212–14, 216, 222, 328, 331, 551

political 22, 100–1, 118, 268, 368

right of 328, 330, 336, 350

legislators 140, 206–7, 261, 397, 478

legitimacy 344, 348, 350, 355, 375–6, 494, 503, 505

Leroi-Gourhan, André 141–2

Lethen, Helmut 427, 439, 467

lettres de cachet363

lettres patentes363, 366, 405

Lévinas, Emmanuel 18, 317, 329

Lévi-Strauss, Claude 4, 61, 87, 93–4, 152, 223

lex talionis200

liability 232, 235, 237, 240, 244, 354

liberal law xi, 389, 391, 503, 506, 508, 517, 551

liberal state 389–91, 393–5, 397–9, 401, 405–7, 502–3, 505–9, 523–4

liberties 366, 368, 438, 517, 554, 556

individual 473, 504, 552

libraries 7, 70, 159, 200, 310–11, 455

life-world 74, 89, 101, 421, 427–9, 459, 461, 536

linear graphism 133, 142

linguistic communication 23, 142, 411, 452, 470

linguistic communities 56–7, 493, 496

linguistic events 29, 31, 34, 36, 46

linguistic knowledge 52–4, 72, 78, 80, 163, 182, 370, 513

linguistic media 41, 43, 46, 70, 189

linguistic structures 10, 31, 36, 57–8, 133, 139, 357

Lipovetsky, Gilles 535

listeners 85, 123, 150, 166, 220, 310, 435, 439

listening audience 434–5, 454

literacy xi, 4, 145, 157, 184, 187, 208–9, 246

and orality xi, 209, 246

rates 350, 415

literal wording 222

literature 104–5, 107, 174–5, 421, 481–2, 503, 505, 532–4

bourgeois 503

legal 98, 119, 152, 200, 225, 284

modern 305, 322, 383

wisdom 27, 70, 154–5, 165, 191–4, 197, 199, 297

liturgical practices 300, 439, 485

local relationships 31, 73, 112, 119, 163, 166, 363, 370

loci communis247

Locke, John 94, 375, 391–2, 539, 541

logic 51, 163, 165, 176–7, 180, 284, 311, 394

group-oriented 448, 453, 460, 472–3, 475, 510, 514, 516

of multiple subjects 461, 472

Lord, Albert B. 108, 112

Louis XIV 326, 336, 341–3, 345, 372, 396, 430

Louis XVI 361, 363, 375

loyalties 196, 334, 344, 434–5, 466, 472, 504, 513–14

Lüdemann, Susanne 294, 353

Luhmann, Niklas 8–11, 19–20, 43, 48–50, 68, 165–6, 170–1, 506

Luther, Martin 35, 301, 321, 325, 381

Ma’at101, 151, 154–5, 165, 187, 191, 193–8, 207

machines 52, 108, 347, 396, 414, 441, 507, 556

non-trivial 10, 35

trivial 35

magic 61–3, 83, 89, 92, 94, 96, 103, 298

black 63, 163

magistrates 115, 119, 126–7, 203–4, 206, 208, 225, 230–1

Malinowski, Bronislaw 83, 86, 91–2, 94, 98, 101, 115, 171–2

mancipatio160, 216–19, 234, 236, 354

Mann, Thomas 70, 75, 93, 183, 436

marginalization 127, 262, 311, 324–5, 364

Marin, Louis 339–41, 344

marketplace 120, 122

markets 17, 20, 86, 120, 208, 465

marriage 87, 91, 94, 119, 218, 372, 384, 528–37

mass culture 411–40, 446–8, 472–3, 475–7, 509–10, 512, 514–16, 531–3

mass media 411–41, 443, 454–5, 458–60, 493–5, 509–10, 512–13, 552

electronic 190, 280, 466, 513

traditional 464, 521

materialities 32, 40, 43, 49, 158, 276, 443

matriarchy 91, 530

Maturana, Humberto 12, 36

Mauss, Marcel 68, 73–4, 81, 83, 86–7, 296, 298, 300

Mauthner, Fritz 418

maxims 27, 60, 155, 192, 213, 223, 286–7, 308–9

Mayr, Ernst 14, 69, 411–12

McKinnon, James W. 300

McLuhan, Marshall 4, 6, 135, 137, 305–7, 414, 419, 442

Mead, George Herbert 81

medallions 342, 344, 509, 549

media events 431, 433, 449, 464, 520, 545, 555

media of law x–xii, 23, 26–8, 413, 420–2, 441–3, 447–8, 468–9

media theory 3–6, 24, 36–7, 41, 43–4, 417–19, 422, 441–4

medial ruptures 50, 104, 212, 255

medial theory of law 19, 25–6, 102, 140

mediality 10, 31, 36, 45, 136, 148, 420, 442

media-related civil liberties 554, 556–7

mediation 21, 47, 85, 97, 215, 325, 407, 557–8

medicine 154, 156, 176, 183, 199, 309, 326

medieval legal scholarship 325

memorization 151, 263, 305, 309

memory 14–15, 110–12, 126–7, 165–6, 170–2, 308–9, 493, 500

collective 67–70, 169–70, 172, 199, 201, 308, 392, 420

communicative 68, 171–2, 455

cultural 12, 68, 171–2, 500

embedded 68

embodied 68

functional 24, 171–2, 200, 226, 308, 500, 502, 510

inhabited 171, 308

legal 83

social 68, 70, 170

storage 70, 171, 337

Mendelssohn, Moses 255, 307, 495

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice 377, 461

