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China in the Global Political Economy

From Developmental to Entrepreneurial

Gordon C.K. Cheung

Is the US losing its economic authority to China, whose global economic identity is being determined more by entrepreneurial spirit than developmental principle? Through the exercise of soft power and hard currency in some areas of the global economy, China has clear national interest in the protection of intellectual property rights, financial integration and sovereign wealth funds. China’s Belt and Road Initiative and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank will set new standard to global economic development.
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Index

Gordon C.K. Cheung

9/11 attacks 16, 19–20, 33, 161

ABC (Agricultural Bank of China) 115

ADB (Asian Development Bank) 23, 25, 28–9, 146

AEC (ASEAN Economic Community) 25–6

AEC Blueprint 2025 (2015) 25–6

Aero-Engine Group 101

AIIB (Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank) 10, 49, 132, 136, 142–3, 144–7, 151, 162

Albaladejo, Manuel 75

Alford, William 87

Alibaba 3, 9, 55, 68–9, 70, 82–3, 102

Allison, Graham 160

‘America First’ policy 4, 5, 33–4, 159

American Economic Association 23

AMF (Asian Monetary Fund) 28, 145

Anderson, Benedict 42

anti-corruption campaign 164

ARF (ASEAN Regional Forum) 25

Aron, Raymond 17

Arrow, Kenneth 125

ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) 25–6, 28–9, 39, 71, 143

Asian financial crisis (1997) 6, 38, 46, 133, 135, 144–5

and developmental state model 22, 24

and financial globalization 108, 118–19, 127, 128

and paradigm shift towards China 27, 28

and regionalism 8, 17, 26, 33

and US economic and hegemonic decline 8, 16, 18, 38, 40

Assessment of the Financial Ecological Environment on Chinese Cities 111

‘attractive power’ 40

Axelrod, Robert 125

BA (Bureaucratic-Authoritarian) model 38

Bandung Conference (1955) 16

Bank for International Settlements (BIS) Review 120

Barber, Tony 39

Barfield, Claude 54

Basic Law 62, 107

Bauhinia Foundation Research Centre 102

Beeson, Mark 109

‘Beijing Consensus’ 16

Beijing Olympic Games (2008) 3, 8, 84, 88–90, 94, 96, 159, 166

Bell, Daniel A. 44–5

Bell, Stephen 54

Berger, Peter 41, 43–4

Bernanke, Ben S. 122

Berne Convention (1886) 88

Bisley, Nick 17

BOC (Bank of China) 92, 115

Bound to Lead 40

Brexit 25, 33, 39, 110, 148

BRI (Belt and Road Initiative) 10, 49, 132, 136, 142–4, 146–7, 151

Brookings Institute 33, 141

Broome, André 109

Brown, Gordon 124

Burma 49

Busch, Marc L. 56

BWS (Bretton Woods System) 18, 38, 109, 122, 128

Callahan, William 50

Campbell, David 43, 131–2

capitalism 7, 15, 18–19, 21, 32, 62–3, 110, 160

CASS (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences) 47, 59, 60, 101, 113, 123

