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China’s Long-Term Economic Development

How Have Economy and Governance Evolved since 500 BC?

Hongjun Zhao

This book examines the evolution of Chinese governmental governance and its long-lasting impact on Chinese economic development, firstly by examining the formation of Chinese style governance, the core contents of this governance and its vitality compared to other governance patterns in Chinese history. Secondly, this book discusses the effectiveness of this governance in supporting economic development before the Song dynasty and its failure in serving economic development during the past three to five centuries. Ultimately, Hongjun Zhao predicts the direction Chinese governance will take in the next 20 years.
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Index

Hongjun Zhao

Acemoglu, Daron 40
Adams, Richard M. 204
administration institution 12, 127, 129, 144, 155
Agricultural Bank of China 173
agriculture 8, 13, 17, 28, 30, 334, 38, 42, 525, 58, 639, 735, 7880, 84, 889, 1034, 119, 127, 1328, 140, 143, 1468, 1523, 156, 160, 1667, 172, 182, 1867, 194, 1989, 212, 216, 245, 2489, 2589, 2637, 270, 294, 310, 31213, 317
cash crops 18081, 198, 204
and climatic change 179
in Europe 21018, 222, 230
and governmental governance 12634, 138, 1434, 148, 151, 1567, 160, 1657, 1723, 2646, 268, 2735, 2779
and the petty peasant economy 969, 192, 199, 226, 230, 233, 251, 256, 258, 2612, 267, 26970, 294, 302
anarchism 309
army. See military; soldiers
Arrow, Kenneth 35
asceticism 280
astronomy 106, 2512
Austria 216
Aztecs 215
Bagehot, W. 32
Balazs, Etienne 244
Bank of China 171
bankruptcy 119, 137, 154, 173
banks 13, 172, 214, 284
Baum, Richard 320
Belgium 221
Bell, Alexander Graham 221
Benz, Karl 220
Bessemer, Henry 220
black hole model 21
Boddle, Derlk 26
Boulding, K.E. 21, 378
Bray, Francesca 79
Buck, John Lossing 33
Buddhism 142
Byzantine Empire 143
Cai Rong 149
Cai Xiang 195
California School 18, 212, 245, 27
Canada 216, 221
canals 146, 160, 167, 219, 2456
See also individual canals
Cao Can 117, 135
capitalism 20, 334, 210, 214, 2634, 312
cash crops 18081, 198, 204
Center for China and Globalization 315
Chao Cuo 119
Chao Kang 558
Charles I 224
Chayanov, A.V. 79
Chen Gaoyong 239
Chen Guofu 171
Chen Kunting 35, 42
Chen Lifu 171
Chen Ping 18, 27, 378
Chen Zhongyi 78, 97, 99
Chinese Academy of Sciences 31
Chongning period 193
Christianity 27
Chu, C.Y. Cyrus 2334
Chu Hua 77
Ci Shi 141
civil servants 1078, 113
civil service examination 39, 42
civil wars 24043
climate 5960, 80, 102, 121, 17987, 190, 1968, 2368, 246, 249
change in after tenth century 17886
countermeasures to change 2047
governance challenges from climatic change 196204
and migration southwards 1935
coal 34, 161, 172, 219, 245
Columbus, Christopher 161, 212, 215
Communication Bank 171
Communist Party of China 278
comparative economic growth 24, 26, 42, 51
Compton, Samuel 219
concubines 152, 177
Confucianism 7, 12, 278, 334, 37, 10610, 11213, 115, 117, 13940, 1425, 164, 168, 230, 236, 246, 250, 256, 259, 269, 294, 303, 30710, 31213, 31617, 32021
