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Human Rights and Islam

An Introduction to Key Debates between Islamic Law and International Human Rights Law

Abdullah Saeed

Is there a basis for human rights in Islam? Beginning with an exploration of what rights are and how the human rights discourse developed, Abdullah Saeed explores the resources that exist within Islamic tradition. He looks at those that are compatible with international human rights law and can be garnered to promote and protect human rights in Muslim-majority states. A number of rights are given specific focus, including the rights of women and children, freedom of expression and religion, as well as jihad and the laws of war. Human Rights and Islam emphasises the need for Muslims to rethink problematic areas of Islamic thought that are difficult to reconcile with contemporary conceptions of human rights.
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Index

Abdullah Saeed

Aaronson, S. 24

Abel, A. 233

Abou El Fadl, K. 83, 84–5, 86, 87, 88, 132, 234

Abu Zahrah, M. 229

adoption, child rights 156, 160–61, 162, 166

African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights 35, 67–8

Ahmad, A. 233

Ahmad, N. 113, 115

Ahmed, J. 191

Al-Ahsan, A. 23, 61

al-Buti, M. 229–30

Al-Mutairi, M. 24

al-Zuhayli, W. 230

Ali, A. 112

Ali, K. 130

Ali, S. 64, 66, 120, 122, 127–8, 141, 234

Altıok, Ö. 144

Amor, A. 195

An-Na‘im, A. 2, 3, 41, 50–51, 57, 105–7, 112, 116, 122, 131, 220, 221, 226, 227–8

Anthony, D. 46

apostasy 39, 54, 161, 183, 186–8

and freedom of religion 196, 197, 198–200, 202, 205–6, 207, 208–11

Arab Charter of Human Rights 49–51

ratification issues 50–51

Arab League 48, 49–51

Arab Spring 71–2

Arbour, L. 41

Aristotle 65

Arkoun, M. 69

Armstrong, K. 141

authoritarian or semi-authoritarian systems 80, 89

Azzam, S. 60, 61

Baderin, M. 2, 8, 45, 68, 84, 134, 135, 136, 137–8, 181, 182, 213

Bahrain 159, 198

Bakircioglu, O. 234

Balchin, C. 173

Bangladesh 120, 121, 184

Barlas, A. 129–30, 137

Baroody, J. 42–4

Bays, D. 100

belief see religion headings

Bénito, E. 195

Bennabi, M. 91–3

Bennoune, K. 224, 225, 227

Bentham, J. 65

Bentley, K. 155–6, 157–8, 161

Betton, J. 28, 32

Bielefeldt, H. 4, 38, 55–6, 76, 194–5

blasphemy laws 182–4, 185–8

Bristow, W. 45

Brown, D. 101

Bueno de Mesquita, B. 93

Bugnion, F. 232

Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) 40, 54–6, 152

Calfano, B. 82

caliphate 85, 223

Cassin, R. 36

censorship see freedom of expression

Chaudhry, S. 172

Chauffour, J. 24

child rights 149–73

adoption 156, 160–61, 162, 166

age of maturity 154, 155, 158

apostasy and change of religion 161

armed hostilities, involvement in 157

Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) 152

child labour 161, 162

child marriage 158, 159

child prostitution and child pornography 157

community obligations 150

Covenant on the Rights of the Child in Islam 152–3

criminalisation of sexual relations outside marriage 159

custody cases 150, 160, 162–3, 168

death penalty and right to life 154, 159–60, 196

divorce and custody 162

education rights 151, 154

exploitation protection 155, 161

female infanticide ban 149–50

freedom of expression 156

freedom of religion 151, 161

harmonisation possibilities 161–3

inheritance 161

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 154, 162

in international law 153–6

International Year of the Child 154

Islamic human rights instruments 151–2

Islamic legal thinking 149–51

legitimacy 159, 165–6

marriageable age 158–9

nationality rights 154, 156

Organisation for Islamic Cooperation (OIC) Declaration 151

parental duties and mutual obligations 150, 151–2, 157, 160, 162–3, 166–8

participatory rights 155

privacy protection 156

unborn child rights 150

Universal Declaration of Human Rights 153–4

Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights (UIDHR) 151–2

Western focus concerns 155–6, 157–8

see also marriage rights; parental duties

child rights, UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) 34, 151, 153, 154–6

