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Property, Labour and Legal Regulation Dignity or Dependence?

Mark Findlay

In this revealing comparative study, Mark Findlay examines the problematic nexus between undervalued labour and vulnerable migration status in dis-embedded markets. It highlights the frustrations raised by timeless regulatory failure and the chronic complicity of private property arrangements in delivering unsustainable market engagement. Mark Findlay identifies the challenge for normative and functional foundations of equitable governance, by repositioning regulatory principle, to restore dignity to market relations.
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Mark Findlay

JOURNAL ARTICLES

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CHAPTERS IN BOOKS

Arcarazo D. (2012) The Good, the Bad and the Ugly in EU Migration Law. In E. Guild and P. Minderhoud (eds.) The First Decade of EU Migration and Asylum Law, pp. 179–206.

Athukorala P., Fukao K. and Yuan T. (2009) Economic transition and labour market integration in China. In R. Ganaut, L. Song and W.T. Woo (eds.) China’s New Place in World Crisis. ANU Press, Canberra.

Bauer T., Dietz B., Zimmermann K. and Zwintz E. (2005) European migration: What do we know? In K. Zimmermann (ed.) Migration and Development. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Beck T. and Levine R. (2004) Legal Institutions and Financial Development. In C. Menard and M. Shirley (eds.) Handbook of New Institutional Economics. Kluwer Dordrecht, the Netherlands.

Bell M. (2014) Constitutionalization and EU Employment Law. In H. Micklitz (ed.) The Constitutionalization of European Private Law. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 137–69.

Bergene A., Endresen S. and Knutsen H. (2010) Re-engaging with Agency in Labour Geography. In A. Bergene et al. (eds.) Missing Links in Labour Geography. Ashgate, Farnham, UK, pp. 3–14.

Cholewinski R. (2012) The EU Acquis on Irregular Migration Ten Years On: Still reinforcing security at the expense of rights? In E. Guild and P. Minderhoud (eds.) The First Decade of EU Migration and Asylum Law, pp. 127–78.

Collins H. (1986) Contract and Legal Theory. In W. Twining (ed.) Legal Theory and Common Law. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, pp. 81–98.

Eisenberg M. (2000) The Theory of Contracts. In P. Benson (ed.) The Theory of Contract Law: New essays. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 206–64.

Fine B. (1979) Law and Class. In B. Fine et al. (eds.) Capitalism and the Rule of Law: From deviancy theory to Marxism. Hutchinson, London, UK, pp. 29–45.

Ford M. and Piper N. (2007) Southern Sites of Female Agency: Informal regimes and female migrant labour resistance in East and Southeast Asia. In J. Hobson and L. Seabrooke (eds.) Everyday Politics of the World Economy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Halleskov Storgaard L. (2012) The Long-Term Residents Directive: A fufilment of the tampere objective of near-equality? In E. Guild and P. Minderhoud (eds.) The First Decade of EU Migration and Asylum Law. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, pp. 299–328.

Helma L. (2008) When Home becomes a Workplace: Domestic work as an ordinary job in Germany? In L. Helma (ed.) Migration and Domestic Work: A European perspective on a global theme. Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, UK, pp. 43–60.

Hirsch A. (2013) Exchange and Circulation. In M. Lewandowska and L. Ptak (eds.) Undoing Property? Sternberg Press, Berlin, pp. 223–31.

Kilpatrick C. (2006) New EU Employment Governance and Constitutionalism. In G. de Burca and J. Scott (eds.) Law and New Governance in the EU and US. Hart Publishing, Oxford and Portland, OR, pp. 121–51.

Kreide R. (2011) Re-embedding the Market through Law? The ambivalence of juridification in the international context. In C. Joerges and J. Falke (eds.) Karl Polanyi, Globalisation and the Potential of Law in Transitional Markets. Hart Publishing, Oxford, UK, pp. 41–64.

Lacher H. (2007) The Slight Transformation: Contesting the Legacy of Karl Polanyi. In A. Bugra and K. Agartan (eds.) Reading Karl Polanyi for the Twenty-First Century: Market Economy as a Political Project. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK, pp. 49–64.

McBarnet D. (2010) Financial Engineering or Legal Engineering: Legal work, legal integrity and the banking crisis. In I. MacNeil & J. Obrien (eds.) The Future of Financial Regulation. Hart Publishing, Oxford, UK, pp. 67–82.

