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Rethinking Legal Reasoning

Geoffrey Samuel

‘Rethinking’ legal reasoning seems a bold aim given the large amount of literature devoted to this topic. In this thought-provoking book, Geoffrey Samuel proposes a different way of approaching legal reasoning by examining the topic through the context of legal knowledge (epistemology). What is it to have knowledge of legal reasoning?
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Index

Geoffrey Samuel

abduction 3, 238

abstract

category of fact 160

concepts 230, 234, 278

element 175

entity 261

model 101, 173, 175, 177, 261–262, 272, 287

particular (and) 43–44

principles 82, 185

propositions 61

reasoning 119

rules 53, 250, 270

structure 109, 175, 261

style 70

system 150

see also axiom

abuse 278

rights (of) 104, 307–309

sexual 305

accident

road 139, 152, 160, 161, 243

workplace 139, 140

accommodatio factorum 190, 191

Accursius 15, 18, 22

act

criminal 293

God (of) 152

intervening 152

legal 237

quasi-criminal 293

actio 31, 37, 46, 47, 48, 50, 55, 66, 67, 71, 75, 88, 99, 108, 111, 111, 115, 118, 147, 231, 293, 295, 299, 301, 302, 303, 306, 312, 313, 315, 327

in personam see action

in rem see action

mandati 38

popularis 302

quasi ex contractu 52

quasi ex delicto 52

action 31, 37, 48, 88, 124, 146, 147, 175, 293, 323

case (on the) 76, 77, 78, 79

cause of 3, 80, 111, 112, 113, 114, 128, 131, 141, 148, 149, 192, 283, 310

chose in 313

civil 48

debt see debt

discovery see discovery

ex contractu 48

ex facto 48

forms of see forms of action

in facto 48

in personam 20, 48, 124, 295

in rem 20, 37, 48, 55, 124, 295

money had and received 141, 149, 250, 252

money paid 250

penal 302

praetorian 48

quantum meruit see quantum meruit

striking out 303

see also actio; remedies

actional see schemes of intelligibility

activity

risky 150

social 275

actor 273, 275–276, 277

law see person; persona; subject

film 205, 206

self-interested 292

actus reus 189–190

ad similia 14

adoption 51

advantage 290

advocate 259

aesthetic 199, 200, 226, 227

agency

nurse 217, 218

state (of the) 320

agreement 46, 64, 146, 215, 244–245, 249

see also contract

aid

legal 267

air

free 254

aircraft 227

airport 227

Airport ‘77 227

air-raid shelter 163, 244

Alexander, Larry 258–284, 329, 330

Alfenus, Varus 40, 50

algorithm 31, 82, 212

alphabet 75, 293, 306, 327

alteri stipulari nemo potest 315

Alzheimer's disease 124

Amselek, Paul 192

analogy 3, 14, 18, 19, 26, 32, 38, 45, 53, 54, 55, 56, 59, 89, 91, 93, 112, 113, 115, 116, 150, 173, 175, 178–179, 186, 202, 211, 212, 238, 241, 242, 249, 258–259, 263–270, 272, 280, 284, 330

biology 134

theatre 146, 200

see also reasoning

analyse historico-critique 3

analysis 13, 14, 15, 16, 20, 28, 49, 119–120, 200, 207, 216, 237, 241–242, 253–254, 257, 259, 275, 312, 316, 332

critical 209

dialectical see dialectic

facts (of) 50, 53, 132, 136, 177

see also fact

films (of) 198, 199, 201, 202

formalist see formalist

functional 187, 188

see also function

historical data (of) 199

Hohfeld, Wesley Newcomb see Hohfeld, Wesley Newcomb

idealistic 278

institutional 293, 294, 328

legal 46, 48, 68, 73, 92, 135, 176, 199, 210, 254, 259, 271, 272, 291, 299, 306,

see also Alexander, Larry; Sherwin, Emily

mathematical 8

method of 14

preliminary 178

psychoanalytic 208

rights 288

Rylands v Fletcher (of) 93–94

scientific 169

social science 234, 272, 278

synthesis (and) 121

textual 21

three-dimensional 293

see also schemes of intelligibility

anima 207–209

animal 150, 212

answer

fact construction (and) 155–156

reasoning model (and) 129, 131

right 63, 84, 248

rules (and) 259

taxonomy (and) 125, 126

anthropology 170

antibiotic 181

antimony 21

anti-Semitism 209

approach

axiomatic 60

see also axiom; axiomatic

bottom-up see reasoning

context-activated see theory

deductive see deduction

diachronic 4–6, 9, 271, 329, 331

empirical 261

epistemological 3

see also epistemology

formalist 13, 182, 188

functional see function

hermeneutical see hermeneutics

historical 7

holist see holism

individualist see individualism

literary 81–82

nominalist see nominalism

positivistic 210

practitioner 185

realist see realism

reductionist see reductionism

scholastic see scholastic

scientific 69

structural see schemes of intelligibility; structure

synchronic 6–7, 9, 271, 331

systems see system

text-activated see theory

top-down see reasoning

universalist see universalist

see also method; schemes of intelligibility

arbores actionum 30

argument 7

a contrario 69

a fortiori 69

analogical see analogy

bootstrap 311

coherence of see coherence

consensus and see consensus

dialectical see dialectic; schemes of intelligibility

Dworkin and 7

see also Dworkin, Ronald

functional see function; schemes of intelligibility

legal 2, 40, 321

policy see policy

practical 270–271

scientific see science

structural see schemes of intelligibility

superior see Dworkin, Ronald

see also reasoning

argumentation 72, 84, 85

Aristotle 17, 21, 22, 27, 31, 89, 210

ars

boni et aequi 41

demonstrandi 56

hermeneutica 67

judicandi 67

art 200, 256, 275

critic 256

liberal 14

artefact 10, 87, 114, 115, 117, 142, 145, 175, 192, 285, 306, 330

artificial intelligence (AI) 8, 272

as if 51–52, 54–55, 138, 157–158, 230–257, 330

see also Bouriau, Christophe; fiction; Vaihinger, Hans

asbestos 156–159, 173, 235

assault 105

asset 289, 299

see also property; thing

association

consumer see Consumers' Association

employers' 298

trade union 298

assumpsit 78, 128

Astolfi, Jean-Pierre 145

Atias, Christian 5, 255

atom 89

attitude

epistemological 10, 229, 231–233, 255, 330

see also epistemology; Vaihinger, Hans

law and 7, 8, 9, 12, 86, 115, 331

see also Dworkin, Ronald

obsessive 276

Roman jurists (of) 42–47

see also Roman law

social 141

theory (and) 231–232

Western 9

Aubry, Charles 64

auctoritas 17, 27, 32

audience 258

participation 214, 218

psychology of 219

reaction 218

sophisticated 216

textbook 119

university 79

Vertigo (and) 203–204

wider 2, 85

see also cinema

Aumont, Jacques 201

Auslegungskanon 72

aut … aut 212

auteur 224

see also theory

author

case-note 256

chain novel (of) see Dworkin, Ronald; novel

film (of a) 215

interpolations (and) 58–59

interpreter (and) 189

judge as 97

meaning (and) 218–222

originality of 119

see also reader; Staiger, Janet

authority

advocate (of) 259

Bartolus 23

see also Bartolus de Saxoferrato

code (of a) 222

coherence (of) 60–61

decision-making as 269

exercise of 269

foreign law (of) 142

ius commune 25

local 161, 298, 300

paradigm see paradigm

populus (of the) 29

public 324

reasoning by 39

regulae (of) 31

text 14, 17, 19, 28, 30, 32, 46, 55, 60, 70, 71, 198, 282

weak 222

autonomy

semantic 262, 278

axiom 60, 62, 63, 67, 74, 182, 183, 271, 287

axiomata 62, 63, 64, 90, 182

axiomatic 60, 70, 84, 127, 132, 185, 270, 287, 288, 322, 329

see also system and systematics

Azo 14, 18

Bachelard, Gaston 4, 5

Bacon, Francis 90

Bacon, Henry 214

bacterium 125

Bagshaw, Roderick 223

bailee 219

bailor 219

Baker, John (Sir) 75, 76–77

Baldus de Ubaldis 18, 23–24, 26, 32, 38, 41, 46, 90, 99, 148, 180, 225, 244

ball see cricket

Balzac, Honoré de 210

bank 244

banking 138

barber 47

Bartolus de Saxoferrato 23, 28, 29, 30, 31, 46, 57, 99, 148, 212, 213

bathroom 247

battery 105

Baudelaire, Charles 210

bear 278–279

pit 35

Begriffsjurisprudenz 70, 74

behaviour 310

abusive 300, 308

equine 179

malicious 308

obsessive 276

social 174

unreasonable 164, 218, 276

Bel Geddes, Barbara 203

Bellamo, Manlio 32, 212

benefit 251, 252

public 272

Bengoetxea, Joxerramon 89

Bennion, Francis 98

Bergel, Jean-Louis 85, 92, 119, 170, 174, 182, 184–185, 244

Bergman, Ingmar 202

Berthelot, Jean-Michel 11, 177, 187, 188, 273–276, 277, 332

bicycle 258

Bill of exchange 142

Bingham, Lord Justice and Lord 157, 182, 305, 306, 311

bird 131

Birks, Peter 123–126, 131, 134, 135, 244, 249, 251, 252, 332

Blackburn, Justice and Lord 93, 142

blackmail 318

Blackstone, William (Sir) 122, 185, 213

Blanché, Robert 3, 4, 5, 160–161

boat 40–41

see also ship

Bologna 13, 16, 17, 20, 22, 23

bona fides 41

see also good faith; possession

book

chain novel see Dworkin, Ronald; novel

continental law see civil law (tradition); Digest; Institutes

law 138, 140, 141

see also Corpus Iuris Civilis; Digest; Institutes; text; textbook

practitioner 77, 121

systematising 59–65, 70–73

see also literature; textbook

Borges, Jorge Luis 264

Bouriau, Christophe 229, 232

Bowen, Lord Justice 114, 128, 215

Bracton 15

Brennan, Justice 266

Brexit see fantasy

British Foundry Association 320

brocardum 15, 26

Brown, Lord 305

Brown-Wilkinson, Vice-Chancellor and Lord 111

Brundage, James 43

Buckley, Justice 199

Bugnet, Joseph 68

Bulgarus 14

Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch see code (German)