and Islamic notions of child’s rights, tensions between 157–61, 162, 163

Muslim states’ responses 156–7

China 100–101

citizenship rights, freedom of religion 202

clash of civilisations concept 63–78

and Arab Spring 71–2

civilisation concept and cross-national differences 71–2

cultural relativism 64–5

individual duties 67, 69–70

individual and inalienable rights 64–5

Western perspective on human rights 39, 44, 63–5

clash of civilisations concept, international human rights law, duties in 73–6

civil and political rights 74

duties towards others and the community 75–6

duty on State authorities 74

economic, social and cultural rights 74

freedom of the press 75

minority groups’ demands 75

right to equality 75

right to free speech 74, 75

right to join trade unions 74

torture prohibition 74

clash of civilisations concept, and Islamic perspective on human rights 65–71

community over individual focus 69–70

divine origin 65–6, 68

duties versus rights 3, 53, 56–7, 66–8

haqq (right) use in Qur’an and hadith 68–9

individual responsibility emphasis 69–70

Mazalim tribunals 70

rights terminology 68–9

coercion, non-coercion in matters of faith 201, 202, 203–5

Cole, W. 71, 82

colonial rule effects 48, 82, 89, 104

community consensus (ijma) 12–13

community consultation (shura) 85–6, 93

community obligations, child rights 150

conscience, and freedom of religion 193–4, 197, 199, 200, 201

contemporary Muslim scholarship, and women see women’s rights, contemporary Muslim scholarship

contextualization of relevant texts 19–21

Corley, F. 108

corporal punishment 51

see also death penalty

Covenant on the Rights of the Child in Islam 152–3

criminal responsibility and age of maturity 158

cultural diversity concerns and women 121–2

cultural relativism 37–41, 64–5

custody cases, child rights 150, 160, 162–3, 168

Dalacoura, K. 54

Dallmayr, F. 95

darura (necessity) principle 18

Dawud, A. 77

death penalty

child rights 154, 159–60, 196

and freedom of expression 183, 185, 186–8

and freedom of religion 196–8, 199–200, 202, 206, 207

and pregnant women 118

see also corporal punishment

Decherf, D. 98

defamation of religion 58–9, 176–9, 183

DeLong-Bas, N. 148

democracies

Islamic 80, 83–5, 89, 90, 91–3

Western 29, 79, 81–2, 86, 87, 88–9, 92–3

Denmark 97

cartoon controversy 178–81

discrimination against women see women’s rights, Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)

divine origin 29–30, 65–6, 68

divorce (talaq) 112, 115, 117–18, 121, 133, 134–5, 140, 162

see also marriage rights

Donnelly, J. 7, 26, 27, 38, 63

Donner, F. 213

Donoho, D. 38

dress, and veiling 114, 137–8

duties versus rights 3, 53, 56–7, 66–8

economic development impact 82

economic, social and cultural rights 74

education rights 51, 151, 154

Egypt 123–4, 159, 184, 196, 198

El Fegiery, M. 212

El-Awa, M. 207

Elsayed, M. 228–32

enforcement restrictions, Arab Charter of Human Rights 50

engagement with international human rights see under Islam human rights instruments

