Show Less
You do not have access to this content

The New Global Politics of Science

Knowledge, Markets and the State

Mats Benner

Science has become a central political concern with massive increases in public investments and expectations, but resources are embedded in a complex web of societal expectations, which vary between countries and regions. This book outlines an insightful understanding of science policy as both concerning the governance of science itself (priority-setting, funding, organization and articulation with polity, society, and economy) and its extra-organizational connections, in terms of higher education, innovation and national policy concerns.
Show Summary Details
This content is available to you

References

Mats Benner

Abbott, Andrew (2001), Chaos of Disciplines, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Aberbach, J.D. and B.A. Rockman (2002), Conducting and coding elite interviews’, PS: Political Science and Society, 35, (4), 673–676.

Agar, Jon (2016), Science in the 20th Century and Beyond, Cambridge: Polity.

Aglietta, Michel (1979), A Theory of Capitalist Regulation: The US Experience, London: Verso.

Ahlgren, P. et al. (2017), ‘The role of the Chinese key labs in the international and national scientific arena revisited’, Research Evaluation, 26, (2), 132–143.

Albert, Michel (1991), Capitalisme contre capitalisme, Paris: Seuil.

Albert, Michel and James Ball (1983), Towards European Economic Recovery in the 1980s, Brussels: European Commission.

Alexander, Jeffrey C. (2013), The Dark Side of Modernity, Cambridge: Polity.

Altbach, P.G. (2009), ‘One-third of the globe: the future of higher education in China and India’, Prospects, 39, 11–31.

Altbach, P.G. (2016a), ‘China’s glass ceiling and clay feet’, University World News, 19 February.

Altbach, P.G. (2016b), Global Perspectives on Higher Education, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press.

Altbach, P.G. and G.A. Postiglione (2012), ‘Hong Kong’s academic advantage’, International Higher Education, 66, 22–27.

Altbach, Philip G. and Jamil Salmi (eds) (2011), The Road to Academic Excellence: The Making of World Class Research Universities. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Alter, Karen and David Steinberg (2007), ‘The theory and reality of the European Coal and Steel Community’, in Sophie Menuier and Katherine McNamara (eds), European Integration and Institutional Change at Fifty, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 89–104.

Anderson, P. (1996), ‘The Europe to come’, New Left Review, 18, (2), 3–8.

Anderson, P. (2007), ‘Depicting Europe’, New Left Review, 29, (18), 13–21.

Anderson, P. (2010), ‘Sinomania’, New Left Review, 32, (2), 6–10.

Anderson, Perry (2000), English Questions, London: Verso.

Anderson, Perry (2015a), American Foreign Policy and its Thinkers, London: Verso.

Anderson, Perry (2015b), The Indian Ideology: With Replies to Questions and Commentaries, Gurgaon, India: Three Essays Collective.

Androushchak, Gregory and Maria Yudkevich (2012), ‘Russian higher education: salaries and contracts’, in Philip G. Altbach et al. (eds), Paying the Professoriate: A Global Comparison of Compensation and Contracts, New York: Routledge, pp. 265–278.

Applebaum, A. (2017), ‘A new European narrative?’, New York Review of Books, 12, October.

Arnold, Erik (2009), Framework Programme 6: Meta-Evaluation, Brighton: Technopolis.

Arnold, Erik (2011), ‘Evaluation of the National Natural Science Foundation of China’. Conference presentation, American Evaluation Association, Anaheim, CA, 3 November.

Arocena, Rodrigo, Bo Göransson and Judith Sutz (2018), Developmental Universities in Inclusive Innovation Systems: Alternatives for Knowledge Democratization in the Global South, London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Atkinson, Robert D. and Stephen J. Ezell (2012), Innovation Economics: The Race for Global Advantage, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Autor, David H., David Dorn and Gordon H. Hanson (2013), Untangling Trade and Technology: Evidence from Local Labor Markets, Washington, DC: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Back, Les (2016), Academic Diary: Or Why Higher Education Still Matters, London: Goldsmiths.

Backhouse, Roger E. (2010), ‘Economics’, in Roger E. Backhouse and Philippe Fontaine (eds), The History of the Social Sciences since 1945, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 38–70.

Balakrishnan, P. (1990), ‘Economic consequences of Rajiv Gandhi’, Economic and Political Weekly, 25, (6), 301–304.

Baldwin, Frank and Anne Allison (eds) (2015), Japan: the Precarious Future, New York: New York University Press.

Barath, H. (2014), ‘Going places: an interview with Venkataram Ramakrishnan’, IndiaBioscience, August.

Batke, Jessica (2017), ‘The National People’s Congress 2017: security, ideology, and experimentation’, Hoover Institution: China Leadership Monitor, issue 523 (Spring). Downloaded 22 July 2017 at www.hoover.org/sites/default/files/research/docs/clm53jb.pdf.

Beckert, Jens (2002), Beyond the Market: The Social Foundations of Economic Efficiency, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Bell, Daniel (1973), The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, New York: Basic Books.

Bell, Daniel (1976), The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism, New York: Basic Books.

Benner, M., S. Schwaag Serger and L. Li (2012), ‘Head in the clouds and feet on the ground: research priority setting in China’, Science and Public Policy, 39, (2), 258–270.

Berger, Suzanne (2013), Making in America: From Innovation to Market, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Berkowitz, E (2005), ‘Medicare and Medicaid: the past as prologue’, Health Care Finance Review, 27, (2), 11–23.

Bertola, Luis and José Antonio Ocampo (2012), The Economic Development of Latin America since Independence, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bhagwati, Jagdish (1993), India in Transition: Freeing the Economy, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bhagwati, Jagdish and Padme Desai (1970), India: Planning for Industrialization, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bhatt, Rakesh M. (2005), ‘Expert discourses, local practices, and hybridity: the case of Indian Englishes’, in A. Suresh Canagarajah (ed.), Reclaiming the Local in Language Policy and Practice, Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 25–54.

Bimber, Bruce A. (1996), The Politics of Expertise in Congress: The Rise and Fall of the Office of Technology Assessment, Albany: State University of New York Press.

Blair, Peter D. (2011), ‘Scientific advice for policy in the United States: lessons from the National Academies and the former Congressional Office of Technology Assessment’, in Justus Lentsch and Peter Weingart (eds), The Politics of Scientific Advice: Institutional Design for Quality Assurance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 277–333.

Block, Fred and Matthew R. Keller (eds) (2011), State of Innovation: The U.S. Government’s Role in Technology Development, Boulder, CO: Paradigm.

Blom Hansen, Thomas (1999), The Saffron Wave: Democracy and Hindu Nationalism in Modern India, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Blume, Stuart S. (1974), Toward a Political Sociology of Science, New York: Free Press.

Boden, Rebecca et al. (2004), Scrutinising Science, London: Macmillan.

Böhme, Gernot (1992), Coping with Science, Boulder, CO: Westview.

Borrás, Susana and Charles Edquist (2017), Holistic Innovation Policy: Theoretical Foundations, Policy Problems and Instrument Choices, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bothwell, E. (2016), ‘TACITICS: the new smart set of rising HE powers’, THE, 24 November.

Bowen, William G. (1968), The Economics of the Major Private Universities, New York: Carnegie Commission on Higher Education.

Boyer, Robert (1990), The Regulation School: A Critical Introduction, New York: Columbia University Press.

Boyer, Robert (2007), La flexisécurité danoise: quels enseignements pour la France?, Paris: CEPREMAP.

Bozeman, Barry and James S. Dietz (2001), ‘Research policy trends in the United States: civilian technology programs, defense technology and the deployment of the National Laboratories’, in Philippe Larédo and Philippe Mustar (eds), Research and Innovation Policy in the New Global Economy: An International Comparative Analysis, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 47–78.

Branscomb, Lewis M. (1998), ‘From science policy to research policy’, in Lewis Branscomb and James H. Keller (eds), Investing in Innovation: Creating a Research and Innovation Policy that Works, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 113–139.

Braun, D. (1993), ‘Who governs intermediary agencies? Principal–agent relations in research policy making’, Journal of Public Policy, 13, (2), 135–162.

Breznitz, Dan and Michael Murphee (2011), Run of the Red Queen: Government, Innovation, Globalization, and Economic Growth in China, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Brock, D.E. (2009), ‘Science innovation during the Cultural Revolution: notes from the Peking Review’, Southeast Review of Asian Studies, 31, 226–232.

Bromley, D. Allan (2009), The President’s Scientists: Reminiscences of a White House Science Advisor, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Brown, Roger with Helen Carasso (2013), Everything for Sale? The Marketization of British Higher Education, London: Routledge.

Browne report (2010), Securing a Sustaunable Future for Higher Education: Independent Review of Higher Education Funding and Student Finance, London: UK Government.

