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The New Global Politics of Science

Knowledge, Markets and the State

Mats Benner

Science has become a central political concern with massive increases in public investments and expectations, but resources are embedded in a complex web of societal expectations, which vary between countries and regions. This book outlines an insightful understanding of science policy as both concerning the governance of science itself (priority-setting, funding, organization and articulation with polity, society, and economy) and its extra-organizational connections, in terms of higher education, innovation and national policy concerns.
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Index

Mats Benner

211 Programme 31

863 Programme 30

985 Programme 31

A*STAR 71, 74–6, 80

Abbott, Andrew 109

Abe, Shinzo 66

Academia Sinica 23

accountability 5, 7–8, 73, 147–8, 152

activism 10, 12, 54, 114

Africa 175

Agency for Science, Technology and Research

see A*STAR

agriculture 24

in China 23, 39

in the EU 116, 118–19, 136–7, 162

in India 45, 48, 50–51, 54, 58, 63

in the US 87, 89, 106

All India Institute of Medical Science 49

American Medical Association 88

Anderson, Perry 108, 121

Applied Science and Technology Research Institute 77

Arab Spring 138

Arnold, Erik 130

Ashoka University 62

Asian economic crisis 79

astronomy 148

AT&T 85

atomic energy 47–9, 57, 117–20, 125, 136

Atomic Energy Commission 86–9, 93, 118, 136

austerity 143, 149

Australia 54

authoritarianism 68–9, 170, 177

aviation 84

Baark, Erik 78

Bangladesh 50

Barroso, José Manuel 129–30

basic research 5–6, 23, 27, 29, 32, 36–7, 59, 92, 111, 161

Bayh-Dole Act 96

Belgium 33

Bell, Daniel 7, 12, 18

Bell Labs 92, 95

benchmarking 38

Bhabha, Homi J. 48–9

Bhagwati, Jagdish 51

Bharatiya Janata Party 50, 52–4

Biden, Joe 103

Big Science 6, 65–6, 86–7, 93, 97–8

biology 13, 34

biomedicine 13, 34, 74, 81, 98–9, 101–7, 144

biotechnology 13, 24, 51, 57–9, 164, 166, 172

Blair, Tony 143

Bologna Process 124, 128

Bose Institute 47

brain drain 175

Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies 103

Brazil 175

Brexit 126, 139, 144, 150

Brown, Gordon 143

Brown, Roger 152

Browne report 146

Bundesbank 121

Bush, George H.W. 96–7, 99, 107

Bush, George W. 100–104, 106–8, 163

Bush, Vannevar 85–6, 92

Bush report 85, 90, 146

business schools 61, 133, 151

Cable, Vince 143

California Institute of Technology 87

campus capitalism 113

Campus for Research Excellence and Technological Enterprise 74

Canada 88

cancer 87, 103

capacity-building 39, 70, 75, 154

capitalism 2, 18, 68, 120

carbon-capping 103

Carney, Richard W. 82

Cavendish Laboratory 48

Cecchini report 121

Celera 100

chemistry 32, 34

Chiang Kai-shek 23

China 2–4, 15–16, 22–45, 54, 59, 65, 68, 70, 76–81, 83, 110, 133–4, 144, 159, 161–4, 170, 173–5, 177