Mersch, Dieter 419

Mesopotamia 65–6, 142–4, 153–6, 169, 185, 191, 198–200, 252–5

messianic time 259

messianic vision 268

messianism 404

metaphors 124, 127, 309, 315, 317, 359, 412, 417

metaphysics 25, 90, 177, 181, 325–6, 405, 428

metis (practical wisdom) 54, 56, 61

mimicry 30, 38, 54, 58, 72, 80–2, 141–2, 144

mirror image 352, 375

Mishnah 261, 264, 266, 277, 286, 289–91

Mitchell, William J.T. 20

mnemonics 60, 65, 83, 110, 126–7, 169, 171, 308–9

mobilization 202, 204, 348, 392–3, 448

modern novel 170, 388, 390, 416–17, 466, 482, 493, 539

modernism 416, 421–2, 469

modernity 337, 364, 415, 421, 424–6, 469, 487, 499

organized 511–12, 518, 534

Mommsen, Theodor 214, 229, 281, 354

monarchic rule 344

monarchic sovereignty 329, 333, 336, 348, 351, 359, 364, 366

monarchic state 365, 392, 395–7, 403, 502, 506, 509, 511

monarchy

absolute 321, 326, 328, 331–4, 339–41, 343–4, 346–51, 370

constitutional 406, 430–1, 475

monasteries 278–9, 299–300, 305, 336–7

Montesquieu 371, 391

monumentalization 155, 216, 341

morality 18, 99, 181, 244, 246–7, 296, 300–1, 325

Moretti, Franco 504

mos maiorum243–4

Mosaic distinction 298

Moses 172, 250–1, 253, 260, 289, 353

movable type 303, 305–6, 362, 414

Moyn, Samuel 494

Mucius Scaevola, Quintus 152, 234, 238–40, 245, 285, 309

muses 4, 91, 96, 108, 110, 118, 120, 126–8

music 109–10, 124–5, 127, 136, 139, 372, 505, 509

mutual differentiation 227, 234, 457

mysteries, sacred 83, 95, 256

mystification 294, 297, 404, 510

myth 61, 63–4, 66, 73, 75, 93–6, 169, 402

founding 160, 172, 187, 205, 211–13

origin 93–4, 204, 400

Nagy, Gregory 37, 109, 112

naming 46, 183, 218, 329, 348

Nancy, Jean-Luc 30, 78, 88, 103, 358

narratives 78, 94, 98, 223, 416, 539

nation states 100, 257–8, 481, 486, 488–9, 493–4, 523, 525

national constitutions 473, 480, 488, 491, 525

national cultures 406, 492, 495, 502, 509

national languages 307, 383, 417, 454, 546, 548

national law 516, 528, 547, 554, 557

National Socialism 407, 433, 493, 510

national unity 433, 510

natural languages 138, 446, 452

natural law 96, 211, 241, 248, 330, 335, 390–1

natural philosophy 86, 320, 326–7, 347–8

natural sciences 6, 14–15, 165, 177, 311, 313, 411, 421

natural selection 69, 142, 411

nature, laws of 90, 95, 316, 324, 330

network culture 448–9, 462–4, 467, 517–19, 523–5, 534–6, 545–7, 554–8

networks 6–7, 18–24, 26, 446–8, 454–5, 460–4, 487–8, 554–8

communication 70, 163–4, 166, 217, 244–5, 369–70, 429–30, 481–4

computer x–xi, 23, 27, 444–6, 454, 457, 518–19, 554–6

cultural 72, 231, 305, 324, 548

culture and epistemology of 5, 7, 13, 15, 19, 441–68, 484

interorganizational 457, 465

of intertextuality 280, 295, 357, 444, 471, 479, 494, 508

relationship and communication 188, 192, 195, 424, 427, 429, 502, 505

network-state 522, 526, 536

Neumann, John von 5, 21, 444

newspapers 52, 312, 370, 417, 422, 453, 459, 512

Nietzsche, Friedrich 306, 339, 418, 421, 427

nobility 91, 127, 243, 245, 247–8, 305, 336, 344

Roman 151, 227, 244

nomos112–13, 117–19, 121, 187, 204–6, 210, 215, 250–1

nomothesia156, 207, 216

normative expectations 99, 268, 494, 506, 516

normative infrastructures 406, 477, 489

normative texts 56, 165, 258, 339, 358, 361, 471, 503

normativity 24–5, 444, 481, 557

norms 22, 92, 203–4, 254, 268, 466, 485–6, 495–7

cultural 350, 492

ethical 92, 427

legal 85, 113, 192, 239, 391

social 55, 92, 192, 329, 424, 467, 471

North, Douglass 267

North America 383–4, 387, 392, 404–5, 483, 511, 523

novel 280, 305, 453, 503, 510, 532, 538, 546

modern 170, 388, 390, 416–17, 466, 482, 493, 539

Nuer 124, 167

Oakeshott, Michael 17

oaths 125, 204, 209, 219, 366, 374

obedience 187, 190, 193, 267, 301, 380, 407, 466

Ober, Josiah 207

objective spirit 81, 309, 497

objectivity 5, 57, 421, 437, 477, 523, 550

obligations 77–8, 81–2, 87–8, 102, 204, 233, 235–7, 329–31

heteronomous 301, 535

public 244, 537, 539, 541

Odysseus 66, 106–7, 109, 150, 177, 183, 297

oikos118, 346

Old Testament 60, 84, 186, 278, 402

