International Regulation, Comparative and Contextual Perspectives
Chapter 4: Recycling
This chapter is about recycling and related practices. The recycling symbol is one of the most easy to identify labels of environmental responsibility. In the 21st century, it appears that environmental, economic and social goals have combined to support recycling and make this practice the common form of environmental action for many, if not most, citizens. It is also actively pursued by many private enterprises and governments trying to tackle unwanted waste. The goals in this area are well entrenched in domestic, regional and international law and policy, with a number of specific international laws being directly targeted to address specific waste streams for recycling, such as old ships, or the overall trade in unwanted materials for recycling ranging from plastic to electronic waste. However, as experience has shown over the last three decades, at each point, the economic, social and environmental considerations related to recycling must be carefully considered. The terms recycling, reuse, recovery and reclamation are often used interchangeably. However, each of these terms is very different, and their dissimilarities can make a mountain of difference with how a waste stream is dealt with. For example, if an old computer is to be reused, in most instances, it can be traded internationally as it is not hazardous waste. However, if it is to be recycled, it may be hazardous waste, and strong caution is urged in any potential international trade.
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