agriculture 23, 39

defence 24, 29

economic growth 24, 32, 34, 39–41, 43, 162

education 28, 30

elite actors 25, 83

funding 28–32, 35–7, 42

governance 22–8, 30–32, 35–7, 39, 41–3

growth models 39, 41

health care 43

innovation 22, 25, 27–30, 33, 36–43

knowledge policies 22–7, 29, 32–42, 44, 78, 162

knowledge systems 25, 27, 29–31, 36

metagovernance 22, 41–3

mobility 24, 27–8, 42

modernization 22–4, 28, 30, 42–3

networks 25, 27, 35–7, 39, 43

power 35, 38, 41–2, 46

R&D expenditure 22–3, 29–32, 34, 42

recruitment 25, 27–8, 34, 37, 42

research institutes 24, 26, 30, 33–4, 37–8, 42–3

state formation 33, 41–2

technology 22–4, 29–31, 34, 43

universities/higher education 22–4, 26–32, 34, 36–8, 42, 44, 81

Chinese Academy of Sciences 23–4, 26–31, 33, 35–8, 42–3

Chou, Meng-Hsuan 121

class 2, 8, 19

Cleveland Clinics 71

climate change 1, 79, 103–5, 107, 163, 172

Clinton, Bill 98–100, 108

Clinton, Hillary 109

Cold War 70, 82, 90, 94, 97, 108

collaboration 9, 37, 47, 81, 95, 117, 119, 125, 129, 131–3, 171

Collins, Francis 106

colonialism 46, 51, 63, 67–9, 79, 81–3, 175–6

Columbia University 93

Committee for Medical Research 87–8

Common Agricultural Policy 137

Communist Party 23, 28–9, 37, 41, 44

competition state 3–4, 161, 163, 170

competitiveness 3, 11, 18, 161, 163, 165, 170, 173–6

in the EU 120–24, 130, 133–4, 137, 139

in Germany 162

in Hong Kong 80

in the UK 144, 148

in the US 97, 99–101, 114

Confucian model 67

corruption 35, 55, 64

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance 50

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research 46, 48

Cultural Revolution 22–5, 27, 42–3

culture 13–14, 16–17, 20, 37, 69, 75, 79, 83, 96, 156, 165

customer–contractor model 142, 147, 163

Davignon, Étienne 120–21

defence 3, 5, 161, 164, 167, 172

in China 24, 29

in the EU 118–19

in India 46–7, 54

in Singapore 70

in the UK 142, 145

in the US 86, 90, 94, 96–9, 105, 112–13, 145

Defence Research and Development Organisation 46

Deng Xiaoping 24–5, 27, 31, 42

Denmark 137

Department of Defense 86, 88, 93, 97, 105, 145

Department of Energy 97, 100

Digital India 53–4

digitalization 1, 54, 64, 104

division of labour 13, 57

Draghi, Mario 127

Duke University 74

DuPont 85

Economic and Monetary Union 121–2, 126–7, 137–8

Economic Development Board 70–73, 76

economic growth 3–4, 6, 9, 16–18, 21, 158, 163–4, 166, 169, 176

see also growth models

in China 24, 32, 34, 39–41, 43, 162

in the EU 121–2, 127, 137–8

in France 155

in Germany 157

in India 59–60

in Japan 65

in the UK 143, 147

in the US 94, 97, 102, 111–12

Edgerton, David 144–5

education 1, 163, 175–6

see also higher education

in China 28, 30

in the EU 117, 121–3, 125, 129

in France 155

in Germany 156

in Hong Kong 77, 81

in India 46–7, 49–52, 55–7, 60, 62

in Japan 65

in Singapore 68, 71, 73

in the UK 141–3, 146, 149, 153

in the US 84–5, 88–90, 93, 102–3, 106–7, 110–14

elite actors 6, 20, 82, 166, 171, 176

in China 25, 83

in the EU 116, 128, 131

in France 155–6, 162

in Germany 156

in Hong Kong 67, 76–7, 79, 81, 83

in India 47–8, 50, 52–4, 57, 64

in Japan 65

in Singapore 67–9, 72, 75

in the UK 144, 146

in the US 86, 93, 102, 109, 112–14

end of politics 10–11

energy 3, 5, 17–18, 47–9, 57, 79, 84, 90, 105–6, 117–20, 125, 130, 136, 155, 161, 164