bus 227

Bus Stop 227

businessman

reasonable 247

Busino, Giovanni 145

but for test 155, 156, 158

Buxton, Lord Justice 300

Cairns, Lord Justice 246–247

canary 131

cancer 156–159, 173

Cane, Peter 289–290, 299, 317–318, 330

Canning, Joseph 233

canon law 17, 24, 233

car 253, 269, 315

park 315–317

Carbasse, Jean-Marie 29–30

carelessness 34, 146, 155

see also culpa; fault; negligence

Carroll, Noël 223–225, 228

case 18

equity 140

hard 83, 186, 248

paradigm 54, 55

Scottish 142

social implications of 279–280

tort 141

wagon 147–148

see also precedent

Castro, Paulus de 233

casuistry 3, 9, 18, 41, 54, 55, 59, 60, 83, 173, 225, 270–272, 329

casus 15, 18, 54, 57

categorisation 140, 149, 160, 244, 252–253

see also category; classification; taxonomy

category 135, 167, 191, 192, 212

alternative 212

cumulative 134

disorderly 131

fitting together 134

legal 9, 53, 124

wrongs 135

catena definitionum 67

causa 16, 27, 36, 43, 46, 48, 50

causa causans 154

causa sine que non 154, 156

causality see causation

causation 34, 46, 47, 144, 151–159, 167, 183, 189, 223, 233, 244, 250, 256

chain of 144, 153

factual 173

presumption of 157, 173

proof of 144, 155–158, 162–163

see also cause; schemes of intelligibility

causative event see event

cause 167, 278

action (of) see action

effect (and) 176

proximate 155

Celsus, Iuventius 39

certa causa 16

chain 153, 154

legal 126

see also vinculum iuris

novel see novel

Champeil-Desplats, Véronique 12, 63, 86

chance

loss of 155–159, 163, 192–193

Chancery see court

see also equity

chaos 267, 278

charity 272

charterparty 139

chattel see goods; property

cheese-maker 30

Christianity 115

cigarette 161–162, 165, 245

cinema see film

cinema vérité 214

circumstances

case (of the) 43, 50, 54

change of 237

exceptional 250

civil law (tradition) 5, 8–9, 12–74, 79, 86, 97, 122, 124, 141, 166, 169, 181–182, 198, 201, 237, 244, 280, 288, 295–296, 307–309, 310, 322, 326

see also law; Roman law

civil lawyers 12–74

civil servant 151

civitas 29

sibi princeps est 23

claim 289

see also actio; action

class

buyers (as) 304

cases (of) 157

claimant (of) 235, 300

consumers (as a) 304

contract (of) 139

describer of 136

film writers (of) 198

interests 322

objects (of) 178

persons (of) 108, 290, 304

reasoning (of) 197–198

see also category

classification 43, 124, 126–127, 135, 251–253

bent 131

coherent 118

living things (of) 125

plan 118

see also category; taxonomy

clause see contract

client 169, 170

clothes 216, 243

club 91

Cockburn, Chief Justice 142

Cocks, Raymond 79

code 182, 202, 221–222, 293, 322, 325

French (civil) 67, 68, 70, 74, 119, 239, 295, 307

French (commercial) 142, 195

French (procedural) 89, 149

German 72, 74

German (commercial) 142

Italian (commercial) 142

Netherlands 142

Prussian 142

Code civil see code

Code Napoléan see code

Codex 33

codification 67–73, 119, 271

coherence 40, 59, 60, 63, 70–73, 87, 107, 115, 118, 119, 181, 184, 185, 225, 228, 261, 262, 287, 327, 329, 331

coin 253

flip of 269

Coke, Edward 77

Coleridge, Lord 114

collatio 59

see also Cujas, Jacques

comet 262

Commentaries on the Laws of England 185

see also Blackstone, William

commentary 198

Commentators see Post-Glossators

commerce 281

Commissioners, Her Majesty's 78–79, 80, 148

common

law see common law (tradition)

sense 81, 83, 154, 221

common law (tradition) 8, 74–84, 86, 92–95, 185–186, 260, 323

communis opinio doctorum 31

company see persona; personality

employees 188

one man 321

persona ficta 233

comparison

macro 201

micro 202

reasoning types (between) 168–228

compensation 135, 316, 317

complexity 133, 154, 167, 199, 214, 215, 279

causation (of) see causation

computer 67, 134, 190, 272

concept 53, 70–73, 74, 160, 167, 192, 231, 234, 256

empirical 106, 135

descriptive 106, 235, 277

fact (and) 160, 234

legal 86, 87, 155, 190, 192, 233–235, 292

mediating 291

normative 132, 234, 299, 327

see also duty; right

quasi-normative 327

Roman 75

see also Roman law

system of 70–73

conceptualism 13, 63, 81, 328

condictio 16, 49

conduct

duty of care (and) 241–242

human 153, 154–155, 270

see also behaviour

consensus 49, 184, 262, 329

consent 9, 65, 74, 75, 125, 139, 239

consequentialist see function and functionalism

consilia 24, 25

conspiracy 290

constitutio 36

construction see interpretation; meaning

consumer 108, 139, 304, 317

Consumers' Association 303

continental law see civil law; law

contra 20, 21

rationem 47

see also pro

contract 16, 36, 38, 39, 44, 46, 48, 49, 52, 53, 55, 64, 65, 76, 83, 87, 91, 101, 104, 111, 113, 118, 122, 128, 129, 135, 137, 138, 139, 140, 146, 147, 151, 163–164, 165, 174, 180, 191, 192, 194, 215, 216, 217, 225, 226, 231, 236–237, 239, 244, 247, 249, 251, 253–255, 290, 293, 300, 303, 308, 310, 313–314, 330

agreement see agreement; conventio

consent (and) 139

consumer 303

exemption clause 151

formation 9

frustration 137, 138, 236–237

good faith 49

implied 138, 250, 251

interpretation of see interpretation

legislation (as) 65

see also loi

mandate 52, 250

mistake (and) 9, 16, 239

oppressive 309, 315–317

penalty see penalty

privity of 313–315

specific performance (and) see specific performance

term see term

theory 46, 122

see also obligation

contractor

independent 194, 217

intention of 247

reasonable 237

unreasonable 104, 310

contradiction 15, 17, 20, 56, 59, 72, 185, 276

contribution 138, 158

conventio 46, 49, 146, 180

Convention see Human Rights

conversion 79

see also trover

Corman, Roger 214, 215

corporation 29, 37, 54, 229, 233, 271, 283

see also liability; person; persona; personality; universitas

Corpus Iuris Civilis 13, 22, 28, 68, 75

see also Digest; Institutes; Roman law

correlative see Hohfeld, Wesley Newcomb

correspondence 125, 136, 171, 177, 184, 262

corrupt 220–221

country 261

public bodies (and) 244

unknown 256

Cour de cassation 92, 143, 240, 307

court 146

appellate 179, 282

common law 76, 91, 120

constitutional 103

European Court see European Court of Human Rights

politics and 198, 318

reasoning of 259

superior 143

covenant 78

Cownie, Fiona 79

cricket 164, 207–208, 273–277, 332

ball 167, 274, 275, 276

role of 275

significance of 275

crime

reconstruction of 176

see also law (criminal)

critic

film 198, 200, 210–211

literary 218

Critical Legal Studies 211

Cronenberg, David 216

cross-examination 166

Crowded Sky (The) 227

Cujas, Jacques 58, 59, 60

culpa 34, 35, 36, 38, 41, 43, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 172, 177, 178, 180

see also carelessness; fault; negligence

Cumming-Bruce, Lord Justice 207, 274, 276

custom 25

Da mihi jus, dabo tibi factum 192

Da mihi factum, dabo tibi ius 143, 147, 148–149, 192

damage 38, 46, 48, 49, 53, 65, 87, 146, 164, 167, 174, 175, 192, 235, 278, 290, 302

economic see loss

meaning of 144

mental distress 191

property (to) 147, 283

psychological 234

remoteness of 109

risk of 35

wrongfully caused 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 48

see also loss

damages 127, 128, 129, 139, 192, 252, 274, 307–308, 312–313, 316

see also damage

damnum 49

Deane, Justice 280

debt 76, 78, 122, 127, 128, 139, 227, 249, 250, 251, 252, 313–314, 315–317, 326

deceit 220

decision

correct 127

facts and see facts

false 127

rules and see precedent

see also judgment

Decius, Phillipus 32, 46, 89, 99, 225, 244

declaration 296

deduction 3, 31, 46, 61, 63, 64, 67, 69, 71, 74, 77, 80, 81, 84, 90, 93, 101, 116, 118, 132, 181–184, 185, 238, 240, 241, 242, 243, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 265, 266, 270, 280, 322, 327, 330

Deep End 227

defamation 102, 105, 129–130, 131, 243

defence 148, 293

self- 105

definition 44, 140

clear 62, 64

elephant (of an) 246

interest see interest

Del Mar, Maks 10, 87, 330

Delacour, Jean 242

delict 39, 44, 52, 53, 76, 118, 122, 138, 147, 174, 249, 313

Denning, Lord Justice and Lord 106, 109, 112, 113, 164, 207, 246, 268–269, 274, 276, 277, 313, 326

denominator (common) 264

depersonalisation 208

deposit 64

deprave 220–221

dermatatis 155, 156

Descheemaeker, Eric 129

detentio 175

detinue 78

Develay, Michel 145

Devlin, Justice 268

De Zulueta, Francis 20

diachronic 2, 4–6, 7, 9, 13, 115

see also approach; framework; view

diagnosis 171–174, 193

dialectic 15, 17, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 46, 50, 51, 56, 58, 61, 96, 144, 147, 183, 184–185, 212–213, 247, 306

see also schemes of intelligibility

dialectica 15, 271

dialogue 214

Digest of Justinian 17, 20, 26, 28, 33, 34, 36, 37, 41, 42, 46, 49, 50, 51, 59, 60, 61, 62, 70, 88, 117, 118, 119, 224, 250, 294

see also Corpus Iuris Civilis; Roman law

digestion 215

dignitas 41

dignity 41, 294–295, 312

Dilthey, Wilhelm 275

dimension 265

loss of 133

moral 204

multi-133, 134, 200

one- 200

third 306

three-133, 213, 293

two- 133, 212, 213

Diplock, Lord Justice and Lord 112, 179, 241–242, 324

disability

Hohfeldian 102

disadvantage 291

discipline 279, 331

argumentative 85

hermeneutical 85

law 9

professional 8

discovery 324

disease 176

disputatio 96

fori 34

dissensiones dominorum 20

distinctio 15, 18, 20, 21, 27, 29, 56, 57, 59, 83, 190, 212, 271

distinction 14, 18, 21, 27, 29, 39, 53, 54, 56, 61

sub- 18

divisio 18, 21, 27, 29, 39, 43, 48, 49, 56, 57, 83, 212, 271

division 59, 61

Dixon, Owen (Sir) 266

doctor 168, 305

doctrine

legal 6, 121

parochial (too) 6

dogmatics (legal) 69

dogmatique 69

juridique 288

dolus 36, 38

Domat, Jean 5, 61, 64–65, 118, 182, 288

dominium 38, 42, 49, 100, 147, 175, 300, 301

see also ownership; proprietas

Dominus mundi 28

Doneau, Hugues 60, 61, 66, 88, 99–100, 118, 182, 286, 287, 295, 322

Donellus, Hugo see Doneau, Hugues

Double Indemnity 227

dowry 36

draftsman

Parliamentary 98

Drake, Joseph 183

driver 84

unreasonable 243

droit subjectif 100, 182

see also ius; right

dream factory 200

drug-peddler 210

Durgnat, Raymond 199, 200, 201, 207, 210–211, 213–214, 216, 218, 226, 227, 228, 229

duty 87, 109, 126, 234

breach of 157, 158

care (of) 130, 131–132, 193, 235, 241–242, 302, 305, 306, 322

contractual 129

do (to) 126

Hohfeldian 102

non-delegable 113, 217

positive 101

Dworkin, Ronald 4, 5, 7, 12, 63, 82–83, 84, 85, 86, 91, 96–97, 99, 103, 110, 115, 223, 224, 225, 227, 232, 248, 287, 289, 331