Olympic Games 205, 488

omnipotence 329, 332, 507

of wishes 12

Ong, Walter J. xi, 4, 6, 57–8, 74, 105, 249, 306–7

onoma178–9, 227

ontology 18, 25, 99, 180

openness 24, 35–6, 292, 295, 319–20, 446, 483, 485–6

operas 372, 431, 505

operative reality 58, 97, 192

oracles 91, 142, 199, 256, 495

oral communication 59, 71, 111, 149, 165, 173, 181, 289

oral cultures 57–67, 69–71, 73–5, 77–9, 83–95, 97–9, 101–3, 163–9

oral encyclopedia 108–9, 112, 126–7, 129, 169, 191, 195, 200

oral formalism 216–19, 221, 226, 229

oral language 82, 97–8, 135, 138, 142, 177, 199, 275

oral legal culture 80–129, 192–3, 200–1, 203–4, 213, 216–17, 220, 254

oral poetry 108, 129, 139, 167, 289

oral speech 31, 54, 59, 71, 74, 149–50, 246–7, 263–5

oral Torah 161, 260, 264, 266, 288, 290–1

oral tradition 54, 71, 153–4, 165, 205, 208–10, 219, 263

oral way of life 66–7, 80, 83, 89, 106–7, 118

orality 4, 52–79, 82, 119, 167–8, 170, 209–10, 265

psychodynamics of 74, 223

oratory 150, 248

orders

of knowledge 38, 453, 458, 514

legal 20–1, 23, 92–3, 212, 214–16, 242, 244, 486–7

social 61, 92, 102, 238, 244, 301, 468, 472

organized pluralism 448, 458, 553

orientation x, 76, 267–8, 270, 389, 399, 447, 450

origin myths 93–4, 204, 400

other-directedness 423–4, 426–7

otherness 11, 47, 187, 323, 333, 377, 383, 424

ownership 32, 239, 327, 389, 393

pagination 276

paideia61, 109, 129, 247, 299, 309, 538

Paine, Thomas 93, 379

pamphlets 362–3, 370

papyrus 153–4, 157–9, 233, 237, 275, 277, 282, 303–4

parallelism 37, 71, 113, 139, 167, 254

parchment 136, 157, 159, 303–4, 306, 362–3

parchment codices 160, 275–304, 309, 311, 315, 337, 396, 413

Paris 106, 322, 342–4, 391, 532, 548

parliamentarianism 432, 475–6, 509

parliamentary procedures 474–5, 515

Parmenides 124, 180, 214

parole31, 33–6, 57–8, 141, 164, 371, 456

and langue33–6, 164, 456

Parry, Milman 105–6, 108

Parsons, Talcott 170

parties, political 438, 474–5, 478, 515, 520, 522–3, 543, 553

paternal family 530–2, 536

pathos 209–10

paths 47, 72, 75–6, 90, 105, 140, 144, 326

patria potestas215, 230, 353

patriarchal house 487

peace 87, 118, 320, 482, 495, 507

perceptions 46, 48–9, 54–5, 311, 313, 386, 388, 418–20

Perelman, Chaim 292

peremptory norms 489, 497

performance 31, 35, 64–5, 98, 102, 218, 222, 236

verbal 107, 159

performative scribality 156–7, 160–1, 250

performative writing in law 287–8

persona348, 433, 552

personal identity 75, 349, 388, 392

personal life 464, 520, 532–5, 546

personal relationships 65, 67, 70, 81, 83, 89, 120, 432

personality 76, 124, 462–4, 534, 540, 545, 551, 556–7

protection of 520, 551

personalization 125, 433, 463

of authority 466

personhood 73–4, 183, 294, 348–9, 463

persons

legal 215, 234, 238, 347, 350, 406, 472, 475

physical 187, 476

persuasion 150, 181, 210, 247, 344

pharaohs 69, 101, 153, 191, 194–7

phenomenology 12, 16, 47, 77, 218, 413, 421, 427–9

Philadelphia 362, 404–5, 548

philosophy 15–17, 35–6, 165, 168, 392, 394, 539, 541

Greek 165, 176–7, 186, 208, 238, 255, 260, 264

of language 16, 35–6, 42, 99, 352, 354

linguistic 418, 459

natural 86, 320, 326–7, 347–8

political 18, 77, 88, 358, 360, 367

rationalistic 318, 374

of science 7, 16, 25, 451, 474

Phoenician alphabet 146, 173

phonism 173

phonography 144, 303, 415, 552

photography 303, 414, 417, 433, 459, 552, 557

physical persons 187, 476

pictograms 133, 136, 143, 255

pictography 142–4, 154, 255

platitudes 107

see also commonplaces

Plato 32, 115–16, 128–9, 146, 150, 176, 178–80, 225–8

Platonic diairesis165, 180, 227

Platonic dialectics 226, 228–9, 233, 247

pledges 218, 236–7, 240, 267, 337

Plessner, Helmut 420, 437, 467

pluralism 16, 261, 265, 311, 478, 495, 542

group-oriented 484, 511, 514–15, 519–20, 552–4, 557

legal 258, 489

organized 448, 458, 553

pluralization 170, 226, 257, 381, 434, 458, 464, 534

pocketbook religion, Christianity as 277, 290

poetry 105–8, 110, 112, 123–8, 157, 163, 171, 176

oral 108, 129, 139, 167, 289

Polanyi, Michael 7, 17, 55, 451