CBRC (China Banking Regulatory Commission) 115

CCB (China Construction Bank) 115

CCP (Chinese Communist Party) 5, 30, 43, 49, 123, 135, 136

CCTV (China Central Television) 47–8

Chang, Ka-mun 64

Charm Offensive: How China’s Soft Power is Transforming the World 45

Cheung, Steven 107–8

Chien, Christie 65

China & World Economy 47

China Economic Review 121

China: Fragile Superpower 50–51

China Goes Global: The Partial Power 30

China’s E-Commerce 68

China’s Next Strategic Advantage: From Imitation to Innovation 58

Christensen, Thomas 48–9

CIC (China Investment Corporation) 137–9, 142, 147–8, 150, 151

‘clash of civilizations’ 9, 20, 40,

climate change 165

Clinton, Hillary 33

CMI (Chiang Mai Initiative) 28–9

CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) 47

CNOOC (China National Offshore Oil Corporation) 135–6

Cohen, Benjamin 109, 140

Cold War 6, 7, 15–16, 19, 39, 160

collective memories 42

Confucianism 36, 43–5, 46, 49–50, 87

Confucius Institutes 51, 132

Copyright law (1991) 88

counterfeiting 10, 82–5, 93–5, 96–8, 99, 100, 103–4

Cox, Michael 20

Cultural Revolution 5–6, 163

Cumings, Bruce 21

Daguo Jueqi (The Rise of Great Powers) 47–8

Dai, Xianglong 46

Daily Mail 135

democracy 5, 9, 40, 44–5, 50

Deng, Xiaoping

economic reforms 5, 7–8, 11, 49, 111, 142, 158

One Country, Two Systems approach 64

open door policy 5, 55, 142

Southern Tour 8, 27, 55, 63, 71, 111

Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China 62–3

Destined for War: Can America and China Escape Thucydides’s Trap? 160

developmental state model 8, 15, 17, 21–4, 33, 72

Dieter, Heribert 28

Dimitrov, Martin 83

Ding, Sheng 44, 45

DLHET (Dushu Lake Higher Education Town) 9, 55, 73, 76

Dong, Junxi 101

Dongya sanguo di jinxiandai shi (textbook project) 9, 46

Douglass, Mike 22

Drucker, Peter 165

DSB (disputes settlement board) 93

dual track system 6

Earle, Timothy C. 124

EAS (East Asia Summit) 39

‘East Asian Development Model’ 43–4

Eatwell, John 109

ECB (European Central Bank) 122

ECFA (Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement) 31

e-commerce 55, 68–71, 82

‘economic reform consolidation’ 76

Eichengreen, Berry 123

Enright, Michael 64

entrepreneurship 7–8, 10, 44, 101, 103

‘go out’ strategy 133, 135, 151

and market economy 9, 54, 55, 58–9, 67–8, 76, 165–6

Erisman, Porter 68

Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis 160

EU referendum 24–5, 33, 39

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development 146

‘factory of the world’ status 54, 55, 57, 62, 64, 90, 108, 125, 127

Fang, Xinghai 123–4

‘fast-track’ investment 72–3

FDI (foreign direct investment) 27–8, 62–3, 71–3, 90, 132

outward FDI 135–6, 137–9, 142, 147–50, 151

Federal Reserve 122

federalism 24–5, 33

Feldstein, Martin 18

Felipe, Jesus 23

Feng, Bing 143

Feng, Hui 54

Ferguson, Niall 160

financial globalization 10, 106–8, 127–9

and global financial crisis 10, 106, 107, 114–17, 119, 120, 124, 127–8

and globalization of finance 108–10

Hong Kong global financial centre 107, 111, 112, 113, 114, 116, 117, 118–19

