Combating Poverty in Europe
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Combating Poverty in Europe

Active Inclusion in a Multi-Level and Multi-Actor Context

Edited by Rune Halvorsen and Bjørn Hvinden

Discovering methods to combat poverty and social exclusion has now become a major political challenge in Europe. This book offers an original and timely analysis of how actors at the European, national and subnational levels meet this challenge. Combining perspectives on multilevel and network coordination, the editors discuss to what extent actors join forces in these efforts and identify the factors limiting the coordination achieved in practice. The book builds on a European study comparing Germany, Italy, Poland, Sweden and the UK.
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Chapter 11: An emerging multi-level system of Active Inclusion in Europe?

Bjørn Hvinden and Rune Halvorsen


The aim of this book has been to provide a better understanding about how Europe goes about combating poverty and social exclusion in the context of the crisis that started in 2008 and the main responses of the EU, the Europe 2020 strategy and the Active Inclusion approach (from 2013 a part of the EU Social Investment package). Our use of ‘Europe’ is somewhat misleading and ambiguous. Not all countries in Europe are members of the EU. For budgetary and practical reasons, the collection of original and primary data was limited to five member states (Germany, Italy, Poland, Sweden and the UK). However, the data collection has covered several territorial levels of Europe: the EU as an encompassing political system; the five member states’ central governments; and subnational governments represented by the authorities of a major city in each country (Dortmund, Turin, Radom, Malmö and Glasgow). Finally, the data collection included qualitative interviews with altogether 67 persons belonging to three target groups of anti-poverty policies (single mothers, long-term unemployed and working-poor people) living in the five cities.

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