Mill J.S. (1987) Bentham. In A. Ryan (ed.) John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham: Utilitarianism and other essays. Penguin, Harmondsworth, pp. 131–75.

Pasquinelli M. (2013) The Sabotage of Debt. In M. Lewandowska and L. Ptak (eds.) Undoing Property? Sternberg Press, Berlin, pp. 29–35.

Pentecost C. (2013) Fields of Zombies: Biotech agriculture and the privatization of knowledge. In M. Lewandowska and L. Ptak (eds.) Undoing Property? Sternberg Press, Berlin, pp. 83–91.

Rao B. (1996) Income Inequality in Singapore: Facts and Policies. In C.Y. Lim (ed.) Economic Policy. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Singapore.

Schneider F. (2013) Imaginary Property. In M. Lewandowska and L. Ptak (eds.) Undoing Property? Sternberg Press, Berlin, pp. 197–205.

Stadler M. (2013) From Ownership to Belonging. In M. Lewandowska and L. Ptak (eds.) Undoing Property? Sternberg Press, Berlin, pp. 173–81.

Stapleton J. (2004) Regulating Torts. In C. Parker, C. Scott, N. Lacey and J. Braithwaite (eds.) Regulating Law. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 122–43.

Strathern M. with Lewandowska M. (2013) Reproducing the Future. In M. Lewandowska and L. Ptak (eds.) Undoing Property? Sternberg Press, Berlin, pp. 209–20.

Szreder K. (2013) The Cruel Economy of Ownership. In M. Lewandowska and L. Ptak (eds.) Undoing Property? Sternberg Press, Berlin, pp. 39–51.

Topel R. (1999) Labor Markets and Economic Growth. In O. Ashenfelter and D. Card (eds.) Handbook of Labor Economics, Volume 3, Part C. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 2943–84.

Vishmidt M. in conversation with Ptak L. (2013) Abstraction and the Currency of the Social. In M. Lewandowska and L. Ptak (eds.) Undoing Property? Sternberg Press, Berlin, pp. 161–9.

Winckler O. (2009) Labor and Liberalization: The Decline of the GCC Rentier System. In J. Teitelbaum (ed.) Political Liberalization in the Persian Gulf. Columbia University Press, New York, US, pp. 59–86.

Yamanaka K. (1999) Illegal Immigration in Asia: Regional patterns and a case study of Nepalese workers in Japan. In D. Haines and K. Rosenblum (eds.) Illegal Immigration in America: A reference handbook. Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., pp. 471–99.

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Immigration Department of Malaysia website, Application for Foreign Worker, accessed on 25 February 2015 at http://www.imi.gov.my/index.php/en/main-services/foreign-worker/7-perkhidmatan-utama/292-application-for-foreign-worker

Immigration Department of Malaysia website, Entry Permit, accessed on 25 February 2015 at http://www.imi.gov.my/index.php/en/main-services/entry-permit

Immigration Department of Malaysia website, Recruitment Terms and Conditions of Foreign Workers, accessed on 25 February 2015 at http://www.imi.gov.my/index.php/en/main-services/foreign-worker

Ministry of Manpower, Singapore website, Service Agreement Between Foreign Domestic Worker Employer and Employment Agency, accessed on 18 February 2015 at http://www.mom.gov.sg/Documents/foreign-manpower/Employment%20Agencies/Recommended%20Service%20Agreement.pdf

Ministry of Manpower, Singapore website, EA Licence Conditions for Comprehensive Licence, accessed on 18 February 2015 at http://www.mom.gov.sg/Documents/foreign-manpower/Employment%20Agencies/EA%20Licence%20Conditions.pdf

Ministry of Manpower, Singapore website, Employment Agency Search, accessed on 18 February 2015 at http://www.mom.gov.sg/eadirectory

Ministry of Manpower, Singapore website. Report to us, accessed on 18 February 2015 at http://www.mom.gov.sg/contact-us/Pages/report-to-us.aspx

Ministry of Manpower, Singapore website, Work Passes and Permits, accessed on 18 February 2015 at http://www.mom.gov.sg/foreign-manpower/passes-visas/work-permit-fdw/before-you-apply/Pages/default.aspx#disputes

Ministry of Manpower, Singapore, Your Guide to Employing a Foreign Domestic Worker, accessed on 18 February 2015 at http://www.mom.gov.sg/Documents/others/FDW/FDW%20EG(Eng)%20Std.pdf