internationalization of RMB 10, 107, 108, 120–27, 128–9

Shanghai global financial centre 107–8, 110–20, 127–8

and USA 106, 108–9, 110, 120, 122–3, 125–6, 128

financial leviathans 133–4, 137

Financial Times 4, 28, 67, 69, 145, 147, 157, 160

Five-Year Plans 58–9, 81, 100, 104, 112, 120–21, 158

Foot, Rosemary 29

Forbes 147

Foreign Affairs 29, 84

foreign reserves 28, 106, 110, 120, 126, 127, 135, 137

Freund, Shlomo 67

FSO (Financial Services Offices) 111

Fukuyama, Francis 9, 40, 125

future economic transformation 157–9

FWPC (Financial Work Party Committee) 111

G20 Hangzhou Summit (2016) 3, 7

Gapper, John 69

GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) 62

gdpism 58, 157

Geely 149

Geoghegan, Michael 28

‘Getting Asia wrong’ 42–3

Gilpin, Robert 37

Global Financial Centres Index 3 (GFCI3) report 112

global financial crisis (2008–9) 8, 16, 24, 39, 141

and financial globalization 10, 106, 107, 114–17, 119, 120, 124, 127–8

and paradigm shift towards China 27, 29

and regionalism 26, 33

and US economic and hegemonic decline 8, 16–17, 39, 41, 145

and vulnerability of global financial system 10, 106, 107–8, 120, 134

global inequality 131–3, 150–51, 165

and sovereign wealth funds 10, 132, 137–41, 147, 150

and tax havens 10, 131–2, 133–5, 141, 142

global resistance and acceptance 162–4

Global Times 83, 158

Globalization and its Discontents 18

‘go out’ strategy 10, 132–3, 135–6, 151

gold standard 122, 126

Gong, Frank 116

Gong, Saiyi 149

‘governed market’ 22

GPRD (Greater Pearl River Delta) project 9, 55, 62–6, 76

‘grand strategies’ 10, 36, 49, 142–4

Great Famine 5–6

Great Leap Forward 66

Gries, Peter Hays 43, 50

Guangdong province 9, 63–6, 76

Guo, Lian 143

Hale, David 18, 29

Hale, Lyric 29

Hall, Rodney 118

Hamilton, Gary 32

hard power 41, 162

‘harmonious society’ 49

HEFCE (Higher Education Funding Council for England) 86

hegemonic stability theory 36–40, 51

Heilmann, Sebastian 111–12

Held, David 18

Helleiner, Eric 137

Higgott, Richard 28

higher education partnerships 9, 73–4

Hispanic immigration (US) 20

HMRC (HM Revenue and Customs) 135

Hong Kong 6, 15, 28, 37–8

and Confucianism 44, 45

and financial crises 114, 118–19

as global financial centre 107, 111–19

and internationalization of RMB 121, 123

investment in China 62–3

How Did This Happen? 19

HSBC (Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation) 28

Hsiao, Michael 43–4

Hu, Angang 5

Hu, Jintao 36, 49, 114, 136

Huang, Yanzhong 45

Huff, W. Gregg 22–3

Huntington, Samuel 9, 20, 40

Huo, Jianguo 62

IBM 103

ICBC (Industrial Commercial Bank of China) 115

Ikenberry, G. John 36–7, 46, 51

Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism 42

IMF (International Monetary Fund) 18–19, 28, 29, 115, 120, 122, 127, 128, 145

In Retrospect 19

Institute of World Economics and Politics 47, 60

interdependence 6, 17, 24, 34, 39, 51, 108, 143, 150

international relations theory 42, 50

internationalization of RMB 10, 107, 108, 120–27, 128–9

IPRs (intellectual property rights) 10, 39, 81–2, 103–4

China’s technological drive 10, 100–102, 104