equality right 75, 80

gender equality 20, 55, 126–8, 129

Eshkevari, H. 208–11

Esposito, J. 148

ethics code 92–3

European Commission of Human Rights 35

European Enlightenment effects 28, 36, 38, 64–5, 102–3

evil speech, public utterance of 182

expert opinions, UN 35, 50, 51, 70, 125

exploitation protection, child rights 155, 161

expression, freedom of see freedom of expression

Fadel, M. 213

family relations 112, 120–21, 124, 132–3, 135, 140

see also child rights; marriage; parental duties

female infanticide 111–12, 149–50

see also child rights

Fernandez, N. 172

fiqh (understanding), and Shari’a law, distinction between 14–15, 114

Fisch, M. 93

Fox, J. 79, 80, 82

France 29, 32, 103

secularism and laïcité 98–9

Freamon, B. 234

freedom of expression 174–91

Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) 55

child rights 156

clash of civilisations concept 74, 75

Danish cartoon controversy 178–81

and defamation of religion 58–9, 176–9, 183

harmonisation possibilities 184–6

and incitement to racial and religious hatred 176–7, 178

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 174–6, 179, 185

meaning of 174–8

and negative portrayals of Islam and Muslims 176–8

public expression 180–81, 182, 185

restrictions 176, 179

state-imposed limitations 178

UN Human Rights Committee 175, 176–8, 183, 185

Universal Declaration of Human Rights 174

Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights (UIDHR) 54

freedom of expression, in Islam and interpretive judgement 179–81, 185

intellectual debate and religious discussions 180–81, 182, 184, 185–6

as privilege under Islamic law 179–80

freedom of expression, restrictions in Islamic law 181–8

apostasy 183, 186–8

blasphemy laws 182–4, 185–8

and death penalty 183, 185, 186–8

moral and legal restraints 181

public utterance of evil speech 182

freedom of the press 75

freedom of religion 192–214

and apostasy laws 196, 197, 198–200, 202, 205–6, 207

and apostasy laws, Eshkevari case 208–11

Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) 55–6

child rights 151, 161

citizenship rights 202

conscience 193–4, 197, 199, 200, 201

and death penalty 196–8, 199–200, 202, 206, 207

freedom to manifest one’s religion 197–8

gentle persuasion, use of 201–2

harmonisation possibilities 207

historical practice in Muslim societies 203–6

human dignity 200

human rights development 39

and ijtihad (independent reasoning) 15, 16, 20, 22, 207

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) 194, 197

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 194–6, 197–8, 206

in international law 193–6

Islamic human rights instruments 49, 54, 55–6

Islamic sources, support in 200–202

non-coercion in matters of faith 201, 202, 203–5

permissible restrictions in Islam 202–3

personal responsibility 200–201

proselytisation rights 197, 202, 205–6

punishment for changing religion 196

religious hypocrisy problem 201

religious minorities 53, 75, 198, 199, 203

restrictions by Muslim-majority countries 198–200

and social relations 193

state and Islam 80–81

state obligations 96, 97, 193, 194–5

UN Human Rights Committee 194, 195, 196–7, 198, 199, 207

Universal Declaration of Human Rights 193–4

Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights (UIDHR) 54

women’s rights 122, 140–41

worship and observance 194, 197, 199, 202

Freeman, M. 2, 102, 104–5, 126, 139–41

Gaffney-Rhys, R. 147

gender discrimination 54, 55, 81, 107, 111–13

see also women’s rights

gender equality 20, 55, 126–8, 129

Germany 97–8

Ghannouchi, R. 91–3

Goolam, N. 178, 179, 182–3

governance see state and Islam

Guo, C. 100

Gyan, K. 76

hadith

on apostasy 199–200

legal source see Islamic legal sources, hadith or traditions of the Prophet

marginalisation of women 114

haja (need) principle 18

Hakeem, F. 7

Hallaq, W. 7, 16–17

haqq (right) use in Qur’an and hadith 68–9

harmonisation challenges and possibilities 104–5, 161–3, 184–6, 207, 227–8, 238–9

Hashemi, K. 149, 159

Hassan, R. 65, 131

Hathout, M. 234

Hevener, N. 116–17

hiba (gift) doctrine and inheritance 136

hikma (rationale and wisdom) principle 19

Hille, R. 63–4, 69

Hoffmann, A. 107

Hohfeld, W. 66–7

honour killings 124

Hourani, A. 213

Hoveyda, F. 40

human dignity principle 4, 10, 25, 30, 32, 33, 36, 38, 40, 52–3, 55, 67, 84, 103, 137–8, 182, 200

human rights development 25–47

Asian values 39

classical liberalism 29

divine right theory and purpose of government 29–30

European Enlightenment effects 28, 36, 38, 64–5, 102–3

expert opinions, UN 35, 50, 51, 70, 125

freedom of religion 38, 39, 43

generations of rights 36–7

human rights definition 26–7

International Bill of Human Rights 34

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 33–4, 37, 40, 51, 75–6

International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 34, 37, 40, 75–6

international human rights history 27–8

International Labour Organisation 32

international law 26, 27, 34

and Islamic family laws 43

legal right 26, 27

marriage rights 43–4, 48

moral right 26–7

and natural law 28–30

regional protection 35

right to be free from torture 32

and Second World War 30–31

UN Charter 30–31, 40

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 31–3, 34, 36–7, 39–40, 41, 42–4, 48–9