NBS (2014) Maintaining Sustainability through Contracts, accessed on 11 February 2015 at http://www.thenbs.com/topics/Environment/articles/maintainingSustainability.asp

Polychroniou C. (2014) Crushing Economy and A Failed State. Truth Out (19 January 2014), accessed on 19 February 2015 at http://truth-out.org/news/item/21265-the-greek-success-story-of-a-crushing-economy-and-a-failed-state

Royal Thai Embassy in London website, Notification of Immigration Commission: Criterion and Conditions of Foreign Nationals’ Residential Permit Considerations, accessed on 25 February 2015 at http://thaiembassyuk.org.uk/?q=node/58

Rousseau J. (1754) Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men, accessed on 18 February 2015 at http://www.constitution.org/jjr/ineq.htm

Slavo M. (2011) Barter Society Emerges as Greek Crisis Deepens. SHTFPlan.com (29 October 2011), accessed on 19 February 2015 at http://www.shtfplan.com/emergency-preparedness/barter-society-emerges-in-greece-as-crisis-deepens-video_10292011

Singapore Institute of Directors (2008) Managing the Five Capitals for Sustainable Wealth Creation!, accessed on 11 February 2015 at http://www.sid.org.sg/uploads/bulletin_sub/documents/196_feature6.pdf

Tan Chuan-Jin, Acting Minister for Manpower & Senior Minister of State, National Development, Reply to Parliamentary Question on Foreign Worker Levies Collection, Notice Paper No. 369 Of 2012 For The Sitting On 12 Nov 2012, accessed on 22 May 2014 at http://www.mom.gov.sg/newsroom/Pages/PQRepliesDetails.aspx?listid=64

Varia N. (2014) New Protections for Saudi Arabia’s Domestic Workers. Human Rights Watch Dispatches (19 February 2014), accessed on 18 February 2015 at http://www.hrw.org/news/2014/02/19/dispatches-new-protection-saudi-arabia-s-domestic-workers

Wah J. (2014) Is ASEAN Closer to Legal Protection of the Rights of Migrant Workers?, News Update, ASEAN Civil Society Conference and ASEAN People’s Forum (22 March 2014), accessed on 25 February 2015 at http://aseanpeople.org/is-asean-closer-to-legal-protection-of-the-rights-of-migrant-workers/

LEGISLATION

Act 246 (Malaysia), accessed on 18 February 2015 at http://www.agc.gov.my/Akta/Vol.%205/Act%20246.pdf Employment Act (Cap. 91) (Rev. Ed. 2009) (Singapore)

Alien Employment Act of 2008 (Kingdom of Thailand).

Cabinet Resolution No. (25) of 2010 concerning Internal Work Permits Applicable in the Ministry of Labor (UAE).

Cambodia’s 2011 Sub-decree 190; Law No. 39/2004 concerning the Placement and Protection of Indonesian Migrant Workers (Indonesia).

Employment of Foreign Manpower Act (Cap. 91A) (Rev. Ed. 2009) (Singapore).

Employment of Foreign Manpower (Work Passes) Regulations 2012, Schedule 1, Conditions and Regulatory Conditions of In-principle Approval for a Work Permit.

Employment of Foreign Manpower (Work Passes) Regulations 2012, Schedule 4, Conditions and Regulatory Conditions of Work Permit.

Employment (Restriction) Act 1968 (Act 353) (Malaysia).

Employment Agencies Act (Cap. 92) (Rev. Ed. 2012) (Singapore).

French Labour Code (Code du Travail), accessed on 24 February 2015 at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCode.do;jsessionid=1F75337AA49AFEEF20C0AB85DB94D303.tpdjo05v_2?cidTexte=LEGITEXT00000 6072050&dateTexte=20090311

Immigration Act 1959 (Act 155) (Malaysia).

Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995 (The Philippines).

EU DIRECTIVES

Commission of the European Communities, Commission Directive 86/388/EEC of 23 July 1986 amending Council Directive 83/229/EEC on the Approximation of the Laws of the Member States Relating to Materials and Articles Made of Regenerated Cellulose Film Intended to Come into Contact with Foodstuffs.

European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 79/7/EEC of 19 December 1978 on the Progressive Implementation of the Principle of Equal Treatment for Men and Women in Matters of Social Security.

European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 98/99/EC of 14 December 1998 Amending Directive 97/12/EC Amending and Updating Directive 64/432/EEC on Health Problems Affecting Intra-Community Trade in Bovine Animals and Swine.