Browning, L., J.M. Beyer and J.C. Shetler (1995), ‘Building cooperation in a competitive industry: Sematech and the semiconductor industry’, Academy of Management Journal, 38, (1), 113–151.

Buck, Alice (1983), The Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC: Department of Energy.

Bush, Vannevar (1945), Science the Endless Frontier: A Report to the President, Washington, DC: Office of Scientific Research and Development.

Bush, Vannevar (1970), Pieces of the Action, New York: William Morrow & Co.

Cable, Vince (2015), After the Storm: The World Economy and Britain’s Economic Future, London: Atlantic Books.

Cao, Cong (2004a), China’s Scientific Elite, New York: Routledge.

Cao, C. (2004b), ‘Chinese science and the “Nobel Prize complex”’, Minerva, 42, 151–172.

Cao, C. and R.P. Suttmeier (1999), ‘China’s “brain bank”: leadership and elitism in Chinese science and engineering’, Asian Survey, 3, 525–559.

Cao, C. and R.P. Suttmeier (2017), ‘Challenges of S&T system reform in China’, Science, 355, 1019–1021.

Cao, C., R.P. Suttmeier and D.F. Simon (2006), ‘China’s 15-year science and technology plan’, Physics Today, December, 38–43.

Cao, C. et al. (2013), ‘Reforming China’s S&T system’, Science, 341, 460–462.

Caraça, J. B.Å. Lundvall and S. Mendonça (2009), ‘The changing role of science in the innovation process: from queen to Cinderella?’, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 76, (6), 861–867.

Carney, R.W. (2014), ‘Singapore: open state-led capitalism’, in Michael Witt and Gordon Redding (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Asian Business Systems, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 192–215.

Castells, Manuel (1996), The Rise of the Network Society, Vol. 1, Oxford; Blackwell.

Cecchini, Paolo (1988), The European Challenge, 1992: The Benefits of a Single Market, Aldershot: Gower.

Cerny, P.G. (1997), ‘Paradoxes of the competition state: the dynamics of political globalization’, Government and Opposition, 32, (2), 251–274.

Chatelain-Ponroy, S. et al. (2014), ‘The impact of recent reforms on the institutional governance of French universities’, in Michael Shattock (ed.), International Trends in University Governance: Autonomy, Self-Government and the Distribution of Authority, London: Routledge, pp. 67–88.

Chen, K. and M. Kenney (2007), ‘University/research institutes and regional innovation systems: the cases of Beijing and Shenzhen’, World Development, 35, (6), 1056–1074.

Cheng, Y. (2017), ‘The future of particle physics will live and die in China’. Foreign Policy, 2 November.

Cheung, A. (2000), ‘New interventionism in the making: interpreting state interventions in Hong Kong after the change of sovereignty’, Journal of Contemporary China, 9, (24), 291–308.

Chopra, R. (2016), ‘“World-class universities”: what they’ll be, what it’ll take’, Indian Express, 31 March.

Chou, Meng-Hsuan (2014), ‘The evolution of the European Research Area as an idea in European integration’, in Meng-Hsuan Chou and Åse Gornitzka (eds), Building the Knowledge Economy in Europe: New Constellations in European Research and Higher Education Governance, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 27–50.

Chou, Meng-Hsuan and Åse Gornitzka, (eds) (2014), Building the Knowledge Economy in Europe: New Constellations in European Research and Higher Education Governance, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Christensen, Clayton M. and Henry J. Eyring (2011), The Innovative University: Changing the DNA of Higher Education from the Inside Out, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Chu, L. (2013), ‘Looking to China for scientific careers’, Science, 15 November.

Chubin, Daryl E. and Edward J. Hackett (1990), Peerless Science: Peer Review and US Science Policy, Albany: State University of New York Press.

Clark, William (2006), Academic Charisma and the Origins of the Research University, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Cole, Jonathen R. (2012), The Great American University: Its Rise to Preeminence, Its Indispensable National Role, Why It Must Be Protected, New York: PublicAffairs.

Collins, Harry (2014), Are We All Scientific Experts Now?, Cambridge: Polity.

Connolly, Bernard (1995), The Rotten Heart of Europe, London: Faber.

Conway, Eric M. (2014), ‘Bringing NASA back to earth: a search for relevance during the Cold War’, in Naomi Oreskes and John Krige (eds), Science and Technology in the Global Cold War, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 251–272.

Corbett, A. (2005), Universities and the Europe of Knowledge: Ideas, Institutions and Policy Entrepreneurship in European Higher Education, 1955–2005, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Corbett, A. (2011), ‘Ping pong: competing leadership for reform in EU higher education 1998–2008’, European Journal of Education, 46, (1), 36–53.

Crouch, Colin (2004), Post-Democracy, Cambridge: Polity.

Crouch, Colin (2011), The Strange Non-Death of Neoliberalism, Cambridge: Polity.

Crouch, Colin (2016), Society and Social Change in 21st Century Europe, London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Crow, Michael and Barry Bozeman (1998), Limited by Design: R&D Laboratories in the US National Innovation System, New York: Columbia University Press.

Crow, Michael M. and William B. Dabars (2015), Designing the New American University, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Cyranoski, D. (2014), ‘Chinese science gets mass transformation’, Nature, 513, 468–469.

Cyranoski, D. (2016), ‘What China’s latest five-year plan means for science’, Nature, 531, 524–525.

Cyranoski, D. (2017), ‘China fires up next-generation neutron-science facility’, Nature, 551, 284.

De Meyer, Arnoud (2014), ‘National R&D systems and technology development in Asia’, in Michael Witt and Gordon Redding (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Asian Business Systems, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 465–486.

Dean, G. and M. Macioti (1973), ‘Scientific Institutions in China’, Minerva, 11, (3), 318–334.

DelReal, Jose A. and John Wagner (2016), ‘Trump tests new message on college affordability, a key issue for Clinton’, Washington Post, 22 September.

DeMillo, Richard A. (2017), Revolution in Higher Education: How a Small Band of Innovators Will Make College Accessible and Affordable, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Dickson, David (1984), The New Politics of Science, New York: Pantheon.

Didham, R.K. and C.-D. Zhu (2016), ‘China: change tack to boost basic research’, Nature, 536, 30.

Dolla, Varaprasad S. (2015), Science and Technology in Contemporary China: Interrogating Policies and Progress, Delhi: Cambridge University Press.

Dobson, Wendy and Chia Siow Yue (eds) (1997), Multinationals and East Asian Integration, Ottawa and Singapore: International Development Research Centre and Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Donoghue, Frank (2008), The Last Professors: The Corporate University and the Fate of the Humanities, New York: Fordham University Press.

Docquier, Frédéric and Hillel Rapoport (2011), Globalization, Brain Drain and Development, Bonn: IZA.

Doubleday, Robert and James Wilsdon (eds) (2013), Future Directions for Scientific Advice in Whitehall, London: Alliance for Useful Science.

Douglass, John Aubrey (2000), The California Idea and American Higher Education: 1850 to the 1960 Master Plan, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Dyson, Kenneth (ed.) (2008), The Euro at Ten: Europeanization, Power, and Convergence, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ederveen, S., H.L.F. de Groot and R. Nahuis (2006), ‘Fertile soil for structural funds?’, Kyklos, 59, (1), 17–42.

Edgerton, D. (1996), ‘“The White Heat” revisited: the British government and technology in the 1960s’, Twentieth Century British History, 7, (1), 53–82.

Edgerton, David (2006), Warfare State: Britain, 1920–1970, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Edquist, Charles and Leif Hommen (eds) (2008), Small Country Innovation Systems: Globalization, Change and Policy in Asia and Europe, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Eichengren, Barry (2007), The European Economy since 1945: Coordinated Capitalism and Beyond, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Elzinga, Aant and Andrew Jamison (1995), ‘Changing policy agendas in science and technology’, in Shelia Jasanoff et al. (eds), Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, London: Sage, pp. 572–597.

EPSC (2015), Europe 2020: From Indicators and Targets to Performance and Delivery, Brussels: European Policy Strategy Centre.

EPSC (2017), Two Visions, One Direction: Plans for the Future of Europe, Brussels: European Policy Strategy Centre.

Ergas, Henry (1987), ‘Does technology policy matter?’, in Bruce R. Guile and Harvey Brooks (eds), Technology and Global Industry, Washington, DC: National Academies Press, pp. 191–220.

Erixon, Fredrik and Björn Weigel (2016), The Innovation Illusion, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

European Commission (2011), Supporting Jobs and Growth: An Agenda for Europe’s Higher Education Systems, Brussels: European Commission.

European Commission (2017a), FET Flagships: Interim Evaluation, Brussels: European Commission.

European Commission (2017b), Interim Evaluation of Horizon 2020, Brussels: European Commission.

European Commission (2017c), Investing in the European Future We Want: Report of the Independent High Level Group on Maximizing the Impact of EU Research and Innovation Programmes, Brussels: European Commission.