universality versus cultural relativism 25, 32, 37–41

Western contribution 27, 38–9, 44

women’s rights 39, 40–41, 43–4

human rights instruments see Islamic human rights instruments

Human Rights Watch 81, 186–8

Huntington, S. 38, 63, 64, 71, 72, 231

hypocrisy, religious hypocrisy problem 201

Ignatieff, M. 47

ijtihad (independent reasoning) 15, 16, 20, 22, 207

incitement to racial and religious hatred 176–7, 178

individual duties 64–5, 67, 69–70, 75, 200–201

Indonesia 158, 159, 183–4

Inglehart, R. 47, 71, 132–3

inheritance provisions 70, 112, 120, 125, 136–7, 161

insult and blasphemy 182–4, 185–8

intellectual debate and religious discussions 180–81, 182, 184, 185–6

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 35

International Bill of Human Rights 34

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) 194, 197

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)

child rights 154, 162

freedom of expression 174–6, 179, 185

freedom of religion 194–6, 197–8, 206

human rights development 33–4, 37, 40, 51, 75–6

propaganda use 219

women’s rights 117–18, 133

International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 34, 37, 40, 75–6, 118–19

international humanitarian law (IHL), and war 215, 216–17, 225–7

International Labour Organisation 32

international law, human rights development 26, 27, 34

International Year of the Child 154

interpretive judgement see freedom of expression, in Islam and interpretive judgement

Iqbal, M. 56

Iran 80–81, 156, 158, 159, 197, 198, 206, 208–11

Iraq 136

Ishaque, S. 163

Ishay, M. 27–8, 33, 36

Islam, M. 145

Islamic Council of Europe 52

Islamic democracies 80, 83–5, 89, 90, 91–3

see also democracies

Islamic human rights instruments 48–62

Arab Charter of Human Rights 49–51

Arab Charter of Human Rights, ratification issues 50–51

Arab League 48, 49–51

Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) 40, 54–6, 152

child rights 151–2

colonial rule effects 48

freedom of religion 49, 54, 55–6

marriage rights 48

Organisation for Islamic Cooperation (OIC) 40, 50, 54, 58–9, 80, 82–3, 123, 151, 227

religious duties over rights, emphasis on 53, 56–7

reservations over UN human rights treaties 49

revisionist or reconstructionist approach consideration 56

Islamic human rights instruments, Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights (UIDHR) 52–4

child rights 151–2

freedom of speech 54

gender inequality 54

rights of minorities 53

Shari’a governance issues 53–4

Islamic legal sources 9–24

hadith or traditions of the Prophet 11–12, 13

historical authenticity issues 11–12

ijma’ (consensus of the community) 12–13

qiyas (analogical reasoning) 13–14

Qur’an 9–10, 13, 15

rights in 21–3

see also state and Islam

Islamic legal sources, international human rights norms, concepts and strategies to engage with 17–21

contextualization of relevant texts 19–21

darura (necessity) principle 18

haja (need) principle 18

hikma (rationale and wisdom) principle 19

human rights as binding by agreement 17–18

Islamic legal sources, Shari’a (Islamic law) 14–21

and fiqh (understanding), distinction between 14–15

historical development 14–17

ijtihad (individual reasoning) 15, 16, 20, 22, 207

rise of the jurists 16–17, 23

Successors (second generation of Muslims) 15–16

Sunnism emergence 16, 17

traditionalist and rationalist approaches 16

Islamic perspective on human rights, and clash of civilisations see clash of civilisations concept, and Islamic perspective on human rights

