Active Inclusion in a Multi-Level and Multi-Actor Context
Edited by Rune Halvorsen and Bjørn Hvinden
Chapter 6: Have governments designed provisions for lone mothers, long-term unemployed and working poor to be multidimensional and integrated?
Multifaceted problems entailing high poverty risks require multidimensional, multi-actor and coordinated responses. Based on this understanding, the 2008 EU Commission Recommendation on Active Inclusion proposed that member states should seek to link and integrate three pillars: adequate income support; inclusive labour markets; and access to high-quality services for people with multifaceted problems. Although the Council supported the Recommendation, its impact seemed first to be limited (Frazer and Marlier, 2013). Nevertheless, the 2013 EU Social Investment package incorporates the Active Inclusion concept. The package focuses on designing policies that mutually reinforce strengthened skills and personal capacity to enhance employment and social participation. Key policy areas include education, quality childcare, healthcare, training, job-search assistance and rehabilitation. Member states’ systems for national provision and delivery of social welfare benefits, services and labour market policies have varied a great deal, for instance regarding comprehensiveness, available resources and levels of public spending. In this chapter, we present comparative analyses on how five countries (Italy, Poland, Germany, Sweden and the UK) construct and deliver national-level anti-poverty policies.
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