European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 1999/70/EC of 28 June 1999 Concerning the Framework Agreement on Fixed-term Work Concluded by ETUC, UNICE and CEEP.

European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 2001/40/EC of 28 May 2001 on the Mutual Recognition of Decisions on the Expulsion of Third Country Nationals.

European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 2002/14/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2002 Establishing A General Framework for Informing and Consulting Employees in the European Community – Joint Declaration of the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission on Employee Representation.

European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 2003/109/EC of 25 November 2003 Concerning the Status of Third-Country Nationals Who Are Long-Term Residents (23 January 2004).

European Council: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 2003/110/EC of 25 November 2003 on Assistance in Cases of Transit for the Purposes of Removal by Air.

European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 2003/88/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 November 2003 Concerning Certain Aspects of the Organisation of Working Time.

European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 2004/38/EC of 29 April 2004 on the Right of Citizens of the Union and Their Family Members to Move and Reside Freely within the territory of the Member States.

European Union, Council of the European Union, Council Directive 2008/104/EC of 19 November 2008 on Temporary Agency Work.

European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 2008/115/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on Common Standards and Procedures in Member States for Returning Illegally Staying Third-country Nationals.

European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 2009/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on the Establishment of a European Works Council or a Procedure in Community-scale Undertakings and Community-scale Groups of Undertakings for the Purposes of Informing and Consulting Employees.

European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 2009/50/EC of 25 May 2009 on the Conditions of Entry and Residence of Third-country Nationals for the Purposes of Highly Qualified Employment.

European Union: Council of the European Union, Directive 2009/52/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 Providing for Minimum Standards on Sanctions and Measures Against Employers of Illegally Staying Third-country Nationals.

European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on An Employer’s Obligation to Inform Employees of the Conditions Applicable to the Contract or Employment Relationship.

European Union: Council of the European Union, Directive 96/71/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 1996 Concerning the Posting of Workers in the Framework of the Provision of Services.

European Union, Council of the European Union, Council Directive 97/81/EC of 15 December 1997 concerning the Framework Agreement on Part-time Working Concluded by UNICE, CEEP and the ETUC.

INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Official Journal, 2012/C 326/01.

CASES

Balfour v. Balfour [1919] 2 KB 571.

Blaise Baheten Metock and Ors v. Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform, European Court of Justice, Grand Chamber, C-127/08, [2008] ECR I-6241.

Commission v. Luxembourg, European Court of Justice, C-319/06, [2008] ECR 1-4323.

International Transport Workers’ Federation and Finnish Seamen’s Union v. Viking Line ABP and OÜ Viking Line Eesti, European Court of Justice, C-438/05, [2007] ECR I-10779.

Helmut Kampelmann and others v. Landscaftverband Westfalen–Lippe, European Court of Justice, C-253/96 to 258/96, [1998] IRLR 333.

Klaus Haseley v. Stadtwerke Altena GmbH, European Court of Justice, C-258/96, [1983] ICR 351 (Ackner LJ).

Laval v. Svenska Byggnadsarbetareforbundet, European Court of Justice, C-341/05, [2007] ECR I-11767.

Lawrie-Blum v. Land Baden-Wuttemberg, European Court of Justice, Case 66/85, [1986] ECR 2121.

Levin v. Staatssecretaris van Justitie, European Court of Justice, Case 53/81, [1982] ECR 1035.

Mangold v. Helm, European Court of Justice, C-144/04, [2005] ECR 1-9981.

Mary Carpenter v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, European Court of Justice, C-60/00, [2002] ECR I-6279.

Raymond Kohll v. Union des caisses de maladie. European Court of Justice, C-158/96, Judgment (28 April 1998).

Rhimou Chakroun v. Minister van Buitenlandse Zaken, European Court of Justice, C-578/08, [2010] ECR I-01839.

Rush Portuguesa Ld v. Office national d'immigration, European Court of Justice, C-113/89, [1990] ECR I-1417.

Said Shamilovich Kadzoev (Huchbarov), European Court of Justice, C-357/09, [2009] ECR I-11189.

Stadtwerke Witten GmbH v. Andreas Schade, European Court of Justice, C-258/96, [1982] ICR 54 (Browne-Wilkinson J).

Waltons Stores (Interstate) Ltd v. Maher (1988) 164 CLR 387.