Dyson, Lord 111, 257

Dzialo, Christopher 218

école dogmatique 64

economics 81, 170, 187, 281–282, 292, 314, 331

law (and) 81, 110, 141, 187, 281

economist 41

education

advancement of 272

authority (local) 217

hermeneutical 223–224

legal 3, 37, 79–80, 211

see also university

Parliamentary Report (1846) on 80

electricity 93–94, 242, 264

elegantia

juris 199

jurisprudentia 199

element 4, 7, 11, 20, 38, 54, 137, 146, 164, 173, 186, 192, 193, 239, 243, 265, 270, 306, 328

abstract 175, 261

causal 177, 190

cause of action (of) 111

dishonesty 293

factual 147, 165, 321

fundamental 37

Hedley Byrne (of) 130

institutional 174, 222, 231, 255, 321

see also person (thing and action)

legal 119, 292

property (of) 40

public benefit 272

public policy 309

reasoning 264

right (of) 71

Roman law (of) 62

structural 275

see also factor

elephant 246

Ellul, Jacques 49

emendatio 59

see also Cujas, Jacques

emergency 112

emotional state 242

emperor

Christian 17

Holy Roman 16, 28

Roman 28

employment 138

reference 131

Enlightenment 265

enquiry see inquiry

entitlement

debt 313

legal 290, 299

procedural 306

right 326

see also right

entity

state 150

town as 55

environment 158, 275, 291, 304, 320

epistemologist 3, 201, 273, 284, 328

see also Blanché, Vaihinger

epistemology 1, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10–11, 13, 17, 21, 28, 53, 54, 63, 70, 72, 88, 95, 125, 135, 136, 181, 184, 186, 201, 202, 210, 222, 223, 225, 228, 231–233, 234, 260, 261, 262, 264, 271, 273, 284, 289, 292, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332

attitude (as) 8, 10

legal 5, 331

see also as if; knowledge; method; methodology; obstacle; paradigm; schemes of intelligibility; theory

episyllogism see syllogism

equality 151

equity 27, 193

see also injunction; specific performance

error see mistake

ethics 270–271

see also morality

European Convention of Human Rights 305, 323–324

European Court of Human Rights 305, 324

event

causative 124–125, 134, 244, 249, 250

horse riding 166, 179

evidence 166, 179, 257

epidemiological 111, 257

social science 243

ex facto ius oritur 18, 24, 62, 74, 131, 147, 192, 225

ex iure factum oritur 135, 160

ex iure utilitas oritur 312

ex obligatio ius oritur 62

exceptio 46

doli 16

donationis 16

exegesis 18

expectation 101, 168–169

audience 247

client 193

legitimate 149, 182, 303, 310

patient 168–169, 193

expert 144, 199

explanation 3, 177, 189, 190–196, 278

see also understanding

expressionism 226

fact 49, 83, 84, 115, 116, 121, 135, 143–167, 168, 174, 201, 213, 250, 291, 325–326, 327–328, 331

actual 136, 160–163, 166–167

baffling 116

bare 145

behavioural 278

biological 278

brute 243

categorisation of 50, 111, 129, 149, 160, 192

complexity of 136

construction of 84, 190, 294

creating 154, 190

detail (level of) 149, 150

épuration of 161

explaining 170

formalised 321

hypothetical 140

image 194

interpretation of 83, 163

interrogation of 178

see also realism

known 161

law (and) 76, 120, 143, 166–167, 294, 306, 321, 331

legal 237

manipulating 170, 190–196, 243

material 92–94, 144, 238, 240–241

mathematical 278

medical 278

neutral 145, 243, 277

normative force of 182

normativity (and) 277, 328

observation (level of) 157, 237

perception of 166, 179

pre-qualification of 243

primary 179

probability 257

proof of 155–158

purified 243

question of 154, 291

reasoning (about) 269

reconstruction of 195

relevant 84

representation of 145, 173

risk (and) 159

schematic 160

selection of 161

sensitive 132

situation 45–46, 112

social 234, 260, 285, 298, 302

sociological 298

statistics (and) 162–163

theorising 166–167

unknown 161

variation of 225

viewing context 165

virtual 136, 160–163, 166–167, 190, 192, 255

factor 18, 85, 98, 106, 117, 132, 153, 165, 167, 179, 193, 199, 209, 239–240, 262, 265, 270, 280, 282

causal 189, 250

common 9, 266

educational 280

empirical 138

epistemological 17

interest 305

political 280

probability 163

psychological 173

religious 280

risk 150

social 280, 289

faculty

absence (of) 79

law 211, 323

medical 175

fairness 159

see also justice; law

fairy tale 233

falsification 171, 181, 192, 256

see also Popper, Karl

family 108, 163, 244, 276, 295, 305, 308

fantasy 201

see also Brexit

fault 53, 54, 65, 74, 75, 87, 146, 150, 166, 167, 172, 174, 175, 176, 192, 235, 278

see also carelessness; culpa; negligence

feedback 219

female

bullying of 207–208

film star see Novak, Kim

feminist legal studies 207

see also jurisprudence; theory

feudal law 24

feudalism 24, 27

fiction 157–158, 166, 206, 228, 229–257, 330

legal 51–52, 229–257

theory 10, 11, 116, 229–257

Fielding, Henry 210

film

analyst 198

critic see critic

horror 215

see also Corman, Roger; Cronenberg, David; Hitchcock, Alfred; Leone, Sergio; Von Sternberg, Josef

noir 216

stars see Novak, Kim; Stewart, James

studies 197–228, 329, 330

theorist see Aumont, Jacques; Carroll, Noël; Durgnat, Raymond; Marie, Michel; Staiger, Janet; Wood, Robin

fire 30, 35, 36, 161–162, 165, 178, 235, 245

fit 96

see also Dworkin, Ronald

Fitzgerald, Patrick 102

flat-world 212

Flightplan 227

flock 40

flood 246–247, 283

Forbidden Planet 210

force majeure 237

foreseeability 35, 45, 109, 180, 236, 237

formalism 3, 74, 79–81, 121, 182, 188, 328, 331

rights (and) see model (rights)

formalist 280, 328

forms of action 46–47, 75, 76, 78, 79, 79, 80, 112, 122, 128, 150

abolition of 141

formula 214

forteresse de mots 28

Fortescue, Justice, 77

Foucault, Michel 264

framework 1, 10–11, 329

diachronic see approach

epistemological 10

synchronic see approach

see also approach; theory

Frank, Jerome 208–209, 280

fraud see deceit; dolus

freedom

expression (of) 105, 319, 324

Hohfeld 102

information (of) 320

press (of) 103, 104

speech (of) 104

freeman 39

Freud, Sigmund 188, 208

fruit 40

Führer 281

Fuller, Lon 230

function and functionalism 6, 74, 79, 82, 97, 109, 141, 163, 188, 226, 228, 242, 278, 326, 331

judicial 186–188

social 85

see also method; schemes of intelligibility

gain 278

see also benefit

Gaius 34, 37, 47, 48, 55, 124, 156, 200, 231, 327

game

computer 190

cricket see cricket

Geiteswissenschaften 275

gender 280

see also female

generality

level of 83

generation

future 108, 320

genre 224

see also film

genus and species 15, 21, 29, 37, 43, 75–76, 118, 146, 180, 264

geometry 61, 62

moral 270

see also mos

gift 16, 254

ginger-beer 238, 241, 245

Gloss (the) 15, 22

Glossae ordinariae 15

glosses 15, 24, 25, 58, 59

Glossators 14–21, 22, 25, 26, 30, 68, 72, 85, 120

goal

economic 109, 110

empirical 187

social 109

see also economics; function; purpose

God 17, 28

see also act

Goff, Robert and Lord 6, 80, 130, 262–263

Gold, Steven 257

good faith 40, 49, 308, 317

goods 65, 146, 313

intangible 313

interference with 131

Gordley, James 8, 9, 12, 13, 19, 30, 31, 33, 41, 43–44, 53, 55, 58, 60, 61, 70, 73, 74, 75, 77, 79, 81, 84, 86

Gospel 31

Gothofredus, Jacobus 90

Granger, Gilles-Gaston 136, 160, 173, 175, 177, 261–262

Gray, Kevin 287, 301

Gray, Susan 287, 301

Greene, Lord 164

grille de lecture 202

group 108

fragmented 108, 292

interest 297–298

Grundrechtkolision 103

guesswork 110

guilt 207

Hale, Lady and Baroness 108, 159, 162, 193, 194, 195, 227, 318

Hallett, Lord Justice 198

Halsbury, Lord 138

Hammer Films 215

Hammond, Justice 102

harassment 113

Hardy, Thomas 210

harm 291, 312, 313

intangible 313

see also damage; loss

Hart, Herbert 91

Hedley, Steve 287

Heineccius, Joham Gottlieb 61, 64, 287, 288–289

Helmore, Tom 203

Henrici de Cocceji 65

Hepworth, Cecil 201

Hercules 248

see also Dworkin, Ronald

hermeneutics 6, 25, 26, 27, 56, 63–64, 67, 68, 69, 74, 82, 85, 96, 161, 163, 182, 184, 187, 188–189, 214, 215, 216, 223, 240, 248

see also interpretation; schemes of intelligibility

heuristics 218

highway 268, 302, 311

Hillsborough 296

hire 36, 39, 48, 64, 146

historian 4, 59

see also Baker, John (Sir); Gordley, James; Lobban, Michael; Maclean, Ian; Van Caenegem, Raoul

historiography 170

history 9, 12–86, 170

legal 132, 281, 331

legal thought (of), 12–86

see also humanists

History of Violence 216

Hitchcock, Alfred 202–207, 209, 213

Hobbes, Thomas 29

Hobhouse, Lord 154–155, 283, 318

Hoffmann, Lord Justice and Lord 104, 157, 247, 283

Hohfeld, Wesley Newcomb 101–102, 103, 287

holism 74, 164, 190

individualism (versus) 190

see also individualism; paradigm

Holmes, Oliver Wendell 188

Holy Roman Empire 16

Hope, Lord 91, 192–193

hospital 139, 151–152, 217–218, 235

householder 106, 150, 252, 300

Hugo 14

see also Glossators

human see person

human rights

European Convention 103

Universal Declaration 108

see also rights (human)

humanism 59, 70, 323

humanists 23, 57–60, 70, 72, 75, 76, 79, 88, 90

humanities 11, 168, 222, 223, 282, 284

hunches 208

see also Frank, Jerome

hypothesis 177, 181, 183

idea 66

economic 103

philosophical 66, 103

political 66, 103

social 66, 103

idealism 97

normative 278

idealist 280

ideology 167, 201, 234, 327

Ihering see Jhering, Rudolf von

illegality 293

illness 36, 125, 160, 173, 176, 177, 181, 183, 189, 279

illusion 60, 182, 205, 243

image 94, 133, 144, 145, 153, 154, 194, 202, 211–213, 214, 217, 228, 242, 246, 247, 248, 255, 256, 265, 269, 271, 329

immunity

Hohfeldian 102

imperium 42, 49, 300, 301

in causa ius esse positum 19, 43, 50, 172, 177

in personam see action; right

in rem see action; right

index 140, 256

individualism 73–74, 164

holism (versus) 190

methodological 182

selfish 308

see also holism

inducing breach of contract 131

induction 3, 19, 31, 36, 43, 53, 54, 93, 116, 179–181, 238, 241, 242, 243, 264, 265, 266, 280, 322, 330