European Commission (2017d), LAB-FAB-APP: Investing in the European Future We Want, Brussels: European Commission.

European Commission (2017e), On a Renewed EU Agenda for Higher Education, Brussels: European Commission.

EY (2014), Higher Education in India: Vision 2030, Delhi: Ernst & Young.

Feldstein, Martin (1998), The Political Economy of the European Economic and Monetary Union: Political Sources of an Economic Liability, NBER Working paper no. 6150. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Feldstein, Martin (2017), ‘The international consequences of US tax reform’, Project Syndicate, 27 September. Retrieved 20 November 2017 at https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/united-states-tax-reform-international-impact-by-martin-feldstein-2017-09.

Feller, I. (1990), ‘Universities as engines of R&D-based economic growth: they think they can’, Research Policy, 19, (4), 335–348.

Feller, Irwin (2008), ‘Neoliberalism, performance measurement, and the governance of American academic science’, Center for Studies in Higher Education, Research and Occasional Paper Series, 13, 8.

Feller, Irwin (forthcoming), The Interweaving of Diffusion Research and American Science and Technology Policy. Manuscript.

Feller, I., C.P. Ailer, and J.D. Roessner (2002), ‘Impact of research universities on technological innovation in industry: evidence from engineering research enters’, Research Policy, 31, (3), 457–474.

Ferrera, Maurizio and Elisabetta Gualmini (2000), ‘Italy: rescue from without?’, in Fritz Scharpf and Vivien Schmidt (eds), Welfare and Work in the Open Economy Volume II: Diverse Responses to Common Challenges in Twelve Countries, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 351–398.

Fourcade, Marion (2009), Economists and Societies: Discipline and Profession in the United States, Britain, and France, 1890s to 1990s, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Fourcade, M., E. Ollion and Y. Algan (2015), ‘The superiority of economists’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 29, (1), 89–114.

Franzosi, R, (1998), ‘Narrative analysis: or why (and how) sociologists should be interested in narrative’, Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 517–554.

Frégnac, Y. and G. Laurent (2014), ‘Neuroscience: where is the brain in the Human Brain Project?’, Nature, 513, 7516.

Frickel, Scott and Kelly Moore (eds) (2005), The New Political Sociology of Science: Institutions, Networks, and Power, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Friedman, M. (1997), ‘If only the US were as free as Hong Kong’, Wall Street Journal, 8 July.

Fuyuno, I. (2006), ‘Singapore pulls plug on US collaboration’, Nature, 443, 493.

Galama, Titus and James Hosek (2008), US Competitiveness in Science and Technology, Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

Galbraith, John Kenneth (1967), The New Industrial State, Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Gamble, Andrew (1988), The Free Economy and the Strong State: The Politics of Thatcherism, Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Gamble, Andrew (2009), The Spectre at the Feast: Capitalist Crisis and the Politics of Recession, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Geer, Blanche et al. (1961), Boys in White: Student Culture in Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

Geiger, Roger L. (1986), To Advance Knowledge: The Growth of American Research Universities 1900–1940, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Geiger, Roger L. (1993), Research and Relevant Knowledge: American Research Universities Since World War II, New York: Oxford University Press.

Geiger, Roger L. and Creso M. Sá (2008), Tapping the Riches of Science: Universities and the Promise of Economic Growth, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gertner, Jon (2012), The Idea Factory: Bell Labs and the Great Age of American Innovation, New York: Penguin.

Geuna, A. and B.R. Martin (2003), ‘University research evaluation and funding: an international comparison’, Minerva, 41, 277–304.

Gilley, Bruce (2014), The Nature of Asian Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gillingham, John (1991), Coal, Steel, and the Rebirth of Europe, 1945–1955: The Germans and the French from the Ruhr Conflict to Economic Community, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gingras, Y. and M. Khelfaoui (2017), ‘Assessing the effect of United States’ “citation advantage” on other countries’ scientific impact as measured in the Web of Science (WoS) database’, Scientometrics, 114, (3), doi: 10.1007/s11192-017-2593-6.

Ginsberg, Benjamin (2011), Fall of the Faculty: The Rise of the All-Administrative University, New York: Oxford University Press.

Goastellec, Gaële (2012), ‘Changing the rules of the French academic market’, in Philip G. Altbach et al. (eds), Paying the Professoriate: A Global Comparison of Compensation and Contracts, New York: Routledge, pp. 136–144.

Goldin, C. and L.F. Katz (1999), ‘The shaping of higher education: the formative years in the United States, 1890–1940’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 13, (1), 37–62.

Göransson, K. (2015), ‘Raising successful children: children as accumulation strategy and the renegotiation of parenting arrangements in Singapore’, Asia-Pacific Journal of Anthropology, 16, (3), 211–226.

Gordon, Robert J. (2016), The Rise and Fall of American Economic Growth: The US Standard of Living since the Civil War, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Gornitzka, Åse (2014), ‘How strong are the European Union’s soft modes of governance?’, in Meng-Hsuan Chou and Åse Gornitzka (eds), Building the Knowledge Economy in Europe: New Constellations in European Research and Higher Education Governance, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 160–187.

Gornitzka, Åse and Julia Metz (2014), ‘European institution building under inhospitable conditions: the unlikely establishment of the European Institute for Innovation and Technology’, in Meng-Hsuan Chou and Åse Gornitzka (eds), Building the Knowledge Economy in Europe: New Constellations in European Research and Higher Education Governance, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 111–130.

Gouldner, Alvin W. (1970), The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology, New York: Basic Books.

Goyal, M. (2014), ‘Ashoka University: India’s answer to the Ivy League promises “world class” liberal education’, Economic Times, 11 May.

Graham, Loren and Irina Dezhina (2008), Science in the New Russia: Crisis, Aid, Reform, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Graham, Otis L. (1976), Toward a Planned Society: From Roosevelt to Nixon, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Graham, Otis L. (1992), Losing Time: The Industrial Policy Debate, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Grant, Malcolm (2017), The Report of the Review Panel on University Governance, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University.

Green Cowles, M. (1995), ‘Setting the agenda for a new Europe: the ERT and EC 1992’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 33, (4), 501–526.

Greenberg, Daniel S. (1967), The Politics of Pure Science, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Greenberg, Daniel S. (2001), Science, Money, and Politics: Political Triumph and Ethical Erosion, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Greenberg, Daniel S. (2007), Science for Sale: The Perils, Rewards, and Delusions of Campus Capitalism, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Greenhalgh, Susan L. (2008), Just One Child: Science and Policy in Deng’s China, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gu, Shulin (1999), China’s Industrial Technology: Market Reform and Organizational Change, London: Routledge and United Nations University Press.

Guan, C. (2009), ‘Singapore and the Vietnam War’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 40, (2), 353–384.

Gummett, Phil (1980), Scientists in Whitehall, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Guston, David H. (2000), Between Politics and Science: Assuring the Integrity and Productivity of Research, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Guston, David H. and Kenneth Keniston (eds) (1994), The Fragile Contract: University Science and the Federal Government, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Haas, Ernst B. (2004), The Uniting of Europe: Political, Social and Economic Forces 1950–1957, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Hallonsten, Olof (2016), Big Science Transformed: Science, Politics and Organization in Europe and the United States, London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Harvey, Brian, Henrik H.F. Smid and Theo Pirard (2011), Emerging Space Powers: The New Space Programs of Asia, the Middle East and South America, Berlin: Springer.

Harvey, W.S. (2011), ‘Strategies for conducting elite interviews’, Qualitative Research, 11, (4), 431–441.

Hay, Colin (2007) Why We Hate Politics, Cambridge: Polity.

Heclo, Hugh (1974), A Government of Strangers?, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Heilmann, S. and O. Melton (2013), ‘The reinvention of development planning in China, 1993–2012’, Modern China, 39, (6), 580–628.

Heilmann, Sebastian and Elizabeth J. Perry (eds) (2011), Mao’s Invisible Hand: The Political Foundations of Adaptive Governance in China, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Heilmann, S., L. Shih and A. Hofem (2013), ‘National planning and local technology zones: experimental governance in China’s Torch Program’, China Quarterly, 216, 896–919.

Heinze, T. et al. (2009), ‘Organizational and institutional influences on creativity in scientific research’, Research Policy, 31, (4), 610–623.

Herzog, Markus and Barbara M. Kehm (2012), ‘The income situation in the German system of higher education: a rag rug’, in Philip G. Altbach et al. (eds), Paying the Professoriate: A Global Comparison of Compensation and Contracts, New York: Routledge, pp. 145–154.

Hewlett, Richard G. and Francis Duncan (1969), A History of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, Vol. 2: Atomic Shield, 1947–1952, University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Hill, Christopher T. (1998), ‘The Advanced Technology program: opportunities for enhancement’, in in Lewis Branscomb and James H. Keller (eds), Investing in Innovation: Creating a Research and Innovation Policy that Works, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 143–173.