poleis104, 111, 114, 121, 127, 188, 204, 211

see also city-states

police 114, 336, 342, 370

law 92, 506–8

political communities 18, 177, 289, 344, 346–7, 437

political constitution 221, 243, 368, 485

political decision-making processes 368, 474, 515, 522

political institutions 129, 368, 376, 466, 553

political legislation 22, 100–1, 118, 268, 368

political parties 438, 474–5, 478, 515, 520, 522–3, 543, 553

political philosophy 18, 77, 88, 358, 360, 367

political reality 376, 378, 403, 477, 540

political rhetoric 367, 371, 378

political unity 238, 332, 347, 351, 475, 501

political violence 216–17

politics 90, 177, 180, 231, 333–4, 448–9, 454, 540–1

cultural 371–2, 509

polycentric networks 191, 502, 548–9

polycorporatism 448, 518

pontiffs 160, 211–12, 220–1, 223–4

pontifical authority 295

pontifical jurisprudence 220, 222

Popper, Karl 229

popular sovereignty 358, 369, 374, 377–9, 395, 398, 400–6, 524–5

positivism, legal 100, 192, 206, 264, 389, 475

Pospíšil, Leopold 84, 86, 90, 101–2

possessio234–5

possession 32, 84, 198, 208, 234–6, 238–9, 241, 244

postmodern individualism 388–9

postmodern society 79, 88, 169, 173

post-structuralism 16, 292

pouvoir constituant101, 214, 400, 523

power 101, 194–5, 213, 215–16, 230, 328–9, 331–2, 376–7

absolute 329, 341, 358, 375, 427

effective 283, 442

as empty place 376–7

state 258, 376, 507, 516

unlimited 351, 530

practical culture 23, 27, 52, 56, 102, 104, 473

practical intelligence 17, 40, 52, 56

practical judgment 78

practical knowledge 15–17, 53–8, 65–6, 90–3, 101–3, 118–21, 127–8, 323–5

common 69, 82, 97, 100, 233–4, 271, 529

practical rules 22, 47, 60, 78, 94, 109

praetorian law 231–3, 235, 237, 240, 244

praetors 210, 222, 225–6, 230–4, 242

Prague School 135, 306

precedence 65, 102, 443, 451, 465

precedents 85, 94, 97–8, 102, 111, 161–2, 282, 285

predictability 5, 54, 233, 506

prédroit119, 121, 125

pre-scriptions 155–6, 187, 189, 248, 270

press 330, 432, 464, 473–4, 481–3, 547, 549–51, 558

freedom of the 368, 473–4, 481

popular 414, 431

priests 142, 148, 152–3, 156, 161, 169, 224, 226

printed books 4, 26–7, 303–6, 310–11, 314–16, 318–20, 493–4, 539

printed constitution 355, 357–61, 364–5, 367–9, 376, 378–9, 470–2, 479–81

printed texts 97, 311, 355, 363, 368, 375, 394–5, 405

printing 3–4, 306–8, 310–12, 321–2, 324–5, 343–4, 362–3, 374–5

press 3, 304–5, 307–9, 381, 413–14, 470–1, 502, 548–9

privacy rights 520, 551, 556–7

private law 22, 119, 216, 264, 485, 491

privatization 298, 529

privileges 91, 336, 346, 404

procedural law 119, 121, 216, 219–20, 230, 232, 238, 264

productive engagement 279, 283

productive relationships 156, 261, 263, 480

programming 100, 435, 454, 472, 523, 553

prohibition of images 186, 255, 298

prohibition on commentary 293

promises 218, 222, 236, 267, 345, 368, 395, 427

propaganda 510, 515

property 91, 94, 216–17, 219, 233–6, 238–9, 241, 244–5

personal 188, 235

rights 234, 244–5

prophecies 198, 254, 495

propositions 18, 32, 42, 51, 119, 125, 140, 147

legal 27, 85, 140, 287, 326, 477

Protestantism 307, 325, 332, 378, 381–2, 387, 392–3, 396

proverbs 67, 84, 163, 191, 289, 309

Prussia 335, 337, 341, 392–4, 507, 538, 547

psyche 46–7, 74, 81, 176, 183–4, 323, 531–2

individual 270, 360, 384, 386, 423

psychoanalysis 46, 189, 251, 322, 353–4, 356, 423, 531–3

Freudian 423

Lacanian 47, 189, 329, 352, 356–7, 359, 530–1

psychoanalytic discourse 531–3

psychodynamics 74–5, 133, 223

psychological architecture 45–6, 71–2, 74–5, 182, 248, 251, 385, 387–8

psychological depth 297, 322, 383–4, 388, 390

psychology

evolutionary 14, 38, 46–7, 56, 72, 411

social 190, 423, 427

public assemblies 113, 121, 126

public communication 341, 343, 370, 406, 430, 473, 482, 520–2

public education 538, 542–3, 546

public institutions 230, 243, 525, 529

public law 23, 216, 231, 243–4, 343, 351, 371, 553

public opinion 416–17, 430, 432, 435, 448–9, 521–2, 549–50, 555

public schools 542, 544, 546–7

public spaces 120, 206, 415, 466–7, 502, 506, 521