inference 62, 138, 164, 181, 199, 238–241, 243, 256, 257, 287,

information 123, 130, 144, 162, 178, 212, 219, 261, 264, 265, 319

confidential 319

environmental 320

freedom of 320, 324

government 319

loss of 133, 212

medical 181

inheritance 146

injunction 106, 113, 127, 128, 274, 290, 300, 311

injuria 34, 46

injury

consequential 79

direct 109

fatal 302

indirect 109

personal 139, 162, 193, 227, 279

insolvency 159

Institutes 138, 174, 252

Gaius 55, 60, 145, 249, 293

Justinian 17, 33, 42, 60, 90, 117–118, 185, 249, 293

system see person (things and actions); system

institution 37, 87, 167, 174, 331

institutiones see Institutes

instrumentalism see function

insult 48, 147

insurance 141, 155, 159, 188, 246–247, 283

integrity 82–83

bodily 66, 312

see also Dworkin, Ronald

intellectus 26, 86, 160, 192, 265

intention 26, 98, 146, 189, 215, 247

kill (to) 189

interdisciplinarity 6, 59, 81

interesse see interest

Interessenjurisprudenz 73

interest 36, 38, 73–74, 82, 87, 100, 104, 105, 108, 113, 115, 129, 130, 131, 132, 136, 146, 167, 174, 187, 231, 234, 235, 260, 277, 278, 281, 285–328, 330–331

agriculture 298

animal's 297

balancing of 322

best 109, 235, 293, 295, 296, 305

bodily 291

businesses' 298, 318

child's 109, 297, 305

class 322

client's 196, 243

commercial 301, 304, 308, 311, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 328

common 308

community 187, 292

company's 308, 321

competing 234

competition 290

confidentiality 323

conflicting 106, 187, 305, 312, 319

concept (as formal) 321, 325

consumer 292, 304, 321

contractual 289

damages (and) 312–313

definition of 286, 289–291, 328

diffuse 297

economic 132, 320, 328

employees' 298

employers' 298

environmental 320

equitable 290

expectation 310, 328

facts (and) 325–326

financial 291

health 319

individual 104

industry 298

invaded 139

justice (of) 317, 318, 324

land (in) 290

legitimate 101, 108, 295, 302, 303, 306, 307–308, 309, 310–311, 312, 314, 315–316, 326

local government 298

local inhabitants' 298

mental health 291

parent's 297, 300

patrimonial 295

possessory 299

private 276, 293, 304, 318, 328

property 289, 291, 298–299, 310, 320

public 96, 104, 106, 108, 109, 192, 244, 276, 289–290, 290–291, 293, 301, 302, 305, 317, 318, 319, 320, 324, 328

reliance 328

reputation 131

restitution 328

sectional 108, 317–320

self- 73, 107

shareholder's 308, 321

simple 296

social 73–74, 81, 100, 182, 187, 192, 234, 289

subversive influence of 321

sufficient 303

teachers' 298

theory 11

see also Ost, François

interpolation 58, 59

interpretatio 43, 49, 59, 67, 88, 95, 97, 115

declarativa 26

facti 48, 49

restrictiva 26

interpretation 26–27, 38, 49, 57, 68, 95–98, 182, 192, 215, 221, 222–227, 258, 278

ad literam 26

ad sensum 26

author (and) 189

canons of 98, 99

contracts (of) see contract

Dworkin and see Dworkin, Ronald

extensive 26

fiction (and) 246–248

hermeneutics (and) see hermeneutics

law as 98

see also Dworkin, Ronald

legal 183–184

liberal 26, 69

literal 26, 67, 68

literary 218–220

method of 14, 99, 222

presumptions 98

realism and see realism

restrictive 26

rules (of) 67

statutory 51, 97, 98, 97, 98, 106, 222, 332

strict 69

symptom 183

see also approach; hermeneutics; legislation; meaning; word

interpretativist 198

see also Dworkin, Ronald

intervention

necessitous 52

introspection

childish 209

see also Frank, Jerome

intuition 221, 267, 269

invitation to treat 254

invitee 150

Ipcress File (The) 227

Irnerius 14, 15

isomorph 190, 264

ius 27, 29, 38, 39, 41, 48, 49, 53, 65, 67, 76, 88, 99, 100, 111, 115, 146, 147, 287, 290

actionis 38

ambiguity of 100

antiquum 28

civile 39

commune 15, 20, 24–25, 28, 31

gentium 39, 40, 49

Glosae 67

in causa 19, 172, 177

in re aliena 55, 147

naturale 4, 27, 28, 39, 40, 49, 63, 115

nostrum 66, 67, 99

obligationis 38, 99

personarum 294

possessionis 38

proprium 21, 24–25, 27, 63

publicum 42

suum cuique tribuendi 41

Ivainer, Théodore 161, 162

Jacobus 14

Jacobus de Ravanis 22

Jamin, Christophe 69

Jauss, Hans Robert 218

Jaws 247

Jestaz, Philippe 69

Jhering, Rudolf von 73, 107, 139, 285, 293, 330

Johnny Guitar 216

Jolowicz, Herbert Felix 50

Jones, Gareth 6

Jones, John Walter 13, 41, 70, 116, 229, 230, 281

Jonsen, Albert 54, 173, 176, 270–271

see also Toulmin, Stephen

journal

film 210

law 208

judge 68, 96, 120, 122, 144, 148, 200, 255–256, 259

author (as) 97

see also Dworkin, Ronald

civilian 186

college of 40

conflicts between 283

French 161

hunches (and) 208

see also Frank, Jerome; hunches

intention of 190

jurist (and) 122

personality of 209

politics (and) 198

psychology of 210

reader (as) 221

role of 225

see also Dworkin, Ronald

superhuman 248

see also Dworkin, Ronald; Hercules

trial 179, 280

judging

refusal 68

judgment

empirical 259

moral 259

political 318

see also decision

judicial review 293, 303, 310

judiciary see judge

Julian (Julianus), Salvius 47

jurisdictio 28

jurisdiction 28

jurisprudence

English 5

feminist see feminist legal studies; theory (feminist)

French 69

historical 4

see also Dworkin, Ronald; Hohfeld, Wesley Newcomb; theory

jurist 255–256, 259

Belgian see Ost, François; Van Caenegem, Raoul; Van Hoecke, Mark

civilian see Baldus de Ubaldis; Bartolus de Saxoferrato; Bergel, Jean-Louis; Cujas, Jacques; Gordley, James; Heineccius, Joham Gottlieb; Jhering, Rudolf von; Mathieu, Marie-Laure; Ost, François; Van Caenegem, Raoul; Van Hoecke, Mark

common law see Baker, John (Sir); Birks, Peter: Dworkin, Ronald; Gordley, James; Lobban, Michael; Llewellyn, Karl; Waddams, Stephen

Enlightenment 96

foreign 142

French 120, 209–210, 211

see also Bergel, Jean-Louis; Cujas, Jacques; Champeil-Desplats, Véronique

German see Heineccius, Joham Gottlieb; Jhering, Rudolf von; Pandectists

Italian 12

see also Baldus de Ubaldis; Bartolus de Saxoferrato; Glossators; Post-Glossators

judge (and) 122

medieval 12–32, 33, 46, 50, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 69, 84, 88, 96, 113, 180, 260, 271

see also Baldus de Ubaldis; Bartolus de Saxoferrato; Glossators; Post-Glossators

modern 115

professional 43

psychology of 222

role of 262–263

Roman 33–56, 59, 60, 62, 69, 115–116, 122, 143, 225, 271

see also Roman law; Ulpian, Domitius

see also civil law (tradition); judge; lawyer

jury 75, 76, 120, 143, 144, 148, 153, 221, 266, 280

jus see ius

justice 28, 41, 91, 135, 158, 193, 291

administration of 290, 305

anthropomorphic conception of 236, 237

corrective 293

miscarriage of 266

practical 194

Justinian 13, 17, 18, 20, 33, 66, 249

justitia 28, 29

Kahn-Freund, Otto (Sir) 281

Keith, Lord 129–130, 131

Kelley, Donald 9, 10, 27, 28, 68

Kerr, Lord 111

Knife in the Water 227

knowledge

legal 43, 53, 192, 292, 331–332

medical 181

non-symbolic 94, 145, 228, 265, 267

ordinary 165

representation 132–134, 211–218, 251–255

see also fiction; Vaihinger, Hans

rule-based 89–95

see also regula; rule

scholarly 165

social science see science (social)

symbolic 133, 265

theory of 232

see also epistemology; fiction

Kuhn, Thomas 4, 5, 6

land 146, 216, 307–308, 312

non-natural user 283

owner 308

landscape 215, 216

see also map

Lane, Geoffrey, Lord Justice 273–274, 277

language

ambiguity of 63, 94, 95, 100, 280

deeming (of) 188

descriptive 154

fiction and 246

film writers (of) 224

Greek 21

jurist (of the) 86

law (of the) 86, 174, 183

legal 8, 9, 10, 23, 102, 115, 122, 200, 202, 211

logic (of) 270

natural 67

negotiation (of) 324

ordinary use of 154, 155

popular 114

symbolic 242

theory of 58

two-dimensional 212

Lasser, Mitchel 9, 240, 329–330

law

actions (of) 77, 303, 310, 313

see also action

administrative 151

black-letter 121

canon see canon law

categories of 39

charity 272

civil 320

see also civil law (tradition)

classification of see classification; category

coherent whole 59

commercial 142, 320

common see common law (tradition)

company 233

conception of see theory

constitutional 42, 319, 320

continental see civil law (tradition)

contract see contract

criminal 105

definition of see Dworkin, Ronald; jurisprudence; theory

discipline of 42–43

economics (and) 187, 281–282

see also economics

fact (and) see fact

faculty see faculty; university

family 141, 297, 308

feudal see feudal law

foreign 142

French 97, 110, 139, 150–151, 186, 239–241, 294, 295, 302

see also jurist

German 142, 183

see also jurist

hermeneutics (as) see Dworkin, Ronald

insurance 155, 321

international 79

interpretation (as) see Dworkin, Ronald; interpretation

isolation of 42–43

Italian see jurist

justice (and) 41

labour 140, 298

land see land; property

law-maker (and) 331–332

liability see liability

literature (and) see literature

map of see map

meaning of 91

merchant 142

natural 28, 63, 77, 78, 119, 186, 225, 232

obligations (of) 39, 139, 248–251, 287, 295, 298

persons (of) 39, 294

practice of 8

private 20, 42, 103, 124, 133, 140, 212, 213, 244, 248–251, 300, 301, 303, 308, 310, 313, 321

private international 23

procedural 75, 301–302, 321

see also procedure

professional subject 211

property (of) see property

public 20, 23, 42, 140, 212, 244, 300, 301, 303, 310, 319

purpose (as) 183

purpose of 107

quasi criminal 313

quasi-public 301

restitution (of) see restitution

role 42

Roman see Roman law

rule (as) see model

rule of 278

school see university

science (as) 67

science of see science

see also scientia iuris

sociology and see science (social); sociology

source of 210, 311–312

stability of 279

substantive 75, 321

system (as) see system

taxonomy and see taxonomy

teaching of see university

theory of see theory

things (of) 39

see also goods; property; thing

see also ius

tort see tort

trusts (of) see trust

unclear 195

Law of Restitution (Goff and Jones) 6

Laws, Lord Justice 217

Lawton, Lord Justice 246

lawyer

academic 208, 209, 262–263

see also jurist

administrative 303

American 74

see also Dworkin, Ronadl; Frank, Jerome; Llewellyn, Karl

comparative 110, 292

civil 14–86, 314

common law 74–84, 84, 145, 256

French 72

German 70–73

medieval 14–32

natural 23, 70, 72

professional 85

see also jurist; university

layout 213

lease 43

lectura 15

legal

culture see culture

epistemology see epistemology

fiction see fiction

formalism see formalism

method see method

norm see norm

object see res

person see person; persona; personality

personality see personality

philosophy see philosophy

see also Dworkin, Ronald

positivism see positivism

procedure see procedure

rule see rule

theorist see theory

see also Dworkin, Ronald

theory see theory

legislation 49, 51, 219, 221, 222

interpretation of 51, 97

see also statute

style of 219–221

see also interpretation; statute; words

legislator 27, 200, 255

intention of 27

will of 67, 69

will of the people (and) 69

legitimisation 327

Leibniz, Wilhelm 61, 62, 182

Leone, Sergio 215, 216

Levi, Edward 259

lex 29

regia 42

Lex Aquilia 34, 45, 46, 50

liability 290

accident (for) 139

see also damages; harm; injury; loss

culpa 177

forced 251

ex delicto 122

see also delict; tort

fault 9

no-fault 9

school (of) see school

strict 9, 131, 150, 166, 177

libel see defamation

libellus 148

liberty 310, 312

Libri legales 13

Lindley Lord Justice 123, 138

literature

film see Carroll, Noël; Durgnat, Raymond; Staiger, Janet; Wood, Robin

legal 117–142, 208–210, 211

litigation 124

Llewellyn, Karl 84, 115, 160, 161

loan 16, 36, 39, 64, 146

Lobban, Michael 77–78, 121, 185, 186

locus standi 303

logic 9, 17, 19, 21, 22, 25, 27, 31, 40, 43, 47, 52, 63, 67, 70–73, 90, 92, 94, 101, 118, 132, 133, 134, 138, 157, 182, 184, 191, 193, 194, 237, 242, 243, 257, 259, 261, 266, 279, 314