Hilpert, Ulrich (2002), State Policies and Techno-Industrial Innovation, London: Routledge.

Hirschman, D. and E. Popp Berman (2014), ‘Do economists make policies? On the political effect of economists’, Socio-Economic Review, 12, (4), 779–811.

Hirst, P. and G. Thompson (1995), ‘Globalization and the future of the nation state’, Economy and Society, 24, (3), 408–442.

HMSO (1963), Higher Education, London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

HMSO (1993), Realising Our Potential: A Strategy for Science, Engineering and Technology, London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

Ho, W.-C. et al. (2010), ‘Hong Kong’s elite structure, legislature, and the bleak future of democracy under Chinese sovereignty’, Journal of Contemporary Asia, 40, (3), 466–486.

Hobday, M. (1989), ‘The European semiconductor industry: resurgence and rationalization’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 28, (2), 155–186.

Hoddeson, Lillian, Adrienne W. Kolb and Catherine Westfall (2008), Fermilab: Physics, Frontier and Megascience, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hofstadter, Richard (1963), Anti-Intellectualism in American Life, New York: Vintage.

Hollinger, David A. (ed.) (2006), The Humanities and the Dynamics of Inclusion since World War II, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hollingsworth, J.R., K.H. Müller and E.J. Hollingsworth (2008), ‘China: the end of the science superpowers’, Nature, 24, (7203), 412–413.

Horta, Hugo, Manuel Heitor and Jamil Salmi (eds) (2016), Trends and Challenges in Science and Higher Education: Building Capacity in Latin America, Cham: Springer.

Hourihan, Matt (2017), Science and Technology Funding under Obama. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Accessed 1 December 2017 at https://www.aaas.org/news/science-and-technology-funding-under-obama-look-back.

Hull, D.L. (1975), ‘Central subjects and historical narratives’, History and Theory, 14, 253–274.

Husbands Fealing, Kaye, et al. (eds) (2011), Science of Science Policy: A Handbook, Stanford: Stanford Business Books.

Hutton, Will and Anthony Giddens (eds) (2000), On the Edge: Living with Global Capitalism, London: Jonathan Cape.

Hydén, Göran (2005), African Politics in Comparative Perspective, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hyman, Richard (1971), Strikes, London: Macmillan.

IANS (2016), ‘Qualitative improvement in education our priority: Modi’, Business Standard, 28 March.

IDRC (1997), A Decade of Reform: Science and Technology Policy in China, Ottawa and Beijing: International Development Research Center/State Science and Technology Council.

Indira, A., M.R. Bhagavan and I. Virgin (2005), Agricultural Biotechnology and Biosafety in India: Expectations, Outcomes and Lessons, Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute.

Jasanoff, Sheila (1990), The Fifth Branch: Science Advisers as Policymakers, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Jasanoff, Sheila (2005), Designs on Nature: Science and Democracy in Europe and the United States, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Jencks, Christopher and David Riesman (1968), The Academic Revolution, New York: Doubleday.

Jessop, B. (2014), ‘Variegated capitalism, das Modell Deutschland, and the Eurozone crisis’, Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 22, (3), 248–260.

Jessop, B. (2016), ‘Putting higher education in its place in (East Asian) political economy’, Comparative Education, 52, (1), 8–25.

Jessop, B. (2017), ‘The organic crisis of the British state: putting Brexit in its place’, Globalizations, 14, (1), 133–141.

Jessop, Bob (2002), The Future of the Capitalist State, Cambridge: Polity.

Jessop, Bob (2012), ‘The world market, variegated capitalism and European integration’, in Petros Nousios, Henk Overbeek and Andreas Tsolakis (eds), Globalisation and European Integration, London: Routledge, pp. 92–111.

Jessop, Bob (2015), The State: Past, Present, Future, Cambridge: Polity.

Jessop, Bob et al. (1988), Thatcherism: A Tale of Two Nations, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Jia, H. (2014), ‘China’s science academy launches new reform drive’, Chemistry World, 28 October.

Jin, B., R. Rousseau and X. Sun (2006), ‘Key labs and open labs in the Chinese scientific research system: their role in the national and international scientific arena’. Scientometrics, 67, (1), 3–14.

Jodhka, Surinder S. (2015), Caste in Contemporary India, New Delhi: Routledge.

Johnson, Chalmers (1982), MITI and the Japanese Miracle: The Growth of Industrial Policy, 1925–1975, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Jonung, L. and E. Drea (2010), ‘It can’t happen, it’s a bad idea, it won’t last: US economists on the EMU and the euro, 1989–2002’, Econ Journal Watch, 7, (1), 4–52.

Joseph, M. and A. Robinson (2004), ‘Free Indian science’, Nature, 508, 36–38.

Kaldeway, D. and D. Schauz (2017), ‘“The Politics of Pure Science” revisited’, Science and Public Policy, accessed 27 November 2017 at https://academic.oup.com/spp/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/scipol/scx060/4587618?redirectedFrom=fulltext.

Kao, John (2007), Innovation Nation, New York: Free Press.

Kaviraj, S. (1986), ‘Indira Gandhi and Indian politics’, Economic and Political Weekly, 21, 1697–1708.

Kedia, Ben L. and Subhash Jain (eds) (2013), Restoring America’s Global Competitiveness through Innovation, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Kelly, É. (2017), ‘EU to shoot for the moon in the next research programme’, Science, 12 September.

Kerr, Clark (1963), The Uses of the University, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Kevles, Daniel J. (1977), The Physicists: The History of a Scientific Community in Modern America, New York: Knopf.

Khurana, Rakesh (2007), From Higher Aims to Hired Hands: The Social Transformation of American Business Schools and the Unfulfilled Promise of Management as a Profession, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

King, D.A. (2004), ‘The scientific impact of nations’, Nature, 430, 311–316.

King, Roger (2009), Governing Universities Globally: Organizations, Regulation and Rankings, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

King’s College London and Digital Science (2015), The Nature, Scale and Beneficiaries of Research Impact: An Initial Analysis of Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014 Impact Case Studies, Bristol: HEFCE.

Kinsella, D. and J.S. Chima (2001), ‘Symbols of statehood: military industrialization and public discourse in India’, Review of International Studies, 27, (3), 353–373.

Kirch, Darrell G. (2017), ‘Letter to US senators from Association of American Medical Schools’. Accessed 5 December 2017 at https://www.aamc.org/download/482922/data/aamclettertosenateongraham-cassidyproposal.pdf.

Kirp, David L. (2003), Shakespeare, Einstein, and the Bottom Line: The Marketing of Higher Education, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Knudsen, Ann-Christina L. (2009), Farmers on Welfare: The Making of Europe’s Common Agriculture Policy, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Kohli, A. (2006), ‘Politics of economic growth in India, 1980–2005: part 1: the 1980s’, Economic and Political Weekly, 41, (13), 1251–1259.

König, Thomas (2017), The European Research Council, Cambridge: Polity.

Koselleck, Reinhart (2002), The Practice of Conceptual History: Timing History, Spacing Concepts, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Kuhlmann, S. (2001), ‘Future governance of innovation policy in Europe: three scenarios’, Research Policy, 30, (6), 953–976.

Kuhlmann, S. and A. Rip (2018), ‘Next generation innovation policies and grand challenges’, Science and Public Policy, https://doi.org/10.1093/scipol/scy011.

Kumar, Krishan (1978), Prophecy and Progress: The Sociology of Industrial and Post-Industrial Society, New York: Viking.

Kumar, S. (2017), ‘Winners and losers in India’s science budget’, Science, 3 February.

Labaree, David F. (2017), A Perfect Mess: The Unlikely Ascendancy of American Higher Education, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lall, Sanjay (2001), Competitiveness, Technology and Skills, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Lamont, Michèle (2010), How Professors Think: Inside the Curious World of Academic Judgement, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Larédo, Philippe and Philippe Mustar (eds) (2001), Research and Innovation Policies in the New Global Economy, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Larédo, Philippe and Philippe Mustar (2001), ‘French research and innovation policy: two decades of reform’, in Philippe Larédo and Philippe Mustar (eds), Research and Innovation Policies in the New Global Economy, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 447–496.

Latour, B. (2003), ‘Is re-modernization occuring: and if so, how to prove it?’, Theory, Culture and Society, 20, (2), 35–48.

Latour, Bruno (1993), Pasteurization of France, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Latour, Bruno (2004), Politics of Nature: How to Bring the Sciences into Democracy, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Lee, Keun (2013), Schumpeterian Analysis of Economic Catch-Up: Knowledge, Path-Creation, and the Middle-Income Trap, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Leibfried, Stephan (ed.) (2010), Die Exzellenzinitiative: Zwischenbilanz und Perspektiven, Frankfurt am Main: Campus.