public sphere 321–3, 342–3, 367–73, 395–6, 430–1, 520–2, 524, 548

new 343, 365, 369–71, 393, 405, 430

Puritanism 364, 378–9, 387, 392, 404, 532

Quakers 387

quasi-monopoly position 303, 353, 400

Quintilian 148, 150, 277

quod omnis tangit formula 293

rabbinic interpretation 290

rabbinic Judaism 288–9, 291, 299

rabbinic tradition 161, 263, 266, 283, 290–1, 320

rabbis 222, 260, 263, 265, 286, 288, 290–2

radio 413–15, 435, 438–40, 453–5, 472, 510–12, 552, 554

Ramus, Petrus 185, 314–15, 326, 400

ratio scripta283

rationalistic philosophy 318, 374

rationality 7–8, 22, 63, 294, 333, 461, 485

reading 117–18, 149–51, 153–5, 262–3, 278–9, 298–300, 364–5, 381–2

aloud 109, 155, 173, 220, 278

extensive 305

out 127, 278–9

reality 31–2, 47, 123, 180, 339, 375–6, 416–18, 456

absolutism of 71, 402

empirical 229, 378, 425

operative 58, 97, 192

political 376, 378, 403, 477, 540

virtual 323, 386

reason 7–8, 51, 348–9, 360–1, 426–7, 477–8, 495, 548

transversal 7

universal 360, 472

Rechtsstaat394, 406, 438, 478

reciprocity 61, 86–7, 96, 193, 197, 217

regulated 86–7

recitation 62, 107–11, 118, 255, 279, 289, 305

Reckwitz, Andreas 512

redemption 259, 401, 418

reflexive forms 5, 177, 240

Reformation 321, 381, 392, 396, 493, 537, 549–50

regulae iuris228, 240, 285

regularities 16, 54, 56, 64, 117–18, 233, 240, 243

relationship networks 188, 192, 195, 424, 427, 429, 502, 505

relationships 15–16, 32, 169–71, 334, 449, 458–61, 522–5, 550–1

close 39, 186, 251, 540

legal 81, 216, 222, 227, 232, 235–7, 472, 475

local 31, 73, 112, 119, 163, 166, 363, 370

neighborly 447, 483–4

of obligation 56, 195, 383

personal 65, 67, 70, 81, 83, 89, 120, 432

productive 156, 261, 263, 480

same-sex 530, 536–7

social 49, 90, 101, 233, 324, 346, 358, 403

religion 90–2, 125, 165–6, 214–15, 287–8, 382–3, 485–6, 495

of the book 287, 380

cultic 287–8, 299, 301

pocketbook 277, 290

religious constitution 478, 484–5

religious traditions 196, 220, 252, 259, 401, 496

remembrance 22, 68, 70, 94, 112, 117, 153, 155

repetition 55, 59, 61, 111–12, 219, 222, 234, 236

constant 53, 67, 107, 128, 244, 308

representation 42, 312–13, 339–43, 348, 374–5, 414, 416–17, 453

culture of 340–3, 348, 351, 414, 417, 430, 434, 453

personal 362, 475

responsibility 13, 23, 78, 237, 325, 354, 457, 551

resurrection 294, 299, 555

retribution 84, 86, 95, 100, 192

revelation 161, 169, 253, 255–6, 258–60, 268, 318–20, 327

revolutionary rhetoric 360, 364, 373

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg 313, 430, 456, 458, 474

rhetoric 150, 165, 177, 180–1, 207–8, 246–8, 264, 325–6

political 367, 371, 378

rhetoricality 400, 482, 548

rhythm 4, 59, 68, 98, 106, 110, 545, 555

Ricœur, Paul 323, 329, 492–3, 495

Riesman, David 423–4, 427, 462, 512, 553

righteousness 115, 146, 151, 155, 193, 198, 201–2, 251

rights 336, 350, 363–4, 366, 389, 393–5, 481–3, 546–7

basic 523, 551

equal 406, 496, 530, 533

fundamental 473, 475, 478, 481–6, 488–91, 517, 552, 557

group 513–14, 519

individual 349, 530, 547, 552, 554, 556

privacy 520, 551, 556–7

property 234, 244–5

subjective 368, 406, 482, 504, 547, 550

rigidity 3, 10, 136–7, 169, 211, 232, 251, 468

rites 64, 94, 163, 166, 183, 189, 270, 290

initiation 82–3, 95, 403

ritual actions 84, 95, 219

ritual coherence 65, 166

ritual forms 166, 405, 493

ritual practices 121, 139, 209, 213, 217, 270, 325

rituals 61, 64–6, 75–6, 78, 81, 102, 270, 308–9

Robb, Kevin 127

Roman citizens 217, 230, 232, 243

Roman jurists 221, 226–7, 229, 242, 244, 277, 280, 282–3

Roman law 213–14, 216, 218, 230, 280, 282, 291, 293–5

early 211–12, 215, 221–2, 254

Roman nobility 151, 227, 244

Roman Republic 67, 91, 123, 151, 225, 230–1, 283, 293

Romantic age 66, 110, 112, 126

Romanticism 6, 220, 538

Rome 155–6, 159, 211–12, 214, 226, 264, 275–7, 285

ancient 121, 152, 213, 218, 220–1, 230

Rosen, Lawrence 92, 242, 267

Rosenzweig, Franz 265, 418

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 105, 324, 372, 384–6, 391, 400, 516, 523