German law 70–73

Greek see Aristotle

Roman law 47–49

syllogistic see syllogism

see also deduction; syllogism

logica nova 17, 19, 85

loi 65

du 5 juillet 1985 139

log 77, 79

loss 65, 136, 278, 283

chance (of a) 155–159, 192–193

economic 81, 192, 234

Lucas de Penna 26

lucerna iuris 14

MacCormick, Neil 83, 91, 187, 267, 269

Maclean, Ian 6, 29, 32, 57, 58

Macmillan, Lord 126

Maitland, Frederick 113

malice 129, 130, 172, 310

malicious falsehood 130

malum delictum 147

man

ordinary 246

reasonable 236

underground (on the) 195, 220, 221

mandate 52

manipulation see fact

Mann, Thomas 210

manuel 119, 121

map 116, 123, 127, 131–132, 133, 213, 252, 327

territory (and) 251–255

Marcellus, Ulpius 39

Marie, Michel 201

marketing 290–291

marriage 302

Martinus 14

Marxism 262, 281

Masquelet, Alain 168–170, 175–176, 178–179, 180, 181, 189, 193, 195

mathematics 4, 7, 62, 72–73, 115, 132, 133, 169, 182, 183, 261

Mathieu, Marie-Laure 202, 211–213, 251–252, 255, 264

Maugham, Viscount 137

maxim (legal) 224

see also regula iuris

Maxwell, N 257

McHugh, Justice 94–95

meaning see hermeneutics; interpretation, Staiger, Janet

mechanic 168

medical

check-up 152

condition 172, 177

diagnosis 54

evidence 157

fact 278, 279

knowledge 175, 176, 181, 192

opinion 296

reasoning 168–196

see also reasoning

record 323

scheme 279

science 173, 180–181

test 177

textbook 169

medicine 169, 181, 196

learning of 175

practice of 176

practitioner of 195

teaching of 175

mens 26, 27

contractoris 247

legislatoris 27, 96, 97, 106, 219, 247

rea 189–190

mental distress see damage

mentalité 183

mentality 250

legal 9

stovepipe 123, 124

mesothelioma see cancer

message 215, 216

metaphor 3, 115, 144, 153, 154, 167, 202, 212, 227, 255

metaphysics 63

method 17, 43, 70

actional see scheme of intelligibility

analysis (of) 14

analytical 241

casuistic see casuistry

causal see scheme of intelligibility

common law see Lobban, Michael; Waddams, Stephen

complacent 69

deductive 241

see also deduction

dialectical see dialectic; scheme of intelligibility

dogmatic 63

empirical 279

exegetes 68

functional 6

see also functionalism; scheme of intelligibility

Glossators (of) 16

grammatical 59

hermeneutical see hermeneutics; scheme of intelligibility

historical 57–60

humanists (of) see humanists

inductive 241

see also induction

innovative 61

interpretation see interpretation

legal 18, 57, 63, 86, 87, 228, 331

mathematical 67

see also mos

Post-Glossators (of) 24–27

Roman 48, 52–56

scholastic see scholastic

scientific 71

social science 189

structural see scheme of intelligibility, structuralism

text (and) 72

universalisation see universalisation

unscientific 80

validation of see Popper, Karl

see also methodology; reasoning; schemes of intelligibility; system

methodology 6, 8, 24–27, 49, 201

duty of care (and) 241–242

individualism (of) see individualism

see also method; paradigm; schemes of intelligibility

Miers, David 259

Millet, Lord Justice 295, 297

Milton, John 210

mind 173, 183, 207, 214, 231

analogy (and) 178, 265

guilty see mens rea

judge (of the) 78, 186

legal 206

see also attitude; Dworkin, Ronald; Post-Glossators

legislator (of) 27

ordinary person (of) 247

psychological state of 207, 208

reality and 255

right-holder (of the) 100

state of 215, 216

misinformation 154

misrepresentation 164, 220, 253

misstatement 220

negligent 129–131

mistake 16

contractual 9, 16, 237, 239

fact 48

law 48

mistranslations 59

reference 131

self-defence 105

textual 59

window-cleaner 251–252

model 114, 136, 145, 168, 173, 175, 177, 182, 214, 218, 237, 254, 256, 261–262, 265, 272, 278, 279

abstract 101, 261–262, 272

analogy (and) 265

anti- 211

epistemological 233

see also epistemology; schemes of intelligibility

feudal see feudalism

French 211

functional see function

Gaian see Gaius, Institutes; person (things and actions)

institutional 55, 174, 298

see also Institutes; person (things and actions); system

interest 100, 105–109, 131, 132, 281, 328

see also interest

interpretation 95–99

see also interpretation

Hohfeldian see Hohfeld, Wesley Newcomb

legal 114–116

literary 218

mathematical 174, 262, 279

natural 260

policy 109–111, 129, 186, 281

see also policy

political 24

prototype 133

rationalist 122

reality and see Granger, Gilles-Gaston

reasoning 131, 132

remedies 111–114, 128, 141, 146

see also remedy

rights 99–105, 111, 124, 182, 287

see also rights

rule 89–95, 103, 117, 127, 128, 131, 144, 182, 225, 228, 259–260, 267, 269, 272, 277, 283

schematic 173

scientific 261

structural 175

three-dimensional 293

modi arguendi in iure 17, 271

Modleski, Tania 206

modulus 173

money 146, 314

see also damages; debt; value

monism 63

morality 55, 270, 289

mos

Gallicus 58, 60

geometricus 61, 62, 67, 70, 74, 84, 118, 169, 185, 287, 288

Italicus 23, 57, 58, 60, 67

mathematicus 61

motive 189, 310

practical 107

see also behaviour

mountaineer 152

see also causation

mule 50, 171–172, 175

driver 35, 172, 175, 176, 178

murder 189, 244, 312

Murray, Justice 98

music 214, 300

myth 247, 267, 288

Napoléon 68

narrative 163–166, 196, 197, 214, 228

National Health Service 217

Naturrecht 183

necklace 203, 204

negligence 34, 79, 105, 110, 112, 114, 128, 129–131, 138, 151, 157, 159, 172, 178, 193, 194, 217, 234, 238, 268, 274

see also carelessness; culpa; fault; duty; tort

negotiability 142

neighbour 127, 150, 251, 307

nemo jurista nisi Bartolista 23

Neratius, Priscus 48

network

causal 189, 192

facts (of) 192

Neuberger, Lord 315–317

Nicholls, Lord 113, 184, 304

Niglia, Leone 222

Nolan, Donal 223

nomen

intellectuale 233, 238

iuris 233, 238

nomina 65

nominalism 65–67

non-coherence see coherence

non haec in foedera veni 236

non licet allegare 18

norm 62, 72, 73, 91

see also rule

notion

quasi-descriptive 174

see also concept

Nova Methodus 61

Novak, Kim 203–207, 214

novel

chain 82–83, 97, 225, 227, 232, 248

literary see Durgnat, Raymon; Staiger, Janet

novus actus interveniens 153, 154

nuisance 106, 108, 122, 260, 318

private 112, 149, 274

public 112, 268–269

nurse 217–218

object

external 244

inert 172

legal 291

obligatio 38, 49

mandati 38

quasi ex contractu 138

obligation 16, 38, 53, 55, 91, 124, 147, 167, 174, 212, 295, 314, 326

primary 315–316

secondary 315

obligations (law of) see law

obscenity 220–221

observation

level of 2, 157, 163, 237

obstacle

epistemological 4, 5

justice (to) 306

understanding (to) 68

occupier 150, 283

offer and acceptance 254

Oliver, Lord 101

omnia in corpore iuris inveniuntur 18

Once Upon a Time in the West 216

ontology 11, 244, 259, 260

opinion

aesthetic 200, 226

difference of 137, 141, 217

dissenting 188

expert 199

medical 296

moral 280

practical 24

professional 24

see also consilia

public 85

orality 166

order 17

Digest (of the) 62

intelligible 223, 224

natural 61

systematic 71

see also system

ordinary

Englishman 246

householder 156

housewife 246

juror 221

knowledge 165, 230

land (use of) 275

language (use of) 154–155

man 164

meaning 91

person 165, 194, 221, 247

reader 221

reasoning 1, 55, 230, 258, 263, 267, 270, 271, 272

remedies 293

right 103

orientation

deductive 31

see also deduction

empirical 106, 293

epistemological 232, 332

see also epistemology

fictional 236

see also fiction

functional 109, 182, 255

see also function

humanism 57–60

individualistic 42

see also individualism

interest 293, 327

see also interest

paradigm 2, 3, 6, 17, 190, 332

see also paradigm

psychological 209

structural 173

see also structuralism

systems 139

see also system

teaching 331

see also model; schemes of intelligibility; theory

Ormrod, Lord Justice 325

Ost, François 288, 289, 295–296, 308–309, 310, 321–322, 325, 326

owl 250

owner

action by 100

animal 150, 177

building 151, 164, 302

café 245

car 234, 315, 316

car-park 317

entitlement of 326

mule 175

goods (of) 142, 299

interest of 52

land 101, 106, 150, 273, 307, 308, 316

limbs (one's own) 296

property 52

right of 101

ship 112, 137, 152, 269

slave 40, 50, 54, 55, 172, 312

ownership 9, 16, 38, 40, 42, 53, 74, 87, 139, 146, 167, 174, 175, 192, 231, 234, 253, 300, 307, 319

body (of) 296

transfer of 16

see also dominium

pact see pactum

pactum

nudum 46, 50–51

vestitum 46, 51

painting 133, 203, 204, 216, 256

Pandectists 70–73, 84, 182, 288

Pandects see Digest of Justinian

Papinian (Papinianus), Aemilius 47

paradigm 2, 60, 273, 279, 329

authority 2, 17, 56, 95, 97, 114, 198, 199, 210, 211, 219, 222, 225, 228, 263, 279, 280, 281, 284, 329, 330, 332