and Chinese ways of thinking 10, 81, 85–7

infringement and counterfeiting 10, 82–5, 93–9, 100, 103–4

and market economy 54, 60, 61, 67

patenting 83–4, 88, 90–92, 96, 99, 101–2, 103

protection of 10, 88–93, 100–102, 103–4, 159, 166

provincial level 96–8

Special 301 Reports 94–8

US disputes with China 10, 54, 82, 85, 93–6, 98–100, 103

and WTO 54, 93–4, 95

Irrational Exuberance 109

IT (information technology) development 56

Jackson, Henry M. 50

Jacobson, Harold K. 60

Japan 22, 25, 145, 163

and paradigm shift towards China 28, 30

relationship with US 7, 8, 15, 21, 30, 38, 46–7, 62

and soft power of China 9, 46–7

JCCT (Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade) 85

Jia, Qingguo 37

Jiang, Zemin 63, 135, 136

Jin, Liqun 145, 151

Johnson, Chalmers 19, 22

Joint Declaration (Hong Kong, 1984) 62

Jorgenson, Dale 56

‘Journey of Flower’ 102

Kagan, Robert 33–4

Kang, David 42–3

Kao, John 32

Kenny, Charles 47

Keohane, Robert 39

Kim, Dae Jung 44

Kindleberger, Charles 37

Kirshner, Jonathan 140

knowledge 9, 32, 55, 56–9, 74, 86, 101, 134, 138, 142

Krueger, Anne O. 23

Krugman, Paul 23–4

Kucinich, Elizabeth 83–4

Kuhn, Thomas 16, 26–7

Kupchan, Charles A. 46

Kurlantzick, Joshua 45

Lall, Sanjaya 75

Lancaster, Louis G. 140

Last Week Tonight 141

Lau, Laurence 137

Lee, Hsien Loong 71

Lee Kuan Yew 71

Lehman Brothers 126

Lenovo 103

Lessig, Lawrence 86

Li, Keqiang 3, 4, 59, 136

Li, Lanqing 46, 71

Li, Ying-chun 45

Li, Yining 143

Li, Yuanchao 124

Lieven, Anatol 19

Lin, Yi-Chieh, Jessica 84

Lin, Yifu, Justin 6, 143

Liu, Chuanzhi 103

Liu, Gang 113

Liu, Mingkang 115–16

Liu, Wei 143

Livingstone, Ken 135

Lou, Jiwei 124, 147, 151

Luckmann, Thomas 41

Ma, Jack 3, 68, 69

Ma, Ying-jeou 31

Madrid Agreement (1891) 88

Mahathir bin Mohamad 18

Malaysia 38

Mao, Zedong 7, 16

marginal cost analysis 37, 38

market economy 5, 54–5, 58–9, 75–6, 164–6

e-commerce 55, 68–71

entrepreneurship 9, 54, 55, 58, 67–8, 76, 165–6

‘factory of the world’ status 10, 54, 55, 57, 62, 64, 90, 108, 125, 127

financial globalization see financial globalization

GPRD project 9, 55, 62–6, 76

higher education partnerships 9, 73–4

knowledge and growth 9, 55, 56–9

‘peaceful rise’ 36–7, 41, 47, 48–51, 52, 145, 160–61, 162, 165

Shenzhen SEZ 9, 55, 66–8, 76

Suzhou Industrial Park 9, 55, 71–3, 76

WTO membership 9, 54, 55, 60–62

Marxism 21, 48

Mastanduno, M. 36–7

Maxfield, Sylvia 118

May, Theresa 33

McDonalds 86

Mckern, Bruce 58

McNamara, Robert S. 19

Mead, George Herbert 41

Mearsheimer, John J. 42

‘Medium-to-Long-Term Plan for Development of Science and Technology’ (2006) 81

Mehta, Sanjiv 128

meritocracy 45

Merkel, Angela 161

Mertha, Andrew 83

Microsoft 100

MIIT (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology) 67

Miller, Ken 106

MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry) 22

Mo, Shaokun 150

mobile technology 101–2

MOF (Ministry of Finance) 67

bin Mohamad, Mahathir 133

Money, Power and Wall Street 134

Monroe Doctrine (1823) 19

Monsanto 83–4

Montan, Nils Victor 87

Mossack Fonseca 131–2