Islamic sources support, freedom of religion 200–202

Jackson, S. 234

Jahangir, A. 194

Jamal, Z. 125

jihad doctrine see war and human rights, jihad doctrine

Jordan 156, 198–9

just war theory see war and human rights, just war theory

Kamali, M. 77, 179–80, 181, 182, 183, 200, 207

Kant, I. 66

Karman, T. 72

Kashefi, M. 71, 78

Kayao|$$|Ahglu, T. 55, 58–9

Khallaf, A. 234

Khan, M. 145, 163

Khir, B. 148

Kindopp, J. 108

Knäble, P. 216

Koraytem, T. 48

Krivenko, E. 148

Kutty, F. 172

Kuwait 117–18, 123, 156, 183, 199

Langlaude, S. 161

Lau, M. 94

Lazar, S. 232

Lebanon 119

Leblanc, L. 170

legal sources see Islamic legal sources

legitimacy, and child rights 159

Lentz, S. 141

Li, X. 41

Libya 50

Locke, J. 26, 28, 29, 102

Luehrmann, S. 108

Machado, M. 99

Mahmoudi, S. 223, 227

Mahmud, A. 234

Mahmud, J. 235

Malaysia 123, 135, 139–41, 160, 206

Maldives 158, 198

Maliki school 17, 135

Malta 97

Maneli, M. 76

marriage rights 48, 111, 112, 115, 119, 120–21, 124, 133, 135, 140

child marriage 158–9

see also child rights; divorce; family relations; polygyny

Marshall, P. 177

maturity, age of 154, 155, 158

see also child rights

Maududi, A. 180, 201

Mauritania 198

Mauritius 118–19

Mavani, H. 221

Mayer, A. 7, 39, 40, 42–4

Mazalim tribunals 70

Mernissi, F. 137

Mir-Hosseini, Z. 114

Mokhtari, S. 72

monarchies 80

Monsma, S. 109

Moosa, E. 7, 53, 56, 69

Morgan-Foster, J. 8

Morocco 50

Morsink, J. 43

Mosaffa, N. 153, 160

Muhammad, A. 235

Muslim-majority states 42–4, 48–9, 80–81, 90, 122–6, 132, 139–41

Nasir, J. 169

nationality issues 140, 154, 156

natural law stemming from God 102, 103

negative portrayals of Islam and Muslims, and freedom of expression 176–8

Norris, P. 47, 71, 132–3

Norway 97

Omran, A. 150–51

opinion, freedom of see freedom of expression

Orend, B. 25, 26, 66–7

Organisation of American States (OAS) 35

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) 40, 50, 54, 58–9, 80, 82–3, 123, 151, 227

Ottoman Empire, millet system and freedom of religion 204–5

Pakistan 81, 124–5, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 184

Palomino, R. 97, 98

parental duties 119, 150, 151–2, 157, 160, 162–3, 166–8

see also child rights

Parvin, M. 221

patriarchal attitudes 114, 118, 122, 125, 126, 127–8, 129–30

peace and justice as basic principles 51, 220, 222, 229, 230–31

persuasion, gentle persuasion, use of, and freedom of religion 201–2

Petersen, M. 62

Petrasek, D. 73–6

Philippines 164–8

Pocar, F. 46

political rights, clash of civilisations concept, international human rights law, duties in 74

polygyny 19, 20, 112, 116, 120, 129, 133–4

see also marriage rights; women’s rights

pre-Islamic Arabia 111–13, 219–20

prisoners of war 225–6

privacy protection, child rights 156

propagation of Islam 220, 229–30

property ownership 69–70, 112, 120, 125

Prophetic period 86, 203–4

proportionality, war and human rights 225

proselytisation 197, 202, 205–6

prostitution, child 157

public expression, freedom of expression 180–81, 182, 185

public or political life, women’s involvement 118, 121, 126, 140

public utterance of evil speech 182

Pupavac, V. 155

Qatar 120, 121, 156

Qutb, S. 87, 231–2

Rafiq, A. 173

Rahman, F. 10, 56, 113, 131

Rahman, S. 212

Rajabi-Ardeshiri, M. 150, 151–2

ratification issues, Arab Charter of Human Rights 50–51

Rehman, J. 234

religion and the state 96–109

colonialism concerns 104

Enlightenment effects 102–3

freedom of religion right 96, 97, 107

natural law stemming from God 102, 103

religion–state separation models 96–7, 105–7

secularism 102–7

state neutrality 96–7, 103, 106

Universal Declaration of Human Rights 103–4

Western collaboration issues 103, 104

religion and the state, secularism models 97–101

advantages to particular religious groups 97–8

China 100–101

Europe 97–9

former Soviet Union 99–100

France and laïcité 98–9

Singapore 101

religious duties versus rights 3, 53, 56–7, 66–8

religious exclusivity and human rights 81–3

religious freedom see freedom of religion

reservations over UN human rights treaties 49

restrictions

and freedom of expression see freedom of expression, restrictions in Islamic law

freedom of religion 198–200

rights

in Islamic legal sources 21–3

religious duties versus 3, 53, 56–7, 66–8

see also child rights; freedom of expression; freedom of religion; human rights development; Islamic human rights instruments; religion headings; women’s rights