royal court 343–4, 372

royal decrees 187, 196–7, 329, 363

royal edicts 153, 202, 349

rule knowledge 41, 55–6, 70, 254

ruptures 6, 10, 296, 319, 324, 328, 518, 525

medial 50, 104, 212, 255

Ryle, Gilbert 16, 54, 242

sacer esto213–14

sacramental body 330, 333, 340–1, 351, 370

sacred law 160, 220–2, 224

sacred mysteries 83, 95, 256

sacred texts 152, 262

sacrifices 64, 195, 207, 216, 299, 341

Saenger, Paul 278

Salutati, Coluccio 325

salvation 185, 252, 294, 296, 299–300, 382, 392–3, 469

sanctions 83, 94, 99–101, 192, 203

Santner, Eric L. 395

Saussure, Ferdinand de 29, 31–4, 52, 133–5, 150, 174, 339, 356

sayings 60, 67, 83, 223

formulaic 101, 219, 286, 290

scandals 372, 431, 449, 464, 494, 521, 555, 558

Schadewaldt, Wolfgang 124

Schiavone, Aldo 234, 245

Schmandt-Besserat, Denise 143

Schmitt, Carl 55, 101, 118, 393, 397, 436–40, 448, 475–6

scholastic method 283, 286, 538

Scholem, Gershom 479

schooling 129, 184, 538, 542–3, 546–7

schools 155, 158–9, 453–4, 535, 537–8, 542, 544, 546–7

public 542, 544, 546–7

Schulz, Fritz 227, 234, 354

science 228–9, 313, 315, 325–6, 333, 336, 474, 542–3

cultural 171–2, 442, 503, 518

modern 307, 315, 326

philosophy of 7, 16, 25, 451, 474

scientific culture 7, 24–5

scientific knowledge 6, 16, 312–13, 317, 443, 450–1, 455, 474

Scott, James C. 55

scribality 155, 160, 167, 210, 213, 250, 270

performative 156–7, 160–1, 250

scribes 154–5, 165, 184–5, 195, 197, 199, 254, 263

scriptio continua179, 276–7, 281, 283, 292

secondary orality 57, 486–7

secondary rules 99, 353

second-order questions 177, 187, 229

secularization 152, 376, 397

security 349, 436, 447, 539

self 46–9, 74–6, 183, 185, 299, 322–4, 462–3, 538–41

inner 185, 188, 299, 301

open 74–5, 95, 101

sensible 383, 398, 404

self-awareness 34, 73, 297–9, 392

self-confidence 379, 392

self-consciousness 49, 74–5, 190, 374, 459, 513

self-control 193, 323, 424, 557

self-cultivation 220, 386

self-descriptions 27, 45, 109, 193, 238, 390, 396

self-determination 186, 297, 327, 494, 545, 556

self-formation 96, 213, 540

selfhood 322, 333, 374, 377, 385

self-images 358, 360, 379, 432, 505, 520, 534, 553

self-organization 7, 10, 473, 478, 484, 491, 502, 504

social 121, 395, 475, 484, 499, 553–4, 557

self-organizing processes 120, 202, 502

self-reference 7, 49, 75, 234, 389, 404

self-reflection 4, 345, 383, 392, 459

self-reflexivity 21, 43, 322

self-representation 191, 359, 370, 549

self-transcendence 57, 79, 269, 319

Seligman, Adam 88, 270

semantics 16, 37, 109, 137, 165, 171, 239, 390

cultivated 59, 109

semiology 3, 29, 32, 36, 138

semiotics 137, 306, 340, 554

sensibility 299, 370, 379, 383, 387, 390–2, 394, 517

sensitivity 8, 183, 387–8, 391, 424, 463

sensuality 5, 37, 51, 218

shame 47, 94, 322, 467

Shannon, Claude E. 14, 43

shared intentionality 72, 141, 188, 411

shared knowledge 23, 390, 425, 454, 546

shared meanings 60, 109, 416, 442

Shema Yisrael76, 184, 186

Sieyès, Abbé 373, 375–6, 400, 402, 476, 523

sign systems 3, 33–4, 134, 173–4, 184

signals 4–5, 49, 81, 279, 333, 402

signified 16, 32, 135, 175, 339

signifiers 32, 135, 175, 189, 339

signs 9–11, 32–3, 42–3, 52–3, 134–6, 172–6, 339–41, 359–60

use of 43, 49, 135, 138–9, 175

Simmel, Georg 467, 528

Simon, Herbert A. 465

sincerity 193, 243, 323–4, 388

singers 61, 106, 108, 110, 127, 169, 176, 183

skepticism 248, 412, 417, 447

skills 15, 53–4, 56, 61, 141, 179–80, 451

slaves 157, 194, 200, 206, 233, 245, 247

Sloterdijk, Peter 185

Smend, Rudolf 435–6, 474

social action 169, 183, 442, 451, 479

social capital 79, 88, 301

social change 24, 261, 269, 404, 480

social cohesion 78, 193, 331, 514

social communication 44, 48–9, 110, 113, 189, 194, 390–1, 396

social complexity 424, 464, 514

social conduct 26, 339, 426, 466

social constraints 324, 385, 425, 463, 517, 520, 529

social contract 333, 347

social control x, 100, 333, 349, 425, 519

social epistemology 5–6, 164, 313, 434, 450–1, 453, 477

social groups 93, 102, 188, 417, 425, 434, 438, 553–4

social identity 348, 373

social institutions 329, 331, 334, 354, 380, 424, 516

social life 182, 244, 420, 533, 549

social media 447, 520–1, 555

social memory 68, 70, 170

social mobility 386, 544

social norms 55, 92, 192, 329, 424, 467, 471

social orders 61, 92, 102, 238, 244, 301, 468, 472

social practices 113, 134, 355, 422, 450, 453, 481, 557

social psychology 190, 423, 427

social reality 8, 45, 97, 133, 259, 490

social relationships 49, 90, 101, 233, 324, 346, 358, 403

social roles 73, 149, 183, 244, 349, 383