Mowery, David C. 56

National Bureau of Statistics of China 100, 157

Naughton, Barry 54

Nell, Edward J. 108

NETs (natural economic territories) 6

New York Times 75

NICs (newly industrialized countries) 38

‘Nirvana in Fire’ 102

Nixon, Richard 18, 108–9, 122

Norrlof, Carla 39

North Korea 39–40, 49

Northern Rock 119, 126

Nye, Joseph 9, 19, 37, 39, 40–41, 162

O’Donnell, Guillermo 38

Obama, Barack 99

OBOR (One Belt, One Road) see BRI

Odell, John 39

OFDI (outward foreign direct investment) 135–6, 137–9, 142, 147–50, 151

Ohmae, Kenichi 64

Oksenberg, Michel 60

Oliver, John 141

One Country, Two Systems approach 62, 63, 64, 107

Öni|$$|Acs, Ziya 22

Onuf, Nicholas 41–2

open door policy 5–6, 55, 61, 142, 157

‘Operation Summer Solstice’ 99

Outline of the National Intellectual Property Strategy 90

Overholt, William 27

‘over-the-counter’ markets 111

overseas business networks 32

Oxfam 131, 132, 133

‘Pacific Regime’ 19, 38

Pacific Rim 133

Panama Papers 131–2, 133

Pang, Zhongying 36

paradigm shift 9, 11, 16–17, 21, 26–32, 34, 160

Paris Agreement (2015) 161, 162

Paris Convention (1883) 88

Patent law (1984) 88

patenting 83–4, 88, 90–92, 96, 99, 101–2, 103

path dependency 5–6, 126

Paths of Innovation: Technological Change in 20th-Century America 56

Pauly, Louis 118

PBC (People’s Bank of China) 29, 106, 120, 123–4

‘peaceful rise’ 36–7, 41, 47, 48–51, 52, 145, 160–61, 162, 165

Permanent Court of Arbitration 51

Polanyi, Karl 108

Porter, Michael 56

Power, Samantha 160

productivity 56–7

Provisional Regulations for National Standards Relating to Patents (2004) 96

public diplomacy 45–6, 48

Pye, Lucian 163

Pyle, Kenneth 50

R&D (research and development) 23, 56, 57, 58, 59, 65, 100, 157–8

Raustiala, Kal 84

Ravenhill, John 25

Rawnsley, Gary 48

realist school 40, 42, 49, 52, 160

Redding, Gordon 43

REF (Research Excellence Framework) 86

regional integration/regionalism 8, 17, 24–6, 28, 33

Reinke de Buitrago, Sybille 124

Report of China’s Foreign Direct Investment 136

Rosenberg, Nathan 56

Sachs, Jeffrey 18

SAFE (State Administration of Foreign Exchange) 137

Sakakibara, Eisuke 145

SARs (Special Administrative Regions) 63

Sassen, Saskia 109

Saunders, R. 45

Saxenian, AnnaLee 31, 115

Schuman, Michael 44, 75

‘scientific development’ 49

Scott, Edith 64

SDRs (Special Drawing Rights) 115, 120, 122, 128

self-building logistics (e-commerce) 70

SEZs (Special Economic Zones) 6, 9, 27, 55, 66–8, 76, 142

SFTZ (Shanghai Free Trade Zone) 71, 119

Shambaugh, David 30

Shanghai Expo (2010) 8, 84, 88, 90, 92–3, 94, 98, 159, 166

Shanghai global financial centre 107–8, 110–20, 127–8

‘Shanzhai culture’ 84, 103

Shaxson, Nicholas 131

Shen, Changyu 87

Shen, Dingli 159–60

Shenzhen 9, 55, 66–8, 76

Shepard, Wade 147

Shi, Guangsheng 61

Shiller, Robert 109

Shirk, Susan 50–51

Shuy, Roger 86

Silk Road 142–3

Singapore 7, 38, 45, 150

developmental state model 15, 22–3

as global financial centre 112, 113

investment in China 71–3

Sino-American Memorandum of Understanding on the Protection of Intellectual Property (1992) 85