Copernicus, Nicolaus 217
corruption 42, 154, 3234
Cort, Henry 219
Cortes, Hernando 215
cotton industry 749, 99
Cromwell, Oliver 224
Cultural Revolution 248, 266, 279
culture 13, 268, 40, 120, 128, 1425, 148, 1623, 165, 1689, 173, 21011, 218, 227, 229, 231, 240, 256, 258, 2945, 303, 309, 314, 317, 325
currency 136, 157, 160, 171, 199, 214, 314
Currierro, Frank C. 2045
customs duty 138, 147, 1712
Da Gama, Vasco 211, 215
Dai Jitao 170, 309
Daimler, Gottleib 220
Daoguang 68, 723
Darby, Abraham 219
Dark Ages 210
Darwin, Charles 217
Debreu, G. 35
decentralization 11617, 130, 149, 171, 249, 281, 28594, 303, 31415, 31718
democratization 2624
Deng Gang 239, 242
Deng Xiaoping 266, 2789, 283, 321
Deng Yujiao 323
Deschenes, Olivier 2045
despotism 131, 141, 15965, 178
Diamond, J.M. 20
Diesel, Rudolf 220
division of labor 1, 19, 20, 22, 28, 30, 412, 51, 77, 103
dock-castle governance 121, 14043, 150, 256
Dong Guo Xian Yang 137
Dong Zhong Shu 133
drought 92, 96, 182, 1856, 2368, 244
Du Yan 195
Durand, John D. 2445
East Han dynasty 113, 1367, 141
East Jin dynasty 121, 14043, 150, 304
economic growth rate 2768, 283, 285, 292
economic man 4, 250, 267
Edison, Thomas 220
education 14, 37, 489, 1356, 1456, 150, 201, 245, 249, 265, 268, 270, 2745
See also imperial examination
Edwards, Ronald A. 18, 32
Egypt 219
Eight Hundred Daughters-in-Law 158
Einstein, Albert 217
Elvin, Mark 29, 32, 36, 97, 2445
Engels, Friedrich 269, 294
ethics 267, 108, 115, 135
Euclid 217
eunuchs 135, 152
Eurocentrism 18
European Central Bank 314
European Union 314
Fairbank, John King 26, 143, 145, 1634
family 628, 727, 80, 85, 88, 94100, 104, 10713, 116, 118, 120, 164, 194, 251
See also inheritance
family planning policy 282
See also one-child policy
famine 118, 184, 191, 196, 202, 205, 212, 234, 236, 278
change in frequency of 1846
Fan Hongye 2021, 37
Fan Kuai 135
Fan Zhongyan 154, 195
fascism 173
federalism 314
Ferdinand II of Aragon 214
feudalism 37, 88, 158, 214
feudal-vassal governance 128, 132, 150
Feuerwerker, A. 36, 96
Field, Simon 205
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 148, 150, 184
climatic change 18086, 190, 195, 2378
governance 14850, 174, 235, 256, 304
petty peasant economy 95, 121
Five-year Plan 265, 277
flooding 182
foreign direct investment 248, 275
foreign trade 171, 199200, 245, 258, 273, 275, 282
four little dragons 34
France 143, 21112, 21416, 2212, 2245, 309
Francis I 214
Frankel, Jeffrey 40
Friedman, Milton 312
Fukuyama, Francis 315
Fulton, Robert 220
Galileo Galilei 21, 217
Gao Cheng 18
Gebo 86
Geertz, Clifford 79
general equilibrium analysis 36
Genghis Khan 156, 191
Germany 112, 21113, 216, 2212, 313
globalization 31524
gold 161, 195, 213
Gong Liutang 35, 42
governmental governance 28, 1017, 835, 195, 233, 30211
after the tenth century AD 15175
challenges to from climatic change 196204
challenges to from European reformation 22631
challenges to in era of globalization 31824
change of pattern in history 24350
content of in Chinese history 1268