Lepenies, Wolf (1988), Between Literature and Society: The Rise of Sociology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Levy, Jonah (2000), ‘France: directing adjustment?’, in Fritz Scharpf and Vivien Schmidt (eds), Welfare and Work in the Open Economy Volume II: Diverse Responses to Common Challenges in Twelve Countries, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 308–350.

Li Xi et al. (2015), A Comparative Study on How to Develop an Evidence-Based Approach to Policy-Making, Science Press: Beijing.

Lincoln, Yvonna S. and Egon G. Guba (1985), Naturalistic Inquiry, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Liu, X. et al. (2017), ‘Beyond catch-up: can a new innovation policy help China overcome the middle income trap?, Science and Public Policy, February.

Lourdusamy, J. (2003), ‘The Indian Association for the Advancement of Science: a tortuous tryst with modern science’, Journal of Science Education and Technology, 12, (4), 381–396.

Lourdusamy, J. (2004), Science and National Consciousness in Bengal, 1870–1930, Telangana: Orient Longman.

Lucas, Christopher J. (2006), American Higher Education: A History, New York: Palgrave Macmilllan.

Lucas, R.E. and T.J. Sargent (1979), ‘After Keynesian macroeconomics’, Federal Reserve Bank of Minnesota Quarterly Review, Spring, 1–16.

Ma, Hong (2013), Chinese Economists on Economic Reform: Collected Works of Ma Hong, London: Routledge.

Ma, N. (2009), ‘Reinventing the Hong Kong State or rediscovering it? From low interventionism to eclectic corporatism’, Economy and Society, 38, (3), 492–519.

Ma, Wanhua and Jianbo Wen (2012), ‘A study on academic salary and remunerations in China’, in Philip G. Altbach et al. (eds), Paying the Professoriate: A Global Comparison of Compensation and Contracts, New York: Routledge, pp. 94–103.

Macilwain, C. (2000), ‘World leaders heap praise on human genome landmark’, Nature, 405, 983–984.

Mah, D.N. et al. (2012), ‘Consumer perception of smart grid development: results of a Hong Kong survey and policy implications’, Energy Policy, 49, 204–216.

Mahbubani, Kishore (2008), The New Asian Hemisphere: The Irresistible Shift of Global Power to the East, New York: PublicAffairs.

Mahbubani, Kishore (2013), The Great Convergence: Asia, The West, and the Logic of One World, New York: PublicAffairs.

Mahizhnan, A. (1999), ‘Smart cities: the Singapore case’, Cities, 16, (1), 13–18.

Malecki, E.J. (1985), ‘High technology and local economic development’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 50, (3), 262–269.

Malecki, E.J. (2005), ‘The United States: still on top?’, European Planning Studies, 13, (8), 1173–1182.

Mandavilli, A. (2015), ‘Indian bioscience: the anti-bureaucrat’, Nature, 521, 148–150.

Manheim, Jarol B., Richard C. Rich and Lars Willnat (eds) (2010), Empirical Political Analysis: Research Methods in Political Science, London: Routledge.

Mann, M. (1994), ‘In praise of macro-sociology: a response to Goldthorpe’, British Journal of Sociology, 45, (1), 37–54.

Manow, Philip and Eric Seils (2000), ‘Adjusting badly: the German welfare state, structural German, and the open economy’, in Fritz Scharpf and Vivien Schmidt (eds), Welfare and Work in the Open Economy Volume II: Diverse Responses to Common Challenges in Twelve Countries, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 264–307.

Marginson, S. (2011), ‘Higher education in East Asia and Singapore: rise of the Confucian model’, Higher Education, 61, (5), 587–611.

Marginson, Simon (2016), The Dream Is Over: The Crisis of Clark Kerr’s California Idea of Higher Education, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Marginson, Simon, Sarjit Kaur and Erlenawati Sawir (2011), ‘Regional dynamism and inequality’, in Simon Marginson, Sarjit Kaur and Erlenawati Sawir (eds), Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific: Strategic Responses to Globalization, Berlin: Springer, pp. 431–461.

Marginson, Simon, Sarjit Kaur and Erlenawati Sawir (eds) (2011), Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific: Strategic Responses to Globalization, Berlin: Springer.

Martin, B.R. (2016a), ‘Twenty challenges for innovation studies’, Science and Public Policy, 43, (3), 432–450.

Martin, B.R. (2016b), What’s Happening to Our Universities? Brighton: SPRU.

Martin, B.R, P. Nightingale and A. Yegros-Yegros (2012), ‘Science and technology studies: exploring the knowledge base’, Research Policy, 41, (7), 1182–1204.

Mathies, C. and S. Slaughter (2013), ‘University trustees as channels between academe and industry: toward an understanding of the executive science network’, Research Policy, 42, (6), 1286–1300.

Mauzy, Diane K. and R.S. Milne (2002), Singapore Politics under the People’s Action Party, London: Routledge.

Mazzucato, Mariana (2011), The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs. Private Sector Myths, London: Anthem.

McCann, P. and R. Ortega-Argilés (2012), ‘Smart specialization, regional growth and applications to European Union regional cohesion policy’, Journal of Regional Policy, 49, (8), 1291–1302.

McKee, M. (2006), ‘Indian scientists support human space mission’, New Scientist, 8 November.

McLaughlin, K. (2016), ‘Science is a major plank in China’s new spending plan’. Science, 7 March.

Menand, Louis (2010), The Marketplace of Ideas: Reform and Resistance in the American University, New York: Norton.

Merritt, Giles (2016), Slippery Slope: Europe’s Troubled Future, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Merton, Robert K. (1973), The Sociology of Science, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Metzger, Walter P. (1987), ‘The academic profession in the United States’, in Burton R. Clark (ed.), The Academic Profession: National, Disciplinary, and Institutional Settings, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 123–208.

Meyer, R. (2014), ‘What does the Chief Technology Officer of a country do?’, The Atlantic, 5 September.

Meyer-Krahmer, Frieder (2001), ‘The German innovation system’, in Philippe Larédo and Philippe Mustar (eds), Research and Innovation Policies in the New Global Economy, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 205–252.

Middlemas, Keith (1979), Politics in Industrial Society: The Experience of the British System since 1911, London: Andre Deutsch.

Middlemas, Keith (1995), Orchestrating Europe: The Informal Politics of the European Union, 1943–1995, London: Fontana.

Milward, Alan (1984), The Reconstruction of Western Europe 1945–1951, London: Methuen.

Milward, Alan (2000), The European Rescue of the Nation-State (2nd edition), London: Routledge.

Ministry of Education (2005), Autonomous Universities: Towards Peaks of Excellence, Singapore: Ministry of Education.

Mirowski, Philip (2011), Science-Mart: Privatizing American Science, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Mishra, A. (2015), ‘India’s prime minister is failing to reform higher education, say academics’, Chronicle of Higher Education, 26 May.

Mody, Cyrus (2016), The Long Arm of Moore’s Law: Microelectronics and American Science, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Mohseni, M. et al. (2017), ‘Commercialized quantum technologies in five years’, Nature, 543, 7644.

Mok, Ka Ho (2013), The Quest for Entrepreneurial Universities in East Asia, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Monnet, Jean (1978), Memoirs, Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

Mooney, C. (2005a), ‘Requiem for an office’, Bulletin of Concerned Atomic Scientists, 61, (5), 41–49.

Mooney, C. (2005b), The Republican War on Science, New York: Basic Books.

Morange, Michel (1998), The History of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Moravscic, A. (2002), ‘In defence of the “democratic deficit”: reassessing legitimacy in the European Union’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 40, (4), 603–624.

Mouzelis, Nicos P. (2008), Modern and Postmodern Social Theorizing: Bridging the Divide, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mowery, David C. (2001), ‘The United States national innovation system after the Cold War’, in Philippe Larédo and Philippe Mustar (eds), Research and Innovation Policies in the New Global Economy, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 15–46.

Mowery, David C. and Nathan Rosenberg (1993), ‘The US national innovation system’, in Richard R. Nelson (ed.), National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 29–75.

Mowery, David C. et al. (2004), Ivory Tower and Industrial Innovation: University–Industry Technology Transfer Before and After the Bayh-Dole Act, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Mukerji, Chandra (1989) A Fragile Power: Scientists and the State, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Mukherjee, Heena and Poh Kam Wong (2011), ‘The National University of Singapore and the University of Malaya: common roots and different paths’, in Philip Altbach and Jamil Salmi (eds), The Road to Academic Excellence: The Making of World-Class Research Universities, Washington, DC: World Bank, pp. 129–166.

Mullins, N.S. (1972), ‘The development of a scientific specialty: the phage group and the origin of molecular biology’, Minerva, 10, (1), 51–82.

Münch, Richard (2014), Academic Capitalism: Universities in the Global Struggle for Excellence, New York: Routledge.