SIP (Suzhou Industrial Park) 9, 55, 71–3, 76

SIPO (State Intellectual Property Office) 86–7, 92, 95, 101

Six-Party Talks (2003, 2004) 39–40

Skerry, Peter 20

smart power 41

social constructivism 37, 41–3, 51

Social Theory of International Politics 42

socialism 7, 36, 49–50, 87

SOEs (state-owned enterprises) 6, 54, 61, 158, 164

soft power

Chinese 9, 36, 37, 43, 45–8, 50–51, 145, 160–61, 162

US 37, 40–41

Soros, George 18, 109–10, 133

South China Morning Post 103

South China Sea 51, 157

South Korea 9, 15, 38, 44, 45, 46, 121

Southern Tour (Deng, Xiaoping) 8, 27, 55, 63, 71, 111

Southern Weekly 66–7, 82

Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute 137

Special 301 Reports 94–8

Special Campaign 95–6

Sprigman, Christopher 84

SSE (Shanghai Stock Exchange) 111

Starbucks 135

Steinhardt, H. Christoph 125

Stiglitz, Joseph 18, 38–9, 83

strategic trade policies 56–7

student loan debt 134

Su, Xiaobo 58

Subacchi, Paola 107, 122

Sun, Mingchun 65

Suntech 164–5

SWFs (sovereign wealth funds) 10, 132, 137–41, 147, 150–51

SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication) 121

Taiwan 6, 15, 31, 32, 38, 45

tax havens 10, 131–2, 133–5, 141, 142

television 47–8, 102

Temasek Holdings 150

Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages 109

Thailand 49

The Analects of Confucius 49

The China Model: Political Meritocracy and the Limits of Democracy 45

The Chinese Journal of International Politics 47

The Economic Observer 159, 166

The Economist 30

The End of History and the Last Man 9, 40

The Great Transformation 108

The Imperial Republic 17

The Paradox of American Power 39

The Powers to Lead 162

The Rise of China 27

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions 16

The Washington Quarterly 31

Thurow, Lester 86

Tian, Lipu 86–7

Tiananmen Square incident (1989) 27

Time 75, 142

Tmall 70–71

To Steal a Book is an Elegant Offense 87

tourism 57–8

TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership) 99

Trade Act (1974) 93

Trademark law (1983) 88

Treasure Islands: Tax Havens and The Men Who Stole the World 131

TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) 93, 99

Trump, Donald 11, 20, 99, 110, 160

‘America First’ policy 4, 5, 33–4, 159

US–China relations 7, 75

withdrawal from Paris Agreement 161, 162

trust 124–5, 126

Tsai, Ing-wen 31

Tsang, Donald 114

Tse, Edward 163–4

UK (United Kingdom) 32, 86, 125, 134

bank bail-outs 119, 124, 126

China’s investment in 132, 142, 147–50

EU referendum 24–5, 33, 39

and Hong Kong 15, 62

Xian Jiaotong-Liverpool University 73–4

UK Chinese Times 32, 121

Understanding Memorandum 60

UNESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific) 23

Unger, Danny 32

Unocal 135–6

USA (United States of America) 54, 56–7, 60, 134, 141

‘America First’ policy 4, 5, 33–4, 159

China’s investment in 135–6, 148

contested power relations 37–41

economic and hegemonic decline 4, 5, 8, 11, 16–21, 33–4, 36–41, 50–51, 145, 159–60, 161–3

and financial globalization 106, 108–9, 110, 120, 122–3, 125–6, 128

foreign policy 7, 16, 17–18, 19–20, 27, 40

hegemonic stability theory 36–40, 51

IPRs disputes with China 10, 54, 82, 85, 93–6, 98–100, 103

and paradigm shift towards China 27, 28, 30, 31, 34

and ‘peaceful rise’ of China 36–7, 41, 48–9, 50–51

post-war economic dominance 6–7, 8, 15, 19, 21

relationship with China 6–7, 30, 31, 49, 54, 75, 159–60

relationship with Japan 7, 8, 15, 21, 30, 38, 46–7, 62

and soft power 37, 40–41

USTR (United States Trade Representative) 85, 106

Vietnam War 19, 38

Vogel, Ezra F. 49, 62–3

Wade, Robert 22

Wall Street Journal 30, 134

Wallerstein, Immanuel 21

Walter, Andrew 29

Walter, Stefanie 118

Wang, Jianxi, Jesse 147–8

Wang, Linggui 144

Wang, Qishan 95

‘Washington Consensus’ 16

Water Margin 84

WeChat 69, 84–5

Wedeen, Lisa 50

WEF (World Economic Forum) 4, 5, 7, 46, 123–4, 159–60

Wen, Jiabao 95, 111, 113, 142

Wendt, Alexander 42

Westad, Arne 160

Westin, Susan 61

Who Are We? The Challenges to America’s National Identity 20

WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) 39, 85, 88, 101

Wired 84

Wolf, Martin 4

Wong, Siu-lun 44

World Bank 18, 140, 146

World of Our Making 41–2

Worrall, Simon 44

WTO (World Trade Organization)

China’s membership of 7, 8, 9, 29, 30, 54, 55, 60–62, 163

and IPR 54, 93–4, 95

Wu, Friedrich 135

Xi, Jinping 58, 145, 149, 150, 164

and economic globalization 3, 4, 5

G20 Hangzhou Summit 3, 7

‘grand strategies’ 49, 142–4

at World Economic Forum 4, 5, 7, 159–60

Xian Jiaotong-Liverpool University 73–4

Xinhua news agency 164, 165

Yao, Yang 159

Yip, George S. 58

Yu, Hong 65, 66

Yu, Jiye 150

Yu, Peter 87

Yu, Yongding 60, 123

Zhang, Simon 64

Zhang, Weiwei 163

Zhang, Yesui 51

Zhangjiakuo Winter Olympics 166

Zheng, Bijian 36, 45

Zheng, Bingwen 60

Zheng, Chengsi 87

Zheng, Yongnian 143

Zhou, Xiaochuan 120, 123–4

Zhu, Rongji 46, 60, 63, 111