Chapter 7: Europe beyond the European Union: a multitude of models
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The European Union represents only a small share of the investments in science and innovation in Europe, the main part being carried out via the nation-states. This chapter looks in particular at the development of science and innovation policy in the UK, but also to some extent in Germany and France. It concludes that the nation-state is still the most important policy level in Europe, and showcases the complex interplay between policy developments in general and science and innovation policy in particular.

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