Remote Human Settlements in Developed Nations
Edited by Andrew Taylor, Dean B. Carson, Prescott C. Ensign, Lee Huskey, Rasmus O. Rasmussen and Gertrude Saxinger
Chapter 4: International migration and the changing nature of settlements at the edge
Kate Golebiowska, Tom Carter, Alicia Boyle and Andrew Taylor INTRODUCTION In the past decade some communities in the sparsely populated areas (SPAs) in Australia and Canada have experienced international migration flows but the impact of these on their demography and economy has been little understood. This chapter seeks to explain who has immigrated to small settlements in SPAs and for what reasons, why it is important to understand this migration and what impact it may have on these settlements in the future. The term international migrant(s), or immigrant- orn b refers to first- eneration migrants. To understand the mobility motivag tions and characteristics of immigrants this chapter uses as case studies Alice Springs in the Northern Territory (NT), Australia, and Neepawa in Manitoba, Canada. This chapter has seven sections. The next section provides an overview of the Australian and Canadian immigration programmes that can facilitate immigration to communities located in SPAs. It mostly cites statistics from the decade 2003–04 to 2013–14 but earlier statistics are occasionally used, too. The third section offers a literature review and is followed by a conceptual framework in section four. The subsequent section presents the case studies. The sixth section interprets findings from the case studies. It reveals that there are variations between neighbouring communities where only some have successfully attracted international migrants, discusses how their settlement may impact on their demographic futures and what approaches may assist in reducing some identified policy tensions that work against long- erm immigrant settlement. Conclusions...
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