dock-castle governance pattern 14043, 150, 256, 303
economic nature of 12021
European political revolution 2236
experiments in before RAO 2617
features of before RAO 26770
feudalism 151
feudal-vassal governance 12832, 150
in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 14850
framework based on peasant economy 10120
future of 31115
under the GMD 17073
in the Ming dynasty 15965
new model 31518
and population changes 23343
in the Qin dynasty 1314
in the Qing dynasty 16570
relations with economic growth 27693
in the Song dynasty 1515
in the Sui and Tang dynasties 1438
and technological progress 25059
before the tenth century AD 12851
transformation of since RAO 27076
in West and East Han dynasties 13440
in the Yuan dynasty 1559
Great Famine 278
Great Leap Forward 248, 266, 279
Great Wall 117, 134, 142, 166
Greece 40
Greenstone, Michael 204
gross domestic product 3, 13, 229, 233, 2434, 248, 250, 27984, 2867, 28993
gross national product 2767, 283
Grousset, R. 191
Guan Zhong canal 138
Guiteras, Raymond 204
Guo Min Dang 5, 17074, 247, 308
Guo Wei 149
Guo Zi Jian 145
Hahn, Frank 120
Han Chinese 106, 127, 134, 1423, 147, 149, 1558, 1626, 1689, 174, 210, 240, 246, 258
and climatic change 181, 18693, 205
comparative power with nomadic tribes 18693
and governmental governance 142, 147, 149
military 200
Han Dudi 117
Han dynasty 40, 72, 78, 8991, 94, 110, 13548, 240, 257
climatic change 1789, 1825, 187, 194, 1967, 2378
governance 13441, 1445, 1478, 150, 165, 167, 2356, 302, 304, 3067, 323
petty peasant economy 84, 89, 91, 934, 96, 110, 121
Han En Di 141
Han Er 180
Han Feizi 115
Han Gao Zu 136
Han Hui Di 1367
Han Jing Di 1368
Han Shu 67
Han Wen Di 136, 138
Han Wu Di 1357, 139
Han Xin 135
Han Xuandi 97
handicrafts 68, 778
Hanyu 110
Hargreaves, James 219
Hartwell, Robert 245
Hayek, Friedrich August 320
He Bingyu 26
He Zhaowu 26
heavy chemical industry 2635, 268, 271, 278, 280, 286
Henry VIII 214
high-level equilibrium trap 223, 289, 52
Ho Ping-ti 234, 236
Hongwu 68, 70, 723
horticulture 30
household contract responsibility system 6, 248, 275, 282
Hu Jintao 3
Hu Yongwei 159
Huai River 1967
Huang, Philip C.C. 34, 79
Huang He River 141
Huang, Ray 18, 20, 34, 378, 135, 153, 245
Huanghe River 92, 157, 165
Huku system 134
human capital 4, 16, 42, 61, 63, 106, 126, 132, 136, 148
humanism 139
Hun 141
Huntington, Ellsworth 204
imperial examination 7, 12, 52, 61, 63, 65, 7980, 94, 1067, 110, 11213, 115, 126, 132, 136, 1445, 148, 1512, 154, 156, 160, 162, 166, 169, 199, 303, 306, 312, 3212
imperial palace 117
Inca Empire 215
India 43, 80, 211, 216, 219
individualism 100, 322
Indonesia 7980
Industrial Revolution 89, 212, 29, 42, 512, 58, 107, 210, 21823, 229, 231
industrialization 12, 89, 18, 20, 523, 100, 121, 221, 229, 264, 277, 318
inheritance 6061, 65, 88, 100, 107, 295
See also primogeniture
innovation 39, 130, 170, 251, 314, 325
Institute for the History of Natural Science 31
institutional determinism 30, 3940, 51
intellectuals 7, 14, 94, 101, 113, 126, 136, 140, 156, 160, 166, 170, 243, 2756, 294, 322, 324