case 54, 55

enquiry (inquiry) 263, 279, 285, 329, 332

individualistic see individualism

holistic see holism

literary 211

orientation 2, 6, 190

rule-based see model (rule)

park

car- see car

no vehicles in 94, 95

Parliament 159, 309

particularisme 185

partner 144, 302

partnership 36, 37, 39, 64, 146

party 36, 80, 165, 191, 216, 217, 220, 236, 243, 252, 280, 314, 315, 324

commercial 139

contractual 215, 237, 308, 309, 313

guilty 189

innocent 309, 315–316

third 144, 152, 313, 314–315

two 108

see also person

pas d'intérêt, pas d'action 302

passport 292

patent 253

patrimony 296, 313

patient 168, 171

unconscious 295, 296–297

pattern recognition 172, 224

Paulus (Paul), Iulius 44, 49

Paulus de Castro 27

pecudes 34

peculium 54, 212, 250

penalty 309, 315–317

Perelman, Chaïm 9, 84–85, 184, 288

performance 126

contractual 101, 165, 236, 237, 316

specific see specific performance

person 37, 54, 146, 147, 175, 208, 253,

class of 108

corporate 232, 255

fictional 206, 271

see also persona (ficta)

human 296

indigent 266

intangible 55

law of see law

legal see company; corporation; personality

ordinary 194, 220, 221, 246, 247

reasonable 236, 237, 247, 254

thing and action 37, 39, 48, 49, 53, 55, 60, 87, 118, 124, 145–146, 167, 174, 200, 222, 231, 255, 278, 293, 294, 317, 327

see also Gaius; Institutes; Justinian; scheme

thing and obligation 139

unborn 108

see also subject (legal); persona

persona 37, 50, 175, 176, 192, 200, 202, 203, 204, 206, 214, 228, 231, 233, 271, 286, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 301, 303, 306, 312, 318, 320, 322, 327

alieni iuris 39

diffuse 320

ficta 233, 271

repraesentata 271

res et actiones 48, 49, 200, 231, 321, 327, 328

see also persons

sui iuris 39

personality

cinema and 202–207

corporate 271

legal 292, 297

right see law (of persons)

perspective

code 222

different 1

female 280

historical 8, 96, 135

institutional 293

original 119

paradigm 329

reasoning 103

synchronic 87

Petrus de Bellapertica 22

Pfersmann, Otto 143

Phillips, Lord 156, 215, 323–324

philology 58

philosopher 2, 8, 21, 41, 53, 143, 246

Belgian 84

see also Perelman, Chaïm

French 229

see also Bouriau, Christophe

German 229

see also Vaihinger, Hans

Greek 20

legal 7, 82

medieval 20, 31, 65

philosophy 20, 41–42, 87, 214, 224

economic 42

epistemology (and) 8

fiction (and) 229

film writers (and) 224

Greek 185

see also Aristotle

hermeneutics see hermeneutics

judges (and) 78

justice (of) 107

legal 103

materialistic 42

mathematics 8

political 41, 103, 186

real 42

realist 160

social 41

see also epistemology; jurisprudence; theory

phronesis 28

physics 73

physicist 41

picture 277, 329

film 200

see also image; painting; portrait

pigeon 249, 250

plan

cartographical 134

institutional 37, 118, 294

see also Institutes; person (thing and action); system

legal see map

rational 118

tree-like 30

taxonomical 137

see also taxonomy

two-dimensional 137

two-part 30, 203

Plato 98

plea 77, 78, 121

pleading 148, 185

pledge 36

pleural plaques 235

Poe, Edgar Allen 214

poetry 226

police 110, 140

policy 2, 43, 78, 79, 81, 82, 83, 88, 93, 96, 99, 129, 132, 140, 163, 186–187, 242, 281, 289, 306

decision see model (policy)

model 109–111

see also model

principle and 83

public 130, 135, 186, 309

politia 109

politics 14, 24, 82, 96, 198, 331

pollution 108, 112, 127, 268

polysyllogism see syllogism

Pomponius, Sextus 40, 49

Pope Innocent IV 233

pool (swimming) 165, 167, 191, 194, 217, 227

Popper, Karl 171, 181

see also falsification; test

populus 28, 29, 42, 320

Portalis, Jean Étienne Marie 68

portrait

official 169, 240, 322, 329

unofficial 169, 240, 329

see also Lasser, Mitchel

positivism 3, 5, 13, 63, 225, 232, 259

legal 4, 13, 63, 71

see also jurisprudence; theory

Posner, Richard 81

possessio 29, 38, 49, 147, 175

possession 9, 29, 38, 40, 43, 44, 48, 49, 74, 75, 87, 139, 146, 167, 174, 175, 192, 231, 253, 299

bonæ fide (good faith) 40, 47

house (of a) 44

long 40

malæ fide (bad faith) 47

Post-Glossators (Commentators) 13, 21–32, 33, 46, 57, 58, 68, 72, 88, 89, 99, 118, 147, 191, 271, 331

see also Baldus de Ubaldis; Bartolus de Saxoferrato

potatoes 297

potestas 26, 29, 42, 147

Pothier, Robert Joseph 142

Potter, Justice 113

pouvoir individuel 100

poverty

relief of 272

power 147, 301

individual 100

Hohfeldian 101, 102

see also dominium; imperium; potestas

practitioner 1, 121, 127, 170

approach 185

books 77, 117, 118, 119, 121

classification (and) 127, 128

client (and) 170

medical 176, 195

medicine (of) 195

mentality 123

legal 6, 25, 58, 60, 61, 68

rationalisation of law (and) 126

reasoning (legal) (and) 330

teaching (and) 139

praecepta 31

Praetor's Edict 34, 48, 49, 51

pragmatism 232

precedent 4, 77, 78, 80, 82, 83, 90, 96, 98, 183, 186, 222, 263–264, 269, 270–271

facts (and) 80

prediction 110, 174, 262

prejudice 280

price 64, 65, 163, 164, 239, 245, 252, 309

reasonable 251

princeps 28, 29

principium 19, 22, 24, 25, 26, 31, 46, 56, 89, 90

principle 23, 24, 53, 61, 64, 69, 82, 89, 90, 91, 98, 111, 123, 140, 141, 180, 181, 183, 185, 186, 259, 263

abstract 185

abuse of rights see abuse

axiomatic see axiom; axiomatic

duty of care see duty

Dworkin (and) see Dworkin

equality 151

equitable 309

functionalism see functionalism; scheme of intelligibility

fundamental 89, 98

Hedley Byrne 130

incoherent 259

legal 7

medical 181

moral 267

policy and 83

rule (rather than a) 91, 99

unattractive 259

underlying

unifying 266

universal 181

see also syllogism

privacy 294–295, 312, 319, 323

private law see law

privatisation 244, 301

privilege

Hohfeldian 101, 102

see also Hohfeld, Wesley Newcomb

qualified 129

see also defamation

pro 20, 21

utilitate communi 47

see also contra

profit 48, 135, 304, 313

disbursement 135

employer's 159

private 301

wrongful 134, 135, 304

probability

balance of 111, 156, 163, 165, 166, 193, 245, 257

objective 223

epistemological 223

procedure 30, 66

Chancery 76

common law 120

formal 32

French 89, 149, 302

legal 66, 75, 245, 321, 325, 326

process

abstraction 160

analogical 270

see also analogy

analytical 241

argumentation 193

checking 72

classification 127

communicative 219

complex 133, 232

decision-making 239, 242

deductive 239

see also deduction

dialectical 96

see also dialectics

evaluation 155

formal 281

harsh interrogation 191

hermeneutical 27, 82

see also hermeneutics

historical 214, 273

inductive 241

see also induction

inferential 93

intellectual 11, 278

interpretative 72, 94, 192

judging 209

judicial 98, 208, 232

justification 84

legal 106, 186, 332

literary 82

logical 239

see also logic

mechanical 242

mental 264, 191

methodological 127

see also method

political 82

see also politics

oral 166

rational 170

reasoning 1, 28, 32, 63, 77, 92, 112, 136, 191, 193, 211, 232, 242, 267, 295, 312, 327, 330

see also reasoning

social 214

syllogistic 240

see also syllogism

written 166

production

event 250

film 211

literature 232, 248

textbook 117

profession 8

legal 120, 122

professor

law 117, 119, 120

see also teacher

promise 16, 138, 165, 236, 237, 249, 253, 314

proof

burden of 111, 138, 161–162, 193

causation (of) see causation

geometrical 62

probability (balance of) see probability

standard of 111

prop 200, 215

property 39, 87, 124, 135, 136, 137, 147, 174, 212, 244, 253, 294, 295, 298–299, 313, 314, 320, 326

incorporeal 271

intangible see thing

intellectual 231

personal 76

physical 40

real 290, 299, 308

see also dominium; goods; land; owner; ownership; proprietas; thing

proposition 7, 50, 62, 71, 82, 83, 95, 148, 164, 188, 241, 265

legal 61, 143, 277

knowledge 265

linguistic 265

mathematical 72

normative 35, 137, 221, 260, 332

proprietas 20

see also dominium; ownership

prototype 242

proximity 235

pruner 35, 44–45, 179–180, 235

psychology 170, 209, 211, 222, 331

social 280

Puchta, Georg 70, 71, 183

public

authority 324

general 210, 319

interest see interest

law see law

private (versus) 20

puff (mere) 253

purchaser

car (of a) 234

bona fide 234

land (of) 164

petrol (of) 253

purpose

economic 109

law (of) 107

political 109

social 109

quaestio 15, 17, 20, 21, 32, 51, 144

de facto 17

disputata 20, 21, 32

qualification 149, 192

quality

rules 91

satisfactory 144

quantum meruit 141, 250, 251

quasi 55, 249–251

ex filio natus 52

categories 249

contract 39, 52, 55, 138, 140, 249–251

delict 39, 52, 138, 249

normative 300

see also as if; fiction

question

asking the right one 126, 253

college (nature of) 40

epistemological see epistemology

fact (of) 76, 143, 144, 148, 154, 159, 176, 291

form or function 188

Kelly (the) 10

law (of) 30, 76, 143, 148, 154, 176, 303

medieval method 15, 51

see also quaestio

paradigm 279–284

property (nature of) 40

slavery 40

quid enim si 45

quo vadis 86

quod nostrum est 286

quod principi placuit 23

racism 209

Radcliffe, Lord 236–237

railway 301

rape 312

rapport 186, 240

ratio 25, 26, 27, 29, 47, 67

aequitatis 27

decidendi

est anima legis 22

iuris 115

legis 27, 96, 97

naturalis 27

recta 63

scripta 22, 25

rationalist(s) 13, 60–65, 92, 97

rationalisation

law (of) 140

re- 140, 141

rationality 117, 118, 184, 198

see also coherence; science

Rattigan, Terence 247

Rau, Charles 64

Raymond, Chief Justice, 77

reader

activated theory see theory

judge as 221

ordinary 221

passive 219

role of 218–225

response of 218

strong 219

target (as) 221

see also author

reading

close 216

experience 219

facts (of) 97

film (of a) 202, 222

legislation 222

realism 3, 81, 188, 232, 278, 280, 331, 332

American 74, 83, 84, 110, 121

cinema 201, 213, 226

realist 188, 228

American 160, 208, 211

sociological 281

see also realism

reality 205, 206, 214, 215, 223, 234, 254, 255–257, 265

complexity of 250

empirical 175, 243

invisible 214, 215, 216, 218

knowledge of see epistemology; schemes of intelligibility

representation of 202

social 25, 44, 49, 74, 85, 124, 147, 170, 174, 231, 234, 256, 294, 306, 327

vision of 223

reason 66, 67

natural 27, 70

practical 39, 296

reasonable 277

behaviour 144, 275

business person 247

care 130, 322

see also duty; negligence

contractual clause 282

force 105

parent 218

person 236–237, 247, 275, 276

pool 165, 167

price 251

reasonableness 101, 144, 153, 164, 165, 167, 220, 310, 322

landowner (of) 101, 164–165, 310

see also reasonable

reasoning 31, 32, 37, 39, 198, 318, 325

abstract 119

analogical see analogy

authority (and) 39

axiomatic 3, 70–74, 270

see also axiom; axiomatic; Heineccius, Joham Gottlieb; mathematics

binary 212–213

books (and) 140

bottom-up 9, 28, 322

codification and 67–70

conceptual 70–73

casuistic see casuistry

causal see cause; method; schemes of intelligibility

circular 311

civil law see civil law (tradition)