Musselin, Christine (2013), The Long March of French Universities, New York: Routledge.

Myers, Greg (1990), Writing Biology: Texts in the Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Myrdal, Jan and Gun Kessle (1981), Indien väntar, Stockholm: Norstedts.

Nageswaran, V. and G. Natarajan (2016), Can India Grow? Challenges, Opportunities, and the Way Forward, Washington, DC: Carnegie.

National Academy of Sciences (1972), Physics Survey Committee: Physics in Perspective, Vol. 1, Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.

National Academy of Sciences (2005a), Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research, Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

National Academy of Sciences (2005b), Rising above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future, Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

National Science Board (2012), Diminishing Funding and Increasing Expectations: Trends and Challenges for Public Universities, Washington, DC: National Science Foundation.

National Science Board (2016), Science and Engineering Indicators 2016, accessed 30 November 2017 at https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2016/nsb20161/#/

Nature Index (2016), ‘US tops global research performance’, accessed 21 November 2017 at https://www.natureindex.com/news-blog/us-tops-global-research-performance.

Naughton, Barry (2009), Understanding the Chinese Stimulus Package, Stanford: Hoover Institution, accessed 29 May 2017 from http://media.hoover.org/sites/default/files/documents/CLM28BN.pdf.

Neave, Guy, Kjell Blückert and Thorsten Nybom (eds) (2006), The European Research University: An Historical Parenthesis?, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Nee, Victor and Sonja Opper (2012), Capitalism from Below: Markets and Institutional Change in China, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Needham, Joseph (1954), Science and Civilisation in China, Vol. 1: Introductory Orientations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Needham, Joseph (1991), Science and Civilisation in China, Vol. 2: History of Scientific Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nelkin, Dorothy (1972), The University and Military Research: Moral Politics at MIT, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Nelson, R.R. (1971), ‘“World leadership”, the “technological gap” and national science policy’, Minerva, 9, (3), 386–399.

Nelson, Richard R. (1977), The Moon and the Ghetto: An Essay on Public Policy Analysis, New York: Norton.

Nelson, Richard R. (ed.) (1993), National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nelson, Richard R. and Sylvia Ostry (1995), Techno-Nationalism and Techno-Globalism: Conflict and Cooperation, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Nelson, Richard R. and Sidney G. Winter (1982), An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Ninan, T.N. (2017), Turn of the Tortoise: The Challenge and Promise of India’s Future, New York: Oxford University Press.

Nowotny, Helga (2016), The Cunning of Uncertainty, Cambridge: Polity.

NRC (National Research Council) (2002), Small Wonders, Endless Frontiers: A Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative, Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Nurse review (2015), Ensuring a Successful Research Endeavour: Nurse Review of Research Councils, London: UK Government.

Obama ’08 (2007), ‘Barack Obama: connecting and empowering all Americans through technology and innovation’, BarackObama.com, 10 February. Retrieved at http://obama.3cdn.net/780e0e91ccb6cdbf6e_6udymvin7.pdf.

OECD (1971), Science, Growth and Society: A New Perspective, Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development.

OECD (1977), Towards full Employment And Price Stability: A Report to the OECD by a Group of Independent Experts, Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

OECD (2008), OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: China, Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Olds, K. (2007), ‘Global assemblage: Singapore, foreign universities, and the construction of a global education hub’, World Development, 35, (6), 959–975.

Orcutt, John L. and Hong Shen (2010), Shaping China’s Innovation Future: University Technology Transfer in Transition, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Oreskes, Naomi and John Krige (eds) (2014), Science and Technology in the Global Cold War, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Orloff, A.S. and B. Palier (2009), ‘The power of gender perspectives: feminist influence on policy paradigms, social science, and social politics’, Social Politics, 4, (1), 405–412.

Östling, Johan (2016), Humboldts universitet: bildning och vetenskap i det moderna Tyskland, Stockholm: Atlantis.

Padma, P.V. (2015), ‘India: the fight to become a science superpower’, Nature, 521, 144–147.

Palfreyman, David and Ted Tapper (2014), Reshaping the University: The Rise of the Regulated Market in Higher Education, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Parayil, G. (1992), ‘The green revolution in India: a case study of technological change’, Technology and Culture, 33, (4), 737–756.

Parks, Sarah et al. (2017), Review of the Research Grants Council in Hong Kong, Cambridge: RAND.

Parsons, K.C. and G.K. Davis (1971), ‘The urban university and its urban environment’, Minerva, 9, (3), 361–385.

Parsons, Talcott and Gerald M. Platt (1973), The American University, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Patnaik, P. (2015), ‘From the Planning Commission to NITI Aayog’, Economic and Political Weekly, 50, (4), 10–12.

Pedersen, Ove Kaj (2016), Konkurrencestaten, Copenhagen: Hans Reitzels Forlag.

Pestre, D. (2004), ‘Thirty years of science studies: knowledge, society and the political’, History and Technology, 20, 351–369.

Pestre, Dominique (2012), À contre-science, politique et savoirs des sociétés contemporaines, Paris: Seuil.

Pielke, R. Jr and R. Klein (2009), ‘The rise and fall of the science advisor to the president of the United States’, Minerva, 47, (1), 7–29.

Polletta, F. et al. (2011), ‘The sociology of storytelling’, Annual Review of Sociology, 37, 109–130.

Popp Berman, E. (2008), ‘Why did universities start patenting? Institution building and the Bayh Dole Act’, Social Studies of Science, 38, (6), 835–871.

Porter, Michael E. (1990), The Competitive Advantage of Nations, London: Macmillan.

Postiglione, Gerard A. (2011), ‘The rise of research universities: the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology’, in Philip Altbach and Jamil Salmi (eds), The Road to Academic Excellence: The Making of World-Class Research Universities, Washington, DC: World Bank, pp. 63–100.

Postiglione, Gerard A. and Jisun Jung (eds) (2017), The Changing Academic Profession in Hong Kong, Cham: Springer.

Poulantzas, Nicos (1978), State, Power, Socialism, London: Verso.

Powar, K.B. (2015), ‘India’s private universities: solutions or problems?’, International Higher Education, 81, 10–12.

Price, Don K. (1954), Science and Government, New York: New York University Press.

Price, Don K. (1965), The Scientific Estate, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Pushkar (2015), ‘New chancellor, same old problems’, University World News, 17 July.

Qiu, J. (2014), ‘China goes back to basics on research funding’, Nature, 507, 148–149.

Quan, Wei, Bikun Chen and Fei Shu (2017), ‘Publish or impoverish: an investigation of the monetary reward system of China (1999–2016)’, Aslib Journal of Information Management, 69, (5), 1–18, Downloaded 13 July 2017 from arXiv:1707.01162.

Ramachandran, R. (2015), ‘Disappointing a director’, Frontline, 17 April. Accessed 20 December 2017 at http://www.frontline.in/the-nation/disappointing-a-director/article7052522.ece.

RCUK (2016), Research Councils UK: Response to the Higher Education Green Paper and the Nurse Review. Downloaded 20 October 2016 from http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/documents/submissions/rcukresponsetobisonthehighereducationgeenpaper-pdf/.

Redding, Gordon, Gilbert Y.Y. Wong and William K.W. Leung (2014), ‘Hong Kong: hybrid capitalist as catalyst’, in Michael Witt and Gordon Redding (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Asian Business Systems, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 33–54.

Reinhart, Carmen M. and Kenneth S. Rogoff (2009), This Time Is Different, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Rhodes, Frank H.T. (2001), The Creation of the Future: The Role of the American University, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Rhodes, Martin (2000), ‘Restructuring the British welfare state: between domestic constraints and global imperatives’, in Fritz Scharpf and Vivien Schmidt (eds), Welfare and Work in the Open Economy, Vol. 1: From Vulnerability to Competitiveness. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 19–68.

Rich, Eugene C. et al. (2002), ‘Medicare financing of graduate medical education’, Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17, (4), 283–292.

Ringen, Stein (2016), The Perfect Dictatorship: China in the 21st Century, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Riordan, Michael, Lillian Hoddeson and Adrienne W. Kolb (2015), Tunnel Visions: The Rise and Fall of the Superconducting Super Collider, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Rip, A. (2016), ‘The clothes of the emperor: an essay on RRI in and around Brussels’, Journal of Responsible Innovation, 3, (3), 290–304.

Ritzen, Jo (2010), A Chance for European Universities, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Rocco, M.C. (2011), ‘The long view of nanotechnology development: the National Nanotechnology Initiative at 10 years’, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 13, (2), 427–445.

Rodgers, Daniel T. (2011), Age of Fracture, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Rodrik, D. and A. Subramanian (2005), ‘From “Hindu growth” to productivity surge: the mystery of the Indian growth transition’, IMF Staff Papers, 52, (2), 193–228.

Ronayne, Jarlath (1986), Science in Government, London: Edward Arnold.