social rules 22, 324, 385, 401, 466–7, 551

social self-organization 121, 395, 475, 484, 499, 553–4, 557

social sphere 258, 270, 359, 388, 473, 478, 484–5

social systems 8, 10–11, 43, 50, 355, 447, 468, 508

social world 48, 81, 95, 213, 381, 393, 417

sociality 61, 188, 193, 333, 420, 463, 550

socialization 353, 373, 419–20, 425, 463, 469, 529, 535

societas civilis328

society 48–50, 56–8, 374–5, 386, 400–2, 435–6, 511, 518–19

aristocratic 107, 149, 151, 246

corporate 337–8, 346, 507

court 344, 370, 549

estates-based 392

industrial 509, 514, 542

modern 422, 427, 437, 439, 503, 511, 519, 528–9

postmodern 79, 88, 169, 173

sociology 8, 20, 73, 80, 92, 95, 192, 427

Socrates 177, 187–8, 193, 207

sola scriptura332, 392

solidarity 61, 90, 193–4, 197, 403, 466, 495

horizontal 466

vertical 194, 466

Solon 158, 172, 204–7

songs 81, 83, 106–7, 110, 118, 124–6, 263, 265

soul 74, 76, 88, 183, 186, 383, 387, 539–40

sound image 135

sovereignty 328–35, 345–7, 351–3, 359–61, 363–7, 373–9, 400–1, 404–5

disaggregated 525

excarnation 352–79

monarchic 329, 333, 336, 348, 351, 359, 364, 366

personal 376

popular 358, 369, 374, 377–9, 395, 398, 400–6, 524–5

space, typographic 303–4, 306–7, 311, 325, 329, 362–3, 365, 471–2

specialization 24, 312, 477

speech 3, 36–7, 39, 57–9, 70–2, 147–8, 155–7, 263–5

freedom of 488, 491, 547, 549–51, 557

oral 31, 54, 59, 71, 74, 149–50, 246–7, 263–5

speech-song 37, 66, 70–1, 110, 114, 127, 139, 148

Spencer-Brown, George 9–10, 135

Spinoza 316–17, 320, 326

spirituality 76, 186, 218, 256, 301

spoken language 26–7, 29–31, 36–40, 42–4, 69–70, 80–3, 133–8, 144–8

spoken word 58, 137, 142, 177, 215, 218–19, 265, 439

stability 33, 45, 64, 78, 138, 189, 193, 480

standardization 138, 163, 307, 309, 311, 325, 510, 512

stare decisis241

state authority 192, 254, 355, 364, 558

state control 393, 552–3

state power 258, 376, 507, 516

statehood, and democracy 499–527

statistical probabilities 417, 434, 475, 513

Steedman, Carolyn 384–5

Stein, Peter 228, 240, 285

steles 154–5, 157–8, 191, 198, 202, 231

Stetter, Christian 31, 137, 255

stipulatio218–19, 236

stone tablets xi, 172, 253

storage 69–70, 125, 148, 307

stored knowledge 65–6, 500

strangers 87, 89, 113–14, 217, 253, 437, 502, 505–6

Strauss, Leo 317, 327, 427

Stroumsa, Guy 287–8

structural coupling 43, 48–9, 231, 368

structures

of knowledge 450, 513

linguistic 10, 31, 36, 57–8, 133, 139, 357

relational 81, 429, 450

sub-constitutions 478–81, 484–6, 488–9

subjective knowledge 14, 45, 52–3

subjective rights 368, 406, 482, 504, 547, 550

subjectivism, individual 424, 464, 534

subjectivity 33–5, 49, 182–3, 186–8, 300–1, 320–1, 347–9, 427–8

centralized 549

cybernetic 460, 556

human 48, 182, 327

individual 270, 348

legal 206, 251, 346–7, 349, 438, 482

subjectivization 349–50, 374, 389, 393, 403, 460

subordination 32, 252, 301, 356, 387, 441, 465–6, 475

subsidiary awareness 17

Sumerians 140, 154, 184

šumma technique 199–201

supernatural forces 73, 83, 199

Svenbro, Jesper 109, 117, 157, 173

syllables 44, 112, 135, 145–7, 174, 278

syllogisms 177, 238, 286

symbol theory 134, 138

symbolic authority 253, 531, 535

symbolic forms 68, 420–1, 499, 502–3, 505, 518, 528, 533

symbolic order 45–6, 95, 188–90, 294–5, 327, 329–32, 352–9, 376

symbolic systems 42, 252, 433

symbols 9, 12, 74, 252, 255, 356–8, 433–5, 499

symmetry 86, 289, 319, 448

sympathy 387, 529

syntax 39, 59, 138–9, 178, 204, 247, 445, 453

synthesis 227, 241, 340, 464

auditory 67, 112, 115, 123, 439–40

systematicity 311, 317, 326, 501, 510

systems theory 9, 12, 19–20, 43, 48–50, 100, 102, 461–2

tablet-houses 297, 538

tablets 143, 158, 191, 199, 253, 556

clay 143, 154, 184

wax 157–60, 212, 237, 288, 290, 303

wooden 158

taboos 55, 62, 75, 77, 84–5, 87, 217, 353

tacit knowing 17, 55, 188

Talmud 161, 261, 264–5, 289, 291

Babylonian 290

teachers 151, 189, 293, 309, 546–7

techne dialektike148, 178

techne grammatike148, 178

techne rhetorike150

technical knowledge 220, 516, 542

technological complexity 444, 556

technology 140, 149, 184, 414–15, 443–5, 460, 469–70, 541–3

computer 5, 23, 34, 133, 446, 518

of printing 363–4, 369, 502

telecommunications 23, 215, 447, 486, 512

telegraphy 414, 486

teleology 144, 482

television 414, 419, 455, 464, 486, 494, 510–12, 552–4

temples 152, 161, 196, 288–9, 299, 308

temporal structure 112, 116, 267

temporalization 428, 467

testimonial knowledge 165, 312, 450

Teubner, Gunther 20–1, 257, 485, 494

texts 136–9, 150, 250, 258–61, 263, 275–84, 305–12, 469–71