complexity of 1–2, 83, 232

conceptual 64

deductive see deduction

definition 1

demystified 258–284

dialectical see dialectics; method; schemes of intelligibility

empirical 258, 260, 263, 272

external to law 78

facts (and) see fact

film 198

formalist 188

see also formalism

functional see function; method; schemes of intelligibility

hermeneutic see hermeneutics; method; schemes of intelligibility

history (of legal) 2, 12–86

Hohfeldian see Hohfeld

inductive 36

inferential see inference; logic

internal to law 78

interpretative see interpretation

judicial 111

legal 1, 3, 7, 13, 18, 24, 41, 57, 74, 83, 85, 87, 96–97, 107, 109, 115, 117, 118, 122, 126, 129, 133, 134, 140, 141, 170, 174, 186, 190, 195, 208, 210, 212, 216, 222, 230, 231, 232, 233–235, 238–241, 243, 248, 255–257, 258–284, 287, 292, 301, 307, 311, 326, 327–328, 330, 331

see also analogy; deduction, induction; realism; schemes of intelligibility; syllogism

logical see logic

medical 54, 168–196

medieval 185

see also Baldus de Ubaldis; Bartolus de Saxoferrato; Glossators; Post-Glossators

method 24

see also method

moral 258, 263

ordinary 1, 258, 267, 272

outside law 78

particularisme 85

policy see policy

practical 39

remedies (and) 111–114

right 63

Roman legal see Roman law

scheme see schemes of intelligibility

scholastic 271

scientific 3, 28, 170, 265, 270

social scientific 3

sources of 186

structural see method; schemes of intelligibility; structuralism; structure

subtle 47–48

syllogistic see syllogism

see also deduction; logic

technique 13

top-down 9, 28, 240

reception

theory see audience; theory

reductionism 264, 265

referee 76

reference

Parliamentary material (to),

written 128–129, 130, 131

regula iuris 18, 26, 31, 45, 53, 56, 67, 76, 80, 88, 89, 90, 94, 99, 115, 119, 180, 224, 271

rei vindicatio 100

Reid, Lord 309, 324

relation 264

contractual see contract

extension of 268

see also analogy

legal 102, 146, 271

normative 101

proximate 109

subject-object 293

reliance 130

religion 55

advancement of 272

remedy 3, 31, 50, 77, 79, 106, 111–114, 124, 126, 127, 128, 141, 146, 291, 292, 293, 299, 301, 303, 306, 310, 312, 313, 318, 324, 325

discovery (of) 324

equitable 300

in personam 147, 300

in rem 147, 300

off-the-peg 150

personal see action

proprietary see action

see also actio; action; damages; debt; injunction; model; specific performance

remoteness (of damage) 109

Renaissance 12

Renner, Karl 281

report see Commissioners, Her Majesty's

representation

graphic 212

law (of) 211–213

mental 211–213

theory see theory

reputation 127, 129, 130, 146, 312

res 37, 43, 55, 86, 126, 147, 150, 151, 160, 175, 176, 192, 203, 214, 216, 228, 265, 269, 286, 291, 293, 298, 300, 301, 321, 327

corporalis 37

incorporalis 38, 54, 55, 156, 231, 233, 313, 314, 318

see also thing

rescuer 154

research

AI 272

definitions (legal) 287

empirical 110

historical 59

interdisciplinary 6

medical 176

method 6

norm 72

scientific 3, 125, 168, 282

social science 110, 121, 332, 242

Research Assessment Exercise 121

réseau causal 192

resonance 218, 226, 228

responsibility 153, 155, 172, 173

civil see liability

restaurant 145

restitution (law of) 123, 140, 141, 248–251

rethinking 10

revolution 13

humanist 6

nominalist 65

scientific 4, 5, 6

Reynolds Justice, 77

rhetoric 42, 51, 100, 167, 213, 285

Ricœur, Paul 83, 183, 184, 190, 192

right 2, 50, 66–67, 74, 76, 82, 87, 88, 91, 99–105, 109, 113, 114, 124, 125, 129, 149, 182, 234, 285–286, 290, 291, 292, 297, 303, 306, 322, 323, 325, 326–327, 330, 328

abuse of 307–309, 310

see also abuse of rights

balancing (rights) 103

bodily integrity 66

children's 108

conflicts between 103, 105

consent (and) 125

constitutional 103

contractual 300, 308, 309, 310, 326

definition 286–287, 323, 325

Dworkin (and) see Dworkin, Ronald

entitlement (as) 326

environmental 320

fundamental 103

highway (to use) 311

honour (to) 66

human 67, 103, 108, 296, 305, 319, 328

see also human rights

in personam 125, 126

in rem 125, 126

information (to) 324

interest theory 323

juristic 71

liberty (to) 66, 101, 102

life (to) 66, 296, 297

light (to) 308

mediating role of 321–323

metaphysical conception of 322–323

model see model

nature of 309

normative force of 100

obligation 295

ordinary 103

personality (and) 295–296

possession (to) 299

privacy (of) 101, 102

property 67, 295, 299, 300, 310, 326, 328

remedy (and) see ubi ius ibi remedium; ubi remedium ibi ius

reputation (to) 66

scientific 71

structural view

subjective 309, 310

take seriously 287

unreasonable exercise of 104

work (to) 101

risk 36, 150, 151, 155–159, 173, 283

damage (of) 35

road 84

accidents see accident

Rodger, Lord 159, 253

role

academic lawyer's 262–263

academic social scientist's 223

actio (of) 46, 301

actor's 205

anima 207–209

analogy (of) 91, 113, 238, 241

contract's 137

Cour de cassation 92

court's 149

deduction (of) 93

economics (of) 81, 110

facts (of) 113

fictions see fiction

image (of) 217

induction (of) 181

institutional system (of) 298

interest see interest

judge's 71, 73, 88, 117, 120, 127, 144, 225

jurist's 67–68, 69

jury's 144

knowledge representation 113

law (of) 29, 41

mediating 321–323

motive 310

non-symbolic knowledge 267

professor's (law) 119

props (cinema) 215

rationalisation (in law) (of) 127

reader 222

regulae 224

Rylands v Fletcher 283

taxonomy (of) 127

viewer 222

wealth maximising 81

Roman law 5, 9, 12–70, 58, 59, 60, 61, 65–66, 69, 75, 76, 79, 86, 88, 89, 96, 112, 113, 115, 117–118, 122, 123, 127, 145, 147–148, 171–172, 174, 175, 177, 178, 179, 180, 200, 225, 233, 244, 249, 250, 252, 292, 294, 296, 312–313, 314, 331

medieval 12–32

see also jurist (medieval)

Romans 10

rule 2, 53, 64, 67, 76, 80, 87, 88, 89–95, 99, 166, 169, 186, 190, 240, 259, 26–263, 267, 272, 277–279

application of 67

classification of see classification

described 272

economic loss see loss

fact (and) 262

general 15

golden 95, 97, 98, 222, 332

governed 272

interpretation (of) see interpretation; meaning

lack of 120

law as 89

legal 266, 269, 277–279, 280

literal 95, 97, 98, 222, 332

mischief 95, 97, 98, 222, 332

model see model

procedure 245, 298

Rylands v Fletcher 93–94, 141, 150, 191, 242, 264, 283

settlement function 278

see also axiom; model (rule); principle

Russell, Lord 254

sale 36, 39, 43, 48, 64, 74, 146, 239

Salome 201

salvage 106

Savigny, Friedrich Carl von 21, 70

scaffolding (faulty) 36

scenario 243

scheme 261–262

classification 124, 126–127

diagrammatic 202

Gaian see classification, Gaius; Institutes; person (thing and action); system

institutional see Institutes

see also person (thing and action); system

intelligibility (of) see schemes of intelligibility

medical 279

taxonomical 264, 279

schemes of intelligibility 1, 3, 74, 85, 86, 95, 97, 201, 202, 204, 225, 226, 228, 273–276, 277, 329

actional 3, 182, 275–276, 277, 292, 293

causal 3, 81, 110, 151, 177, 191, 204, 226, 274, 276

dialectical 3, 85, 96, 204, 212–213, 276, 277

functional 3, 74, 81, 97, 182, 186–188, 204, 226, 274–275, 277

hermeneutical 3, 82, 96, 188–189, 204, 223, 275, 277

structural 3, 82, 96, 223, 226, 275

see also cause; dialectic; explanation; function; hermeneutics; structuralism; structure; understanding

Schiemann, Justice 304

scholar

film 224

legal 6

rigorous 16

taxonomy (and) 123

scholastic 15, 16, 59, 83, 271

school 194, 217, 300

science 1, 71, 74, 87, 157

axiomatic 70

biology 136

concepts (legal) 70

epistemology (and) 170

see also epistemology

ethics (as) 270

German legal see Pandectists

human 6, 201, 329

law (as) 255, 263

legal 26, 70, 135, 294

medical 173, 180–181

methods of 170, 201

see also Popper, Karl

natural 160, 180, 201, 224, 262

philosophy (and) 170

pseudo 267

social 1, 6, 81, 121, 170, 201, 223, 224, 234, 329, 273–277

scientia

demonstrativa 56

iuris 22, 26, 43, 63, 89, 115

scientific 22

method see Popper, Karl

scientist 3, 41, 53, 136, 145, 157, 160, 192, 243, 257, 262

legal 63, 71

see also Pandectists

social 2, 7, 8, 11, 95, 222, 234, 273, 275, 280, 284

Scott, Lord Justice 137

Scott, Lord Justice and Lord (born 1934) 105, 109, 158–159

secrecy 318

self-help 295

Sellers, Lord Justice 166

semiotics 202

sense see common

sensum 96

sexism 209

shares and shareholders 321

Shaw, Lord Justice 319

Sherwin, Emily 258–284, 329, 330

shield 290

ship 112, 137, 142, 152, 153, 227, 268–269

si 44, 45, 50

Sight and Sound 210

sign 183, 214

signans 183

signatum 183

significatio 56, 95, 97

similarity

analogy (and) 178

difference (and) 264, 265, 268

Simon, Lord 92–94, 109, 144, 240, 254, 255, 263–264

Simon, Viscount 137

Simonds, Lord 272

simultaneous 144

slander 79

slave 39, 172, 175

slavery 40

Slynn, Lord 130–131

smoke 30

Snakes on a Plane 227

societas Christiana 17, 25, 29

socio-legal 141, 167, 292

sociology 2, 170, 214, 226

software 134

solicitor 233

solutio 15, 20, 21, 29

sovereignty

popular 23

sparrow 249, 250

specific performance 300

Stable, Justice 149

stage 3, 241–242

three– test 324

Staiger, Janet 218–219, 222, 224

standing

legal 106, 108

stare decisis 78

state

city 25

premises (of) 213

statement

untrue 130

station

petrol 163–164, 253–255

tube 123

statistics 139, 144

status

children 108

legal 146

regulae iuris 89, 90,

scientific 73

statute 113

interpretation of 222, 332

see also interpretation; legislation

see also legislation

Stein, Peter 5, 20

stereotype 178

Stewart, James 203–207, 214

Steyn, Lord 91, 126, 252–253

stipulation 39, 309, 315

structuralism 74, 82, 96, 141, 181, 182, 184, 190, 223, 226, 228, 278

conceptual 74, 141, 190, 228, 278

film 204

hermeneutics (and) 74

institutional 151, 237

see also schemes of intelligibility; structure

structure 261, 264, 265, 327

abstract 261–262

code (of a) see Institutes; person (thing and action)