Rishmawi, M. 51

Rousseau, J.-J. 65

rules of engagement, and war 218–19, 221, 224

Sabiq, S. 234

Saeed, H. 212, 213

Sahliyeh, E. 82

Saudi Arabia 123, 156, 159, 184, 186–8, 196, 206

Schacht, J. 69–70

Scott, R. 146, 205

Second World War, and human rights development 30–31

secularism

models see religion and the state, secularism models

religion and the state 102–7

religious traditions and clash of civilisations concept 65

self-defence, and war 227

separation see secularism

Shah, N. 116, 127, 142, 201

Shari’a (Islamic law)

Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) 54–5

as legal source see Islamic legal sources, Shari’a (Islamic law)

Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights (UIDHR) 53–4

Shihab, M. 231

Singapore 101

slavery abolition 13

Sommer, M. 221

Soper, C. 109

Soroush, A. 201

sovereignty issues 86–8

Soviet Union 99–100

speech, freedom of see freedom of expression

Spiegel, M. 101

Ssenyonjo, M. 45, 227

state and Islam 79–95

authoritarian or semi-authoritarian systems 80, 89

caliphate 85, 223

changeable and unchangeable laws, distinguishing between 88

colonial rule legacy 48, 82, 89, 104

community consultation (shura) 85–6, 93

democracy, Islamic 80, 83–5, 89, 90, 91–3

democracy, Western 29, 79, 81–2, 86, 87, 88–9, 92–3

economic development impact 82

and ethics code 92–3

freedom of religion 80–81

gender discrimination 81

monarchies 80

Muslim-majority countries 80–81, 90

political regime types and human rights, links between 79

religious exclusivity and human rights 81–3

right of equality 80

sovereignty issues 86–8

theocracies 80

see also Islamic legal sources

state obligations

freedom of expression 178

freedom of religion 96, 97, 193, 194–5

and international human rights law 74

and religion see religion and the state

Steiner, H. 47

Steiner, K. 101

Stoljar, S. 77

Sturges, P. 189

Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs conferences 230–31

Syria 159

Taha, M. 3

Tajikistan 118

talaq see divorce

Talib, S. 234

Tamimi, A. 91–3

territorial expansion, and war 204, 220, 223, 224

terrorism, and jihad doctrine 228–32

Tharoor, S. 33

theocracies 80

torture prohibition 32, 34, 74

trade unions 74

Tuckness, A. 109

Tunisia 50, 124, 125–6, 159, 163

Turkmenistan 196

UN, expert opinions 35, 50, 51, 70, 125

UN Charter, human rights development 30–31, 40

UN Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) see women’s rights, Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) see child rights, UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

UN Human Rights Committee

freedom of expression 175, 176–8, 183, 185

freedom of religion 194, 195, 196–7, 198, 199, 207

on veiling 137

UN Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action 37

unborn child rights 150

United Kingdom 98

United States 29, 32, 67

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 4, 28

child rights 153–4

duties to the community 67, 75, 76

equality and non-discrimination principles 117

freedom of expression 174

freedom of religion 193–4

human rights development 31–3, 34, 36–7, 39–40, 41, 42–4, 48–9

individualistic values 64

Muslim-majority states’ contribution to drafting 42–4, 48–9

and secularism 103–4

Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights (UIDHR) see Islamic human rights instruments, Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights (UIDHR)

universality of human rights 32, 37–41, 55

Van Bueren, G. 149

Van der Ven, J. 45

veiling 114, 137–8

Venkatraman, B. 135, 136

Wadud, A. 128–9, 133, 135, 136

Waltz, S. 31, 33, 43, 48, 65

war and human rights 215–35

child rights 157

harmonisation possibilities 227–8

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), propaganda use 219

international humanitarian law (IHL) 215, 216–17, 225–7

Islamic law and international humanitarian law (IHL), compatibilities between 225–6

Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs conferences 230–31

UN Human Rights Committee, propaganda use 219

war and human rights, Islamic law 219–21, 224, 229–30

dar al-islam (abode of Islam) and dar-al-harb (abode of war) 221, 229, 230

developments after Prophet’s death and just war theory 220–21

peace treaties 220

prisoners of war 225–6

and propagation of Islam 220, 229–30

proportionality 225

rules of engagement 221, 224

self-defence 227

war and human rights, jihad doctrine 215, 221–4

in classical times 224

defensive and offensive and just war theory 223–4, 227–8, 229

modern understandings 228–32

peace and justice as basic principles 51, 220, 222, 229, 230–31

and territorial expansion 204, 220, 223, 224

and terrorism 228–32

war and human rights, just war theory 217–21

developments after Prophet’s death 220–21

and international humanitarian law (IHL) 217, 218, 219

jihad doctrine, defensive and offensive 223–4, 227–8, 229

jus ad bellum (justification of armed conflict) 217–18

rules of engagement 218–19

Warren, C. 141

Western perspective 2, 103, 104, 231

child rights 155–6, 157–8

clash of civilisations concept 39, 44, 63–5

collaboration issues, religion and the state 103, 104

democracies 29, 79, 81–2, 86, 87, 88–9, 92–3

European Enlightenment effects 28, 36, 38, 64–5, 102–3

human rights development 27, 38–9, 39, 44

and women 111, 121–2

women’s rights 39, 40–41, 54, 110–48

death penalty and pregnant women 118

deterioration of women’s rights in post-Prophetic period 113–16

divorce proceedings 112, 115, 117–18, 121

equality, working towards more emphasis on 126–8

family unit equality 112

female infanticide 111–12

female Muslim warriors 113

gender discrimination 54, 55, 81, 107, 111–13

gender equality 20, 55, 126–8, 129

history of women in Arabia before Islam 111, 113

honour killings 124

human rights development 39, 40–41, 43–4

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 117–18, 133

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 118–19

international human rights treaties 116–26

labour force protection 119

legal status and value of women’s testimony 115, 120, 123

marginalisation of women, hadith justification 114

marriage contracts 111, 112, 115, 117–18, 119, 120–21, 124, 133

men and women created equal by God 127–8, 129

non-discriminatory rights 117

patriarchal attitudes 114, 118, 122, 125, 126, 127–8, 129–30

polygyny 19, 20, 112, 116, 120, 129, 133–4

property ownership and inheritance 112, 120, 125

protective rights 117

reforms of pre-Islamic gender discrimination 111–13

socio-cultural norms, effects of 115–16

veiling, hijab wearing 114, 137–8

violence towards women 125

visibility of women in society 113, 114–16

zina (unlawful sexual relations) 125

women’s rights, challenges and possible reconciliation 132–8

divorce (talaq) 134–5, 140

family and social structures 132–3

freedom of religion 122, 140–41

hiba (gift) doctrine 136

inheritance 136–7

veiling 137–8

women’s rights, contemporary Muslim scholarship 128–32

Abou El Fadl, K. 132, see also Abou El Fadl, K.

Ali, K. 130

An-Na‘im, A. 131, see also An-Na‘im, A.

Barlas, A. 129–30, 137

Hassan, R. 65, 131

Rahman, F. 131, see also Rahman, F.

Wadud, A. 128–9, 133, 135, 136

women’s rights, Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) 34, 40, 119–26

and child marriage 158, 159

criticisms of 121–2, 139–41

cultural diversity concerns and Western focus 121–2

freedom of religion 122, 140–41

Islamic legitimacy, need for 122

marriage and family relations 120–21, 124, 133, 135, 140

Muslim-majority states engagement with 122–6, 132, 139–41

nationality issues 140

polygyny 120

public or political life 121, 126, 140

women’s legal capacity 120, 124

Wong, W. 7

worship and observance, freedom of religion 194, 197, 199, 202

Yemen 160, 196

Yilmaz, I. 145

zakat alms-tax 13, 15

Zaqzuq, M. 234

Zaretsky, R. 108

Zhang, F. 100

Zhuo, X. 100

zina (unlawful sexual relations) 125