Active Inclusion in a Multi-Level and Multi-Actor Context
Edited by Rune Halvorsen and Bjørn Hvinden
Chapter 11: An emerging multi-level system of Active Inclusion in Europe?
The aim of this book has been to provide a better understanding about how Europe goes about combating poverty and social exclusion in the context of the crisis that started in 2008 and the main responses of the EU, the Europe 2020 strategy and the Active Inclusion approach (from 2013 a part of the EU Social Investment package). Our use of ‘Europe’ is somewhat misleading and ambiguous. Not all countries in Europe are members of the EU. For budgetary and practical reasons, the collection of original and primary data was limited to five member states (Germany, Italy, Poland, Sweden and the UK). However, the data collection has covered several territorial levels of Europe: the EU as an encompassing political system; the five member states’ central governments; and subnational governments represented by the authorities of a major city in each country (Dortmund, Turin, Radom, Malmö and Glasgow). Finally, the data collection included qualitative interviews with altogether 67 persons belonging to three target groups of anti-poverty policies (single mothers, long-term unemployed and working-poor people) living in the five cities.
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