coherent see coherence

conceptual 70, 74, 77, 107, 109, 133, 190, 234, 289

social 275

see also method; reasoning; schemes of intelligibility; theory

style 218, 226, 227, 228

abstract 70

content (and) 226, 228

film 226, 227, 228

law books 61, 70

visual 226

subject

discipline see discipline

legal 291, 292, 293, 306, 322

see also person

subsumption 71, 72, 73

subtili ratione 47–48

Summa codicis 15

Sumption, Lord 217, 293

Sundaresh Menon, Chief Justice 322

supermarket 227

Swimmer (The) 227

sword 290

syllogism 17, 19, 21, 26, 31, 53, 56, 63, 72, 85, 89, 92–95, 144, 181, 182, 184, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243–244, 260, 266, 270, 271, 272, 276, 280, 321

analytical 85

complex 92–94, 240, 263

dialectical 85

episyllogism 95

legal 92

polysyllogism 94–95

see also deduction; logic

symbol 272

symmetry 249, 298

symptom 171, 172, 177, 181, 183, 186, 188, 189

synchronic 2, 6–7, 9, 13, 115

see also view

synthesis 14, 15, 119, 120

system 53–54, 55, 59, 64, 65, 67, 70, 71, 87, 115, 181, 184, 263, 331

axiomatic 63, 70, 132

brittle 272

coherence and see coherence

common law (and) 323

deductive see deduction

institutional 126, 139, 294, 302, 306, 318, 326, 327, 328

see also Gaius; Institutes; person (thing and action)

mechanical 267–268

merging diachronic and synchronic 115

ordered 41

reasoning 263

rules (of) 272

signs (of) 202

social 275

theory see systems theory

Tamanaha, Brian 4

taxi 156, 162, 163, 164

taxonomy 18, 27, 48, 49, 54, 134–140, 173, 176, 177, 213, 264, 279, 285, 331

disorganised 123

legal 122–132, 213, 248–253, 326, 329

rights (of) 129

science (natural) 125, 126

zoological 279

see also category; classification; system

teacher

law 117, 121

see also professor; teaching; university

teaching 69

Bologna (in) 13

code civil 68

French way 58

medicine 175

practice (and) 117–120

regulae 90

university 15, 79, 139, 279

technique

classification see classification, taxonomy

formal 20

Greek 55

high 266

judicial 266

reasoning see reasoning

Roman law 42–47

see also method; process; reasoning

Tench, D. 319

tensions 331–332

see also knowledge

term

implied 236

unfair 316–317

territory 252–255

tertium comparationis 201, 202

test

but for 156, 158

cases 41

comparison 110

correspondence 125, 262

epistemological 136

evidence 144

factual 154

falsification 171, 181

see also Popper, Karl

form of action 80

hypothesis 183, 260

interest 315–316

laboratory 54

medical 177

policy 187

reasonableness 153

scientific 272

similarity and difference 265

three-stage 324

testator 246, 247

text 19, 76, 189, 208, 219, 275

activated theory see theory

ancient 17

authoritative 17, 19, 70

context 219

interpretation of see interpretation; meaning

legal 18

rationality of 96

Roman 19

see also Roman law

spirit of 96

statutory see legislation; statute

strong 219

weak 219

words of see word

textbook 37, 61, 80, 118, 119, 121, 138, 140, 141, 169–170, 174, 177, 181, 222, 232, 331

theatre 146, 200

theft 36, 48, 312

theology 2, 115, 214

theorist 9, 28, 198, 284, 292

film 198

see also Carroll, Noël; Durgnat, Raymon; Dzialo, Christopher; Staiger, Janet; Wood, Robin

institutional 174

interpretative 223–224

legal 292

see also Dworkin, Ronald; Hohfeld, Wesley Newcomb

realist 88

rights 287, 288

social science 7, 11, 222

theory 24, 87, 145, 160, 216, 222–228, 232, 256, 280

auteur 224

constitutional 289

context-activated 219

disunified 257

economic 81

see also economics

English legal 5

epistemological 13

see also epistemology

fact (and) 160, 166–167

feminist 208

fiction see attitude; fiction

film 222, 223–225

football (about) 167

genre 224

German legal 67

grand 228

hermeneutical see hermeneutics

ideological 199

interpretation as see Dworkin, Ronald

language (of) 58

legal 3, 224, 248

see also Dworkin, Ronald; realism

literary 222

Marxist 262, 281

moral 81, 289

natural law 3, 77

norm regularity (as) 224

personification 202–207

political 23, 29, 42

practice (and) 60

precedent 186

psychological 199, 208, 280–281

reader-activated 219

realist 232

see also realism; realist

reception 218–222, 228, 329

representation 213–216, 228, 329

rights 287–289

Roman law 41–42

social 42

structuralist see structuralism; structure

text-activated 219

tort see tort

utilitarian 81

thesis see approach; theory

thief 234

thing(s) 124, 146, 147, 175, 253, 278, 291, 293

corporeal 44

dangerous 150

in action see action (chose)

incorporeal see res (incorporalis)

intangible 54, 55, 156, 231, 253, 255, 294, 313

physical 40, 44, 314

see also property; res

Thireau, Jean-Louis 60

This Island Earth 210

Thomas, Yan 51

Thomasius, Christian 63

time 164

Timsit, Gérard 63

Tomb of Ligeia 214

toolbox 25, 28

tort 76, 77, 105, 113, 122, 128, 129, 130, 131, 134, 137, 139, 140, 141, 149, 159, 217, 223, 226, 244, 249, 290, 293, 305, 306, 307, 313, 330

assault see assault

battery see battery

conspiracy see conspiracy

deceit see deceit

defamation see defamation

economic 140

false imprisonment see false (imprisonment)

inducing breach of contract see inducing breach of contract

malicious falsehood see malicious falsehood

negligence see negligence

nuisance see nuisance

slander see slander

trespass see trespass

Toulmin, Stephen 54, 173, 176, 270–271

see also Jonsen, Albert

Toulson, Lord Justice and Lord 161–162, 188, 233

town 55

trade 281

tradition

civil law see civil law (tradition)

common law see common law (tradition)

critical 210

traité 119, 121

transport 138

travail d'exégèse 68

tree

forest and 65, 244

plan 30

pruner and 44–45, 179–180

trespass 76, 77, 78, 79, 122, 134, 149

land (to) 112

trial

fair 266

unfair 266

tricycle 95

trust 113, 126

constructive,

truth 7, 31, 62, 126, 127, 209, 231, 234, 270

scientific 164, 262

theory (and) 231

tumour 193

turpitude 293

Twining, William 259

type 54

ubi ius ibi remedium 100, 112

ubi remedium ibi ius 112, 113, 324

ubi societas ibi ius 65

ubinam gentium sumus 86

Ullmann, Walter 16, 18, 20, 23, 24, 28

Ulpian, Domitius 16, 30, 31, 34, 36, 39, 42, 46, 47, 48, 49, 54, 65, 180, 250

Ultramontani 22

underground (man on) 194, 195, 220, 221

underpants 238, 241

see also ginger beer

understanding 3, 183, 189, 190–196, 278

unity

apparent 332

collective 223

harmony (of) 185

see also dialectics

private law (of) 124

scientific theory (and) 256–257

universal

emperor 28

human rights (declaration) 108

laws 181

premise 26

principle 181

rule 185, 270

singularity (versus) 5, 195, 237

universe

nature of 257

normative 273, 278

universitas 29, 37, 54, 233

see also corporation

university

Cambridge 79

French 22

Italian see Glossators; Post-Glossators

medieval 15

Orléans 22

Oxford 79

Toulouse 22

unjust

damage 318

enrichment 123, 125, 134–135, 135, 136, 141, 248–251

unreality 207

unreasonableness 191

usus modernus pandectarum 28, 288

utilitas 109, 110, 111, 115, 294

publica 302

Vacarious 14

Vaihinger, Hans 229–230, 232, 234, 243, 255, 256, 330

validation 184

validity

analogical 266

epistemological 63, 136, 184, 231, 262, 329

penalty clause 316

premise 95

scientific 115

value 252, 313

monetary 295

Van Caenegem, Raoul 68–69, 124

Van Dyke, Anthony 199

Van Hoecke, Mark 6, 67, 85, 92

vehicle 94, 95, 96

motor 138, 139, 234

verbum 51, 58, 96, 97, 115

see also words

Vertigo 202–207, 209, 213, 214, 222, 223, 228

view

dogmatic 231

external 3

internal 2

psychological see psychology

utilitarian 39

viewpoint see view

Villey, Michel 38, 60

vinculum iuris 151, 271

see also chain

virus 125, 181

vision see view

Vivianus 16

void

contract 239

formless 280

volcano 136

volenti non fit injuria 154

volonté 69

voluntas 51

Von Sternberg, Josef 214

Voyage Surprise 227

Waddams, Stephen 83, 132, 133, 134–135, 136–137, 149, 160, 213, 281

waggon 50, 147–148, 171–172, 175, 176, 179

Wagner, Joanna 137

water 30, 93–94, 242, 246–247, 264

boarding 191

company 301

seepage of 247

Watson, Alan 53, 118

wealth 312

weapon 172

weather 216

Weber, Max 218

Webster, John 210

Weir, Tony 225, 227, 290, 312, 314

welfare 110

western 216

see also Leone, Sergio

Whewell, William 160–161

Wieacker, Franz 62, 63, 71

will

right (will theory) 100

succession 91

window-cleaner 250–251, 252

Windscheid, Bernard 70

Wissenschaft 67

witness 144, 165, 179, 208–209, 280

Wolff, Christian 61, 62

Wood, Robin 205–207, 223

words 96, 182, 215

interpretation of 215

meaning of 26, 49

significance of 27

see also interpretation; verba

Wordsworth, William 210

world

Ancient 12

artificial 214

categories (of) 212

civil law 84, 288

common law 81, 95, 101, 120, 149, 182, 248, 298

constructed 223

empirical 147

external 255

fact (of) 278

fantasy 223

flat 212, 213

institutional 255

legal 55, 147, 192, 202, 291, 328, 331

medical fact 177

medieval 12

metaphysical 327

natural 125

norms (of) 327

real 136, 214, 261

social fact 167, 223, 291

three-dimensional 265

Western 41

Wreck of the Mary Deare (The) 227

Wright, Lord 153–154

writ 75, 76

wrong 125, 128, 139, 147, 244–245

see also tort

wrongdoing 135

Zachariae, Karl 64

zoo 194, 217–218,