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 204
International Conference for Scientific History 31
Internet 3223
iron 87, 912, 979, 110, 130, 1378, 146, 161, 1945, 203, 216, 219, 2456, 2512
irrigation 28, 54, 92, 182, 197
Isabella I of Castile 214
Islam 256
Italy 143, 21012, 214, 2212
Jacob, Brian 205
James I 224
James II 225
Japan 30, 33, 121, 158, 221
Jiajing period 258
Jiang Jieshi 17073, 309
Jiang Zemin 283, 310
Jiaqing 78
Jin dynasty 145, 169, 178, 182, 184, 191, 202, 240
climatic change 178, 18082, 1845, 191, 2378
governance 14043, 145, 150, 169, 235, 256, 303, 305
military 202
petty peasant economy 104
Jin Guantao 2021, 32, 35, 378
Jin Hui Di 140
Jin Wu Di 140
Jingjie 105
Jingli 105
Jinjun 1513
Jones, E.L. 98
Jun Shu 137
Junji Chu 1656
Kaiyuan 94
Kang dynasty 54
Kangxi 94, 166, 168
Kay, John 219
Keller, Wolfgang 2021, 42
Kelly, Morgan 2021, 42
King, Martin Luther 211
Kong Jin 137
Korea 139, 158
Krugman, Paul 35
Krushchev, Nikita 280
Kublai Khan 1556
Lal, Deepak 120
land allocation 88, 94, 118
land equalization system 90, 105, 118, 143
land rent 6872, 89, 99, 1045, 10910, 1334, 1389, 1534, 161, 167
land tax 71, 87, 133, 1723
Landes, David 1034
landlords 8990, 104, 138, 195, 231, 249, 256, 270, 274
large ranch production 923
Lavoisier, Antoine 217
Lee, J.S. 240
Lee, Ronald D. 2334
legalism 102, 1089, 115, 139, 230
Lenin, Vladimir 269, 294
Leninism 250, 295, 309, 312, 318, 321
Li Genpang 912
Li Huang 309
Li Si 131
Li Weisen 18, 41
Liang dynasty 148
Liang Qichao 108, 114
Liangshui Fa 174, 180
Liao dynasty 182
Liao Khan 190
Liao River 190
liberalism 309, 32021
Liebig, Justus von 217
Lin, Justin Yifu 1819, 29, 39, 106
Lin Jiaxiang 3223
Ling canal 133, 138
Liu Bang 135, 138
Liu Qingfeng 2021, 32, 35, 37
Liu Shaoqi 266, 2789
Liu Xiu 1367, 235
Liu Zhi Yuan 148
living conditions 54, 65, 111, 196, 2356
Louis XVI 225
Ma Rong 110
Macadam, John 219
Maddison, Angus 113, 2434, 270
Magellan, Ferdinand 215
Malthusian population trap 39
Manchu 127, 1656, 1689, 187, 189, 240
Mao Zedong 250, 265, 269, 27881, 310, 321
Marconi, Guglielmo 221
Maritime Safety Administration 322
marketization 2624
marriage 612, 100, 147, 152, 311
Marshall, Alfred 35, 103, 204
Marx, Karl 11, 58, 845, 105, 269, 294
Marxism 8, 11, 14, 250, 295, 30910, 312, 318, 321
mathematics 31, 217, 251, 2534, 327
maximization 634, 7980, 112
May 30th Movement 309
May Fourth Movement 280
Meiji Reformation 121
Men Xia ministry 144
Mendelsohn, Robert 204
Meng Zi 1389
Metcalf, John 219
Middle Ages 128, 210, 230
migration 6, 54, 90, 141, 181, 200, 205, 216, 246, 249, 270, 275, 312, 324
military 1415, 54, 72, 86, 101, 107, 11617, 12021, 1278, 14159, 161, 166, 187, 19093, 199203, 205, 215, 223, 245, 2689, 271, 294, 306
See also soldiers and governmental
governance 12730, 1325, 139, 141, 144, 1479, 1519, 162, 16870, 1724, 262, 264
Ming dynasty 556, 58, 678, 7074, 789, 1617, 256, 312, 323
climatic change 1789, 1856, 194, 2378
governance 15968, 1734, 235, 251, 256, 258, 305
petty peasant economy 95, 99, 105, 111, 11617
minorities 106, 116, 1279, 139, 1413, 1867, 190, 256, 258, 261, 269