Roobeek, Annemieke J.M. (1990), Beyond the Technology Race: An Analysis of Technology Policy in Seven Industrial Countries, New York: Springer.

Rose, Hilary and Steven Rose (1971), ‘The myth of the neutrality of science’, in W. Fuller (ed.), The Social Impact of Modern Biology, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 215–224.

Rose, N. (2000), ‘Community, citizenship, and the Third Way’, American Behavioral Scientist, 43, (9), 1395–1411.

Rosovsky, Henry (1990), The University: An Owner’s Manual, New York: Norton.

Rothstein, William G. (1987), American Medical Schools and the Practice of Medicine: A History, New York: Oxford University Press.

Ruane, Kevin (2000), The Rise and Fall of the European Defence Community: Anglo-American Relations and the Crisis of European Defence, 1950–55, London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Rueschemeyer, Dietmar and Theda Skocpol (1996), States, Social Knowledge, and the Origins of Modern Social Policies, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Saez, Lawrence (2014), ‘India: from failed developmental state to hybrid market capitalism’, in Michael Witt and Gordon Redding (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Asian Business Systems, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 55–78.

Sapolsky, H.M. (1971), ‘Science policy in American state government’, Minerva, 9, (3), 321–348.

Sarewitz, D. (2016), ‘Saving science’, New Atlantis, Spring/Summer, 5–40.

Savage, James D. (1999), Funding Science in America: Congress, Universities, and the Politics of Academic Pork Barrel, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Saxenian, AnnaLee (2006), The New Argonauts: Regional Advantage in a Global Economy, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Scharpf, Fritz W. (2000), ‘Economic changes, vulnerabilities, and institutional capabilities’, in Fritz Scharpf and Vivien Schmidt (eds), Welfare and Work in the Open Economy, Vol. 1: From Vulnerability to Competitiveness, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 21–124.

Scharpf, Fritz W. and Vivien A. Schmidt (eds) (2000), Welfare and Work in the Open Economy, Vol. 1: From Vulnerability to Competitiveness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Schein, Edgar H. (1996), Strategic Pragmatism: The Culture of Singapore’s Economic Development Board, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Schmalzer, Sigrid (2014), ‘Self-reliant science: the impact of the cold war on science in socialist China’, in Naomi Oreskes and John Krige (eds), Science and Technology in the Global Cold War, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 75–106.

Schmitter, P. (2006), ‘Ernst B. Haas and the legacy of neo-functionalism’, Journal of European Public Policy, 12, (2), 255–272.

Schumpeter, Joseph A. (1942), Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, New York: Harper & Brothers.

Schwaag Serger, Sylvia and Magnus Breidne (2007), China’s Fifteen Year Plan for Science and Technology: An Assessment, Stockholm: ITPS.

Science (2017), ‘Trump retains Collins as NIH director’, Science, 6 June.

Scola, N. (2017), ‘What Jared’s office actually does’, Politico, 1 July.

Scott, Peter (1984), The Crisis of the University, London: Croom Helm.

Sen, A. (2006), The Argumentative Indian: Writings on Indian History, Culture and Identity, New York: Picador.

Sen, A. (2015), ‘India: the stormy revival of an international university’, New York Review of Books, 62, (13), 69–71.

Sengupta, Nitish K. (2002), Dr. Bidran Chandra Roy, New Delhi: National Government.

Shambaugh, David (2016), China’s Future, Cambridge: Polity.

Shapin, Steven (2008), The Scientific Life: A Moral History of a Late Modern Vocation, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Shapin, Steven (2010), Never Pure: Historical Studies of Science As If It Was Produced by People with Bodies, Situated in Time, Space, Culture, and Society, and Struggling for Credibility and Authority, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Shapin, Steven and Simon Schaffer (1986), Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Shapiro, S. and D. Guston (2007), ‘Procedural control of the bureaucracy, peer review, and epistemic drift’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 17, (4), 535–551.

Sharif, Naubahar and Erik Baark (2008), ‘From trade hub to innovation hub: Hong Kong’, in Charles Edquist and Leif Hommen (eds), Small Country Innovation Systems: Globalization, Change and Policy in Asia and Europe, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 194–234.

Sharma, M. (2016), ‘Narendra Modi and the new education policy: retrospection, reform and reality’, Journal of Asian Public Policy, 9, (2), 140–153.

Sharp, M. and K. Pavitt (1993), ‘Technology policy in the 1990s: old trends and new realities’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 31, (2), 129–152.

Sharp, Margaret and Claire Shearman (1987), European Technological Collaboration, London: Chatham House.

Shattock, Michael (2012), Making Policy in British Higher Education 1945–2011, Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Shattock, Michael (2017), ‘University governance in flux’, Higher Education Quarterly, July 2017.

Sheehan, Michael J. (2007), The International Politics of Space, Abingdon: Routledge.

Shih, Victor C. (2008), Factions and Finance in China: Elite Conflict and Inflation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shils, E. (1973), ‘The American private university’, Minerva, 11, (1), 6–29.

Shonfield, Andrew (1965), Modern Capitalism: The Changing Balance of Public and Private Power, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shulman, Seth (2008), Undermining Science: Suppression and Distortion in the Bush Administration, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Sigurdson, Jon (1980), Science and Technology in the People’s Republic of China: An Introduction, Oxford: Pergamon.

Sigurdson, Jon (1986), Industry and State Partnership in Japan, Lund: Research Policy Institute.

Sinn, Hans-Werner (2014), The Euro Trap: On Bursting Bubbles, Budgets, and Beliefs, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Slaughter, Anne-Marie (2004), A New World Order, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Slaughter, S. (1993), “‘Beyond basic science: research university presidents” narratives of science policy’, Science, Technology, and Human Values, 18, (3), 278–302.

Slaughter, S. and Larry L. Leslie (1997), Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Slaughter, S. and G. Rhoades (1996), ‘The emergence of a competitiveness research and development policy coalition and the commercialization of academic science and technology’, Science, Technology, and Human Values, 21, (3), 303–339.

Smith, Bruce L.R. (1990), American Science Policy since World War II, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Smits, R. and S. Kuhlmann (2004), ‘The rise of systemic instruments in innovation policy’, International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy, 1, (1–2), 4–32.

Sombart, Werner (1906 [1976]), ‘Why is there no socialism in the United States?’, trans. Patricia M. Hocking and C.T. Husbands, White Plains, NY: International Arts and Sciences Press.

Spiegel-Rösing, Ina (1977), ‘The study of Science, Technology and Society (STSS): recent trends and future challenges’, in Ina Spiegel-Rösing and Derek Price (eds), Science, Technology, and Society: A Cross-Disciplinary Perspective, London: Sage.

Spiegel-Rösing, Ina and Derek Price (eds) (1977), Science, Technology, and Society: A Cross-Disciplinary Perspective, London: Sage.

Spinelli, Altiero (1966), The Eurocrats: Conflict and Crisis in the European Community, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Stehr, Nico (1994), Knowledge Societies, London: Sage.

Steinmetz, Georg (ed.) (1999), State/Culture: State Formation after the Cultural Turn, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Stephan, Paula (2012), How Economics Shapes Science, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Stephan, Paula (2013), The Endless Frontier: Reaping What Bush Sowed? NBER working paper no. 19687. Washington, DC: National Bureau for Economic Research.

Stern Review (2016), Building on Success and Learning from Experience: An Independent Review of the Research Excellence Framework, London: UK Government.

Stiglitz, Joseph (2003), The Roaring Nineties: Seeds of Destruction, London: Allen Lane.

Stiglitz, Joseph (2017), The Euro: How a Common Currency Threatens the Future of Europe, New York: Norton.

Streeck, Wolfgang (1992), Social Institutions and Economic Performance: Studies of Industrial Relations in Advanced Capitalist Economies, London: Sage.

Streeck, Wolfgang (2009), Re-Forming Capitalism: Institutional Change in the German Political Economy, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Streeck, Wolfgang (2015), ‘Why the euro divides Europe’, New Left Review, 95, 5–26.

Streeck, Wolfgang and Daniel Mertens (2013), ‘Public finance and the decline of state capacity in democratic capitalism’, in Armin Schäfer and Wolfgang Streeck (eds), Politics in the Age of Austerity, Cambridge: Polity, pp. 26–58.

Streicher, M. (2006), ‘An interview with Helga Nowotny: the European Research Council (ERC): fostering basic research in Europe’, Bridges, 10, 29.

Strickland, Stephen P. (1972), Politics, Science and Dread Disease: A Short History of United States Medical Research Policy, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Strickland, Stephen P. (1989), The Story of the NIH Grants Program, New York: New York University Press.

Stucke, Andreas (2011), ‘Quality assurance through procedues: policy advice by the German Science Council’, in Julius Lentsch and Peter Weingart (eds), The Politics of Scientific Advice: Institutional Design for Quality Assurance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 157–173.