authoritative 156, 166, 279, 283, 288–9, 295, 299, 309

formative 339, 358, 480, 502

normative 56, 165, 258, 339, 358, 361, 471, 503

printed 97, 311, 355, 363, 368, 375, 394–5, 405

textual coherence 65, 166

textual communities 299, 309–10

textuality 279, 289, 405

theaters 370, 372, 383, 386, 415, 435, 505, 509

theft 83, 96, 198, 200, 216, 238–40

themistes112, 114, 128, 158

theoretical knowledge 16, 60–1, 165, 177, 181

thesmos206

thinking 11, 13–14, 36–7, 185, 187, 221, 223, 436–7

dialectic 150, 229

in differences 440

logical 199

in networks 8, 19, 519

scientific 43

second-order 177, 187–8, 208, 229

Thomas, Rosalind 118

Thomas Aquinas 256, 289

Thurnwald, Richard 85–7

time

historical 36, 41, 66, 70, 167, 171, 259, 266

immemorial 64, 326, 392, 481

tolerance 398, 478

religious 393, 398

Tomasello, Michael 47, 72, 141, 411

Tooby, John 47, 72

topoi150, 181, 247

Torah 250–1, 254, 257–60, 262, 265, 289–90, 298–9, 479

oral 161, 260, 264, 266, 288, 290–1

Toronto School 305, 419

torts 235–7

torture 391–2, 489, 497

tradition 73–5, 77–8, 95–6, 100–3, 167–9, 189–90, 258–9, 398–9

continuity of 63, 65, 68, 70, 91, 93, 96, 108

traditional order 81, 344, 359, 392, 402, 503

transactions 143, 154, 160, 197, 218

legal 82, 197, 212, 218–19, 221–2, 236–7, 354

sales 232, 253

transcendence 88, 288, 298, 301, 317, 319–20, 333–4, 419–20

absolute 252

divine 268, 369, 387, 419

religious 287, 324

transcription 115, 118, 133, 153, 255, 279, 281, 288

transcriptivity 37, 97, 422

transmission 49, 60, 70, 166, 413

of knowledge 59, 61, 65, 67, 166, 169, 172, 307–8

trans-subjective nature of language 45, 80

trans-subjective processes 57, 310

trial 157, 204, 207, 220, 231

Trilling, Lionel 323–4, 388, 543, 545

Trobriand Islanders 63, 83, 91, 94–5, 98, 172

trust 61, 64, 78, 84, 86–8, 97, 447, 451

and confidence 46, 77, 192, 212, 301, 451

truth 116, 177–8, 182, 186–7, 193–4, 299–301, 319, 439

concept of 116, 182

universal 495, 501

Turing, Ian 5, 444–5

two bodies doctrine 222, 334, 340, 361, 376, 397

Tyler, Edward Burnett 88, 518

typographic space 303–4, 306–7, 311, 325, 329, 362–3, 365, 471–2

uncertain identity 425, 464

uncertainty of expectations 506

uniqueness 53, 74, 183, 341, 383, 388, 398

United States 258, 361, 367, 378, 414, 493, 551

unity 106–7, 178–9, 358–61, 377–9, 400–2, 479–82, 501–2, 524–5

and completeness of knowledge 314–15, 319, 395, 402, 482

inner 102, 359, 433

original 90, 92, 102, 113, 115, 121, 195, 227

political 238, 332, 347, 351, 475, 501

universal grammar 34, 39

universal human rights 492–5, 497

universal laws 505–6, 508, 520

universal truth 495, 501

universality 7, 15, 22, 363, 497, 508, 515–16, 523

unlimited power 351, 530

unwritten laws 205, 208, 210, 330

unwritten nomos204, 206, 250

urban society 121, 127, 243

validity 22–3, 25, 90, 92–4, 155, 165–6, 201, 203

of law 22, 25, 93, 99, 219, 329

values 325–6, 385–7, 390, 392–3, 404–5, 477–8, 495–6, 542–3

Vansina, Jan 93

Varela, Francisco J. 12

variation 13, 66, 168, 181, 201, 255, 286, 447–8

verbatim rule 166

verbo-motor skills 37, 97, 275

Vermès, Geza 253–54

Vernant, Jean-Paul 181

Vico, Giambattista 105, 292, 324

violence 184, 213–16, 231, 300–1, 325, 332, 496, 507–8

judicial 216

lawmaking and law-preserving 508

legal 213

police 508

political 216–17

visibility 153, 226, 340, 417, 431

social 510

visual images 195, 422, 512

visual representations 314, 381, 438

viziers 153, 196–7

volonté générale400, 523

vowels 145–8, 173–4, 261–4, 292

Wahrman, Dror 349, 384

Waldenfels, Bernhard 7, 47, 78, 88, 413

water 24, 48, 153, 175, 180, 183, 259, 447

Watt, Ian 384

wax tablets 157–60, 212, 237, 288, 290, 303

Weber, Max 92, 101, 202, 213–14, 218, 221–3, 298–9, 543

Weber, Samuel 34

Weil, Simone 214

Weimar Republic 433–5, 438–9, 472–6, 478, 490, 510, 533, 540

welfare state 434, 509–11, 513, 515–17, 519, 524, 526, 529

Wellbery, David E. 400, 482

Welsch, Wolfgang xi, 7

wholeness 359, 433, 436

Wieacker, Franz 222, 224, 246, 304

Wiener, Norbert 5, 14, 444

Windscheid, Bernhard 230

wisdom literature 27, 70, 154–5, 165, 191–4, 197, 199, 297

ancient Egyptian 153, 193, 200

witnesses 58, 61, 113, 119, 159–60, 217–19, 377, 383

Wittgenstein, Ludwig 16, 34, 107, 134, 418, 423, 446, 452

wooden tablets 158

world knowledge 52–4, 60, 72, 80, 163, 165, 182, 370

written knowledge 99, 165, 193, 223, 242, 279

written legal knowledge 102, 242

Zaretzky, Eli 532–3

Žižek, Slavoj 46, 77, 103, 356

Zufälligkeit412

see also contingency

Zumthor, Paul 167