mobility. See upward mobility
Mohism 102, 108
Mokyr, Joel 250
monarchy 114, 21416, 2245, 2279
monetization 214
Mongols 127, 1557, 165, 174, 178, 187, 189, 240
Montesquieu, Charles de 204
moral hazard 169
Moretti, Enrico 205
Morse, Samuel 221
Myanmar 158
Naisbitt, John 31617
Napoleon Bonaparte 113
National Bureau of Statistics 286, 296
National Party 30910
nationalism 170, 309, 321
natural disasters 185, 236, 2389, 243, 248, 278
See also drought; flooding
natural selection 217
Nazi Germany 112
Needham, Joseph 212, 26, 43, 251
Needham puzzle 910, 1827, 51, 123, 251
bias of hypotheses 316
comparison of hypotheses 1931
new hypotheses 3742
Nelson, Benjamin 21
neoclassical economics 589, 65, 103, 120
Neo-Confucianism 162, 168, 201, 258
neo-institutional economics 2
Netherlands 211, 21516
new classical economics 12
New Culture Movement 309
new economic geography 12, 103
Newcomen, Thomas 219
Newton, Isaac 217
Ni Genjin 180, 208
Nobel, Alfred 221
nomads 54, 1278, 1345, 139, 1414, 1623, 2012, 246, 319
and climatic change 181, 184, 18693, 196, 205
comparative power with Han Chinese 18693
and governmental governance 139, 1412, 147, 1545, 165, 256
military 200, 202
Northern dynasty 240, 242
climatic change 178, 182, 1847, 238
governance 14043, 150, 162, 235, 256, 3034
petty peasant economy 90, 95, 104, 118, 121
Northern Song dynasty 55, 58, 68, 106, 116, 121, 14954, 200202, 312
climatic change 18083, 187, 1945, 1989, 205, 238
governance 14951, 154, 235
petty peasant economy 106, 116, 121
Northern Wei dynasty 142, 145, 194, 205, 209
Nowak, L. 112
Nurhachi 169
Obscurantism 166
one whip law 82, 105, 161
one-child policy 243
Otto, Nikolaus 220
Ou Yangxiu 195
Parsons, Charles 220
patents 34
patriarchies 37, 130, 317
pauperization 58
Pearl River 59, 133
peasant revolts 157, 159, 2356, 239, 2423
peasants, behavior of 513, 7981, 83
See also petty peasant economy
constraints facing 5962
in cotton and silk industries 749
income and expenditure 6774
population-land ratio 529
yield selection 637
People’s Republic of China 174, 243, 247, 261, 26871, 2767, 28081, 286, 2945, 302, 3058, 310, 321
Perkin, W.H. 217
Perkins, Dwight 345, 138
petty peasant economy 3, 59, 14, 34, 678, 8081, 83, 1434, 171, 1789, 184, 192, 196, 226, 230, 233, 251, 256, 2613, 267, 270, 278, 294, 30211, 313, 317, 319
See also peasants, behavior of
as basis for inertial pattern of Chinese governance 10120
in Chinese history 835
efficiency advantage of 91100
formation and consolidation of 8390
status and impacts of 93100
Pi Jiancai 18, 32
Ping Zhun 137
Pizarro, Francis 215
planned economy 56, 14, 247, 305, 310
plowshares 97
police 135, 141, 171, 173
Politburo 4
population growth 41, 54, 65, 80, 100, 131, 167, 186, 21213, 2213, 23345, 258, 265, 2756, 282
population-land ratio 20, 29, 529, 73, 2423
Portugal 213, 215
positivism 36
poverty 27980
primogeniture 60, 100
property rights 33, 38, 42, 84, 128, 167, 314, 319
public goods 1, 28, 38, 112, 118, 133, 231, 314, 317, 319, 3245
Qian dynasty 54
Qian Mu 1334, 138, 159, 202