Subbarayappa, B.V. (1992), In Pursuit of Excellence: A History of the Indian Institute of Science, New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Sum, Ngai-Ling and Bob Jessop (2013), Towards a Cultural Political Economy: Putting Culture in Its Place in Political Economy, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Suttmeier, Richard (1974), Research and Revolution: Science Policy and Societal Change in China, Lexington, MA: Lexington.

Suttmeier, R.P., C. Cong and D.F. Simon (2006), ‘“Knowledge Innovation” and the Chinese Academy of Sciences’, Science, 312, 58–59.

Swensen, David F. (2000), Pioneering Portfolio Management: An Unconventional Approach to Institutional Investment, New York: Free Press.

Swinnerton-Dyer, Peter (1981), ‘Prospects for higher education’, London Review of Books, 3, (21), 9–10.

Tapper, Ted (2007), The Governance of British Higher Education: The Struggle for Policy Control, Berlin: Springer.

Teferra, D. and P.G. Altbach (2004), ‘African higher education: challenges for the 21st century’, Higher Education, 47, 21–50.

Teich, Al (1998), ‘The outlook for federal support of university research’, in Roger Noll (ed.), Challenges to Research Universities, Washington DC: Brookings Institution, pp. 87–104.

Teich, Al H. (2006), ‘Impacts of post-September 11 security policies on US science’, in Andrew D. James (ed.), Science and Technology Policies for the Anti-Terrorism Era, Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp. 151–165.

Teitelbaum, Michael (2014), Falling Behind? Boom, Bust and the Global Race for Scientific Talent, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Thachil, Tariq (2014), Elite Parties, Poor Voters: How Social Services Win Votes in India, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Therborn, G. (1979), ‘The travail of Latin America democracy’, New Left Review, 113–114, 71–109.

Thomas, Lewis (1986), The Lasker Award: Four Decades of Scientific Medical Progress, New York: Raven Press.

Trondal, Jarle (2010), An Emergent European Executive Order, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tsoukalis, Loukas (2016), In Defence of Europe: Can the European Project Be Saved?, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Turner, Bryan S. (1999), Classical Sociology, London: Sage.

UK Government (2017), Future of Skills and Lifelong Learning, London: UK Government.

Universities UK (2015), The Economic Role of UK Universities, London: UUK.

University Grants Committee (2015), Governance in UGC-Funded Higher Education Institutions in Hong Kong, Hong Kong: UGC.

Vahia, M. (2015), ‘Evaluating the claims of ancient Indian achievements in science’, Current Science, 108, (12), 2145–2148.

van den Besselaar, P. (2001), ‘Communication between science and technology studies journals: a case study in differentiation and integration in scientific fields’, Scientometrics, 47, (2), 169–193.

Van der Pijl, Kees (1984), The Making of an Atlantic Ruling Class, London: Verso.

van der Vleuten, Erik and Arne Kaijser (eds) (2006), Networking Europe: Transnational Infrastructures and the Shaping of Europe, 1850–2000, Sagamore Beach, MA: Science History Publications.

van Noorden, R. (2012), ‘Global mobility: science on the move’, Nature, 490, 326–329.

van Noorden, R. (2015), ‘India by the numbers: highs and lows in the country’s research landscape’, Nature, 521, 142–143.

van Noorden, R. (2016), ‘China by the numbers’, Nature, 534, 452–453.

Varmus, Harold (2010), The Art and Politics of Science, New York: Norton.

Venkataraman, G. (1988), Journey into Light: Life and Science of C.V. Raman, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Venkataraman, G. (1994), Bhabha and His Magnificent Obsessions, Hyderabad: Universities Press.

Vest, Charles M. (2005), Pursuing the Endless Frontier: Essays on MIT and the Role of Research Universities, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Vishnoi, A. (2016), ‘Global standard universities announced in Budget 2016 may be created via exec route’, Economic Times, 18 May 2016.

Vogel, Ezra F. (1993), The Four Little Dragons: The Spread of Industrialization in East Asia, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wade, R. (1985), ‘The market for public office: why the Indian state is not better at development’, World Development, 13, (4), 467–497.

Wagner, C.S. and L. Leydesdorff (2005), ‘Network structure, self-organization, and the growth of international collaboration in research’, Research Policy, 34, (10), 1608–1618.

Walby, Sylvia (2009), Globalization and Inequalities: Complexity and Contested Modernities, London: Sage.

Wang, Nai-Xing (2011), ‘China’s chemists should avoid the Vanity Fair’, Nature, 476, 253.

Wang, Zouyue (2014), ‘The cold war and the reshaping of science and technology in China’, in Naomi Oreskes and John Krige (eds), Science and Technology in the Global Cold War, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 343–369.

Wedlin, Linda and Maria Nedeva (eds) (2015), Towards European Science? Dynamics and Policy of an Emerging European Research Space, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Weinberg, Steven (2012), ‘The crisis of big science’, New York Review of Books, 10 May.

Weingart, Peter (2001), Die Stunde der Wahrheit? Weileswist: Velbrück.

Westwick, Peter J. (2003), The National Lab: Science in an American System, 1947–1974, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

White, Chris and Benedict Wilkinson (2017), Creating, Not Picking, Winners: How to Develop an Industrial Strategy Which Works For Everyone, London: Policy Institute at King’s.

White, Hayden (1987), The Content of the Form: Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Whitley, Richard and Jochen Gläser (eds) (2007), The Changing Governance of the Sciences: The Advent of Research Evaluation Systems, Dordrecht: Springer.

Wildavsky, Ben (2010), The Great Brain Race: How Global Universities Are Reshaping the World, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Willetts, David (2015), ‘David Willetts interview: “What I did was in the interests of young people”’, THE, 18 June.

Willetts, David (2017), A University Education, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wilsdon, James et al. (2015), The Metric Tide: Report of the Independent Review of the Role of Metrics in Research Assessment and Management, Bristol: HEFCE.

WIPO (2017), Global Innovation Index 2017, Geneva: World Intellectual Property Organization. Accessed 21 November 2017 at http://www.wipo.int/publications/en/details.jsp?id=4193.

Witt, Michael A. and Gordon Redding (2014a), ‘China: authoritarian capitalism’, in Michael Witt and Gordon Redding (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Asian Business Systems, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1–32.

Witt, Michael A. and Gordon Redding (eds) (2014b), The Oxford Handbook of Asian Business Systems, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wong, Poh Kam and Annette Singh (2008), ‘From technology adaptor to innovator: Singapore’, in Charles Edquist and Leif Hommen (eds), Small Country Innovation Systems: Globalization, Change and Policy in Asia and Europe, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 71–112.

Wu, Jinglian and Shitao Fan (2016), ‘China’s economic reform: processes, issues and prospects (1978–2012)’, in Gregory C. Chow and Dwight H. Perkins (eds), The Routledge Handbook of the Chinese Economy, London: Routledge, pp. 56–76.

Xie, Yu and Alexandra Killewald (2012), Is American Science in Decline?, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Xinhua (2016), ‘China to support basic research through new sci-tech plans’, China Daily, 25 February. Accessed at http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2016-02/25/content_23639023.htm.

Xinhua (2017), ‘China stresses CPC leadership over universities’, Xinhuanet, 15 September. Downloaded 30 September 2017 at http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-09/15/c_136612924.htm.

Yang, R. (2011), ‘Advanced global strategy in China: the case of Tsinghua’, in Simon Marginson, Sarjit Kaur and Erlenawati Sawir (eds), Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific: Strategic Responses to Globalization, Berlin: Springer, pp. 143–159.

Yang, R. (2016), ‘Corruption undermines the rise of East Asian universities’, University World News, 29 January. Downloaded 9 July 2017 at http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20160126130528586&query=rui+yang.

Yarime, Masaru (2015), ‘Integrated solutions to complex problems: transforming Japanese science and technology’, in Frank Baldwin and Anne Allison (eds), Japan: The Precarious Future, New York: New York University Press, pp. 213–235.

Youwei (2015), ‘The end of reform in China: authoritarian adaptation hits the wall’, Foreign Affairs, 94, (3), 2–7.

Yue, Chia Siow (1997), ‘Advanced production base and smart hub of the electronics industry’, in Wendy Dobson and Chia Siow Yue (eds), Multinationals and East Asian Integration, Ottawa and Singapore: International Development Research Centre and Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 31–61.

Zachary, G. Pascal (1999), Endless Frontier: Vannevar Bush, Engineer of the American Century, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Zhao, N.-Z. (2011), ‘Impact factors: China’s academic autocracy must go’, Nature, 477, 407.

Zhao, S. (1998), ‘A state-led nationalism: the patriotic education campaign in post-Tiananmen Square China’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 31, (3), 287–302.

Ziman, John (2000), Real Science, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.