Qianlong 78, 94, 2279
Qin dynasty 23, 5, 78, 28, 523, 60
climatic change 1789, 1825, 187
governance 13035, 137, 139, 144, 147, 150, 165, 167, 3024, 3067
petty peasant economy 84, 86, 889, 93, 96, 99, 10810, 11617, 121
Qin Shi Huang 1316
Qin Shishuang 116
Qing dynasty 29, 37, 41, 52, 558, 678, 7074, 789, 240, 247, 312, 323
climatic change 1789, 1856, 194, 2378
governance 159, 16370, 1734, 235, 305
petty peasant economy 95, 99, 116
Qingli period 195
Rashevsky, N. 32
reform and opening up 3, 13, 345, 121, 243, 24850, 26176, 2812, 2878, 29091, 2934, 316, 321
Reformation 121, 192, 21112, 218, 223
religious reformation 21112, 218, 223
Renaissance 21011, 218, 223, 231
rent-seeking 120
research method 914
rivers 167, 198, 258
See also individual rivers
Rodrik, Dani 40
Roman Empire 143
Romer, David 40
rotation system 60
Rozov, N.S. 32
rule by law 31820
rule of law 121, 31820
Russia 169, 2214
See also Soviet Union
salt 67, 69, 99, 110, 119, 133, 1378, 146, 153, 16061, 172, 183, 194, 216, 246
Sang Hong Yang 137
scale economies 32, 39, 74, 77, 98
Schultz, T.W. 79
Schumpeter, Joseph 250
science 2931, 136, 145, 148, 21718, 229, 251, 258, 265
Scott, James C. 79
Se Muren 1567
Seitz, Konrad 28081
self-sufficiency 85, 90
Shang dynasty 86, 179
Shang Shu ministry 144
Shang Yang 88, 132, 139
Shaoxing period 193, 202
Sheji 96
Shi Jingtang 190
shipbuilding 98, 153, 161, 2456
Shiue, Carol 2021, 42
Si Li Xiao Wei 141
silk industry 749, 90, 99, 181, 194
silver 71, 106, 161, 171, 184, 195, 213, 281, 323
Sima Guang 195, 205
single factor analysis 32
Sivin, N. 26, 33, 43
Six Dynasties 183, 197, 237, 24041
Sixteen Kingdoms 304
slavery 155, 158, 21314
Smith, Adam 1, 103, 204
social security 14
socialism 8, 262, 2756, 281, 310, 312, 316, 321
soil 25, 30, 39, 59, 80, 912, 102, 109, 1824, 186, 191, 1967, 205, 246
soldiers 38, 967, 115, 139, 141, 147, 151, 154, 158, 162, 1923, 2013, 215, 245
See also military
son of heaven 116
Song dynasty 29, 40, 52, 54, 60, 678, 734, 200205, 2356, 240, 2447
climatic change 17884, 187, 1915, 1989, 2057, 2378
governance 149, 1517, 160, 162, 168, 1734, 200204, 235, 258, 3045
petty peasant economy 99, 117
Song Gaozong 202
Song Taizong 180
Song Zhenzong 180
Song Ziwen 17071
Southern dynasty 143, 240, 242
climatic change 178, 1847, 238
governance 14043, 150, 162, 235, 256, 3034
petty peasant economy 90, 95, 104, 118, 121
Southern Song dynasty 29, 54, 74, 78, 200202, 240, 245
climatic change 17981, 193, 198, 2378
governance 154, 157, 2356
petty peasant economy 105
Soviet Union 79, 2626, 271, 275, 318
See also Russia
Spain 21416
special economic zones 275
Spring and Autumn period 60, 87, 92, 1089, 13031
statism 309
Stavrianos, L.S. 2212
steam power 219
Stokey, N.L. 35, 42
Subramanian, A. 40
suburbanization 2
Sui dynasty
climatic change 1789, 1827, 194, 238
governance 1438, 150, 152, 162, 2356
petty peasant economy 90, 105, 113, 116, 118
Sui Wen Di 146
Sui Yang Di 147
Sun Zhongshan 170
Taihu Lake 181
Taiwan 169
Taixue 1356
Tan Ding Ru Mu 105
Tang dynasty 27, 589, 65, 90, 101, 11621, 201, 240, 2446
climatic change 17887, 190, 192, 1945, 199, 2378
governance 138, 1438, 150, 152, 154, 162, 235, 323
petty peasant economy 90, 946, 101, 105, 110, 113, 11618
Tang Gao Zu 147
Tang Tai Zong 96, 147, 323
Taoism 102, 108, 139
taxation 6, 61, 87, 93, 107, 111, 1279, 1324, 1378, 142, 1489, 1513, 157, 161, 167, 174, 180, 199200, 224, 292, 314, 323
tax-mu system 87
Telford, Thomas 219
Temple, Robert 251
Three Kingdoms 90, 116, 121, 140, 150, 235, 240, 256, 303
climatic change 178, 1845, 238
governance 14043, 150, 235, 256, 3034
petty peasant economy 90, 116, 118, 121
Tibet 139, 169, 189
Town-Villageship Enterprises 103, 2489, 282
transaction costs 1, 4, 20, 22, 24, 41, 51, 93
transaction efficiency 14, 40
transportation 2, 67, 106, 138, 146, 156, 167, 171, 21920, 258, 261, 294, 312
Trebbi, F. 40
Tuo Ba Wei 142
Turkey 43
United Kingdom 89, 27, 29, 40, 42, 61, 114, 21116, 21822, 2245, 229, 2623, 31314
United States 170, 205, 21213, 216, 22022, 224, 2623, 276
upward mobility 61, 94, 148, 256, 294, 312, 319
urbanization 12, 89, 40, 52, 192, 2223
urban-rural disparity 2, 287
Vietnam 158
Vikings 212
Volta, Alessandro 220
Wang Anshi 154, 164, 174, 195, 246, 258
Wang Guozhong 26
Wang Huiyao 315
Wang Lixin 18, 2021
Wang Mang 135, 138
Wang Pi 195
Wang Shuwen 195
Wang Yangming 173
Wangjia 141
Wang-Mang 235
Wanli 55
warlords 17072, 247
Warring States period 52, 60, 88, 91, 108, 115, 132, 138
water conservancy 118, 127, 138, 149, 160, 243
Watt, James 219
Weber, Max 33
Wei dynasty 240
climatic change 194, 205
governance 142, 145, 235, 304
petty peasant economy 104
Weizheng 101
well land system 878, 94
Wen Guanzhong, James 18, 32, 40
West Han dynasty 723
governance 13440
petty peasant economy 89, 97, 1089, 111, 113, 116, 119
West Jin dynasty
governance 14043, 150, 304
petty peasant economy 121
Williamson, S.H. 32
wine 65, 99, 110, 1378, 146, 153, 245
World Bank 7
world system 212, 24, 26, 2930
World Trade Organization 284
Wu Cunhao 194
Wu Jing 202
Wu Zhaoping 228
Xar Moron River 190
Xia dynasty 86
Xiangtu 96
Xiao He 117, 135
Xiaowen 205
Xie Shujun 234, 244
Xu Zhuoyun 9091, 107, 113
Xuanhe period 202
Xunzi 101
Yang Ke 1367
Yang Me 236
Yang Xiaokai 12, 42
Yangtze River 54, 59, 1813, 191, 1934, 199, 2445
Yao Shan-yu 238
Yao Yang 20
Yellow River 59, 182, 184, 1967
Yelv Chucai 156
Yelv Deguang 190
Yiluo River 180
Yingzheng 889
Yongzhen Reform 195
Yongzheng 165
Yu Jing 195
Yuan dynasty 678
climatic change 178, 1856, 2378
governance 1559, 162, 1645, 1734, 235, 258, 305
petty peasant economy 95, 105
Yuanfeng period 1934
Yulin 105
Zeng Qi 309
Zhang Jiacheng 180
Zhang Juzheng 164
Zhang Yuyan 18, 32
Zhang Zhiguo 323
Zhao Gang 1516, 40, 42, 78, 91, 97, 99, 194
Zhao Guangyi 246
Zhao Hongjun 18
Zhao Kuang Yi 151
Zhao Kuang Yin 1512, 201, 2456
Zhao Wenlin 234, 244
Zheng Xuemeng 197
Zhenzong 195
Zhidao period 194
Zhong Shu ministry 144
Zhong Xiang 236
Zhou dynasty 251
climatic change 1845
governance 128, 304
petty peasant economy 867, 94
Zhou Jiugeng 323
Zhou Xuanwang 87
Zhu Kezhen 179, 236, 238
Zhu Yuanzhang 111, 159, 162, 164
Zu Yong Diao 117