see also atomic energy; renewable energy

engineering 32, 74–5, 78, 103, 148

entrepreneurship 6, 24–5, 41, 45, 69–70, 75–6, 96, 128, 157, 164, 176

environmental issues 17, 40, 79, 111, 126–7, 151, 162, 164, 172

see also climate change

Environmental Protection Agency 106

Erasmus programme 123

etatism 30

ethics 9, 35

Euratom 118, 123, 136

euro 123, 126–7, 137, 172

Europe 2020127–8

European Central Bank 121, 127, 154

European Coal and Steel Community 117–18

European Commission 117, 121, 126, 128–9, 173

European Defence Community 118

European Economic Community 117

European Institute of Innovation and Technology 129–30, 134

European Research Area 124–6, 129, 137–8

European Research Council 128–32, 134, 138, 144, 169–70, 173

European Science Foundation 119

European Union 16, 110, 116–40, 144, 154, 158, 162, 164, 170, 173–4

see also Brexit

agriculture 116, 118–19, 136–7, 162

competitiveness 120–24, 130, 133–4, 137, 139

defence 118–19

economic growth 121–2, 127, 137–8

education 117, 121–3, 125, 129

elite actors 116, 128, 131

funding 125, 129–31, 134

governance 117–18, 123, 134–5

growth models 121–2, 127, 139

health care 125–6, 130

higher education 125

innovation 116, 121, 125–6, 128–30, 132, 134–7

knowledge policies 116–17, 119–24, 126–8, 130–34, 136–7, 139–40

metagovernance 121–3, 126–7, 131, 138–40, 173

mobility 123, 125, 128–9, 134, 172

networks 119–21, 123, 131

power 122–3, 134

R&D expenditure 122, 124–5, 127

recruitment 131

research institutes 137

state formation 116–17, 123, 126, 136–7, 139, 173

technology 120, 123, 128, 134

universities/higher education 118–19, 123–4, 128–32, 136–9, 173

European University 118–19, 136, 138

Europeanization 117, 172

fake news 1

Federal Reserve 96, 109

Feller, Irwin 92

feminism 10, 166

financial crisis 200840, 102–3, 126–7, 131, 138, 143–4, 148

Flagships 132–3

food security 141

foreign defence 17

foreign direct investment 59, 159

foreign policy 108–9, 126–7

Fourcade, Marion 109

Framework Programmes 125–6, 130, 135–7, 173

France 117–19, 121–2, 128, 136, 141–2, 155–7, 162, 174

funding 6, 9, 14–15, 18, 158, 160, 164, 169, 175–6

in China 28–32, 35–7, 42

in the EU 125, 129–31, 134

in Hong Kong 67, 77, 79–80

in India 46, 57–8, 60–61, 64

in Singapore 67, 72, 74, 76

in the UK 142, 144, 148–9

in the US 84, 86–9, 91–3, 96–102, 106–7, 110–11, 113–14

Future and Emerging Technologies programme 129–30, 132–4

Galbraith, John Kenneth 92

Gandhi, Indira 50–52

Geiger, Roger L. 85

gender 2, 8, 13, 89, 154

General Motors 92

genetic engineering 8

genetically modified organisms 96

genomic sequencing 98

geopolitics 4, 17, 45, 59

Germany 38, 49, 84, 117–18, 121–2, 127, 136, 141, 154–7, 162, 174

Geuna, Aldo 152

Gingrich, Newt 99

global governance 4, 43, 108, 171

globalization 4, 13, 17, 107, 159, 167, 171–3

Goldin, C. 89

Google 133

governance 2–9, 13, 17–20, 158, 160, 163–4, 166, 169, 171–7

see also metagovernance

in China 22–8, 30–32, 35–7, 39, 41–3

in the EU 117–18, 123, 134–5

in France 156, 162

in Germany 154, 156–7

in Hong Kong 67, 80–81, 83

in India 54, 56–7, 61, 63

in Singapore 67, 69–70, 72, 76, 82

in the UK 141, 146, 148–53

in the US 85–6, 89–92, 94–5, 101, 110–11, 114–15, 144

grade inflation 150

gravitational waves 38

Great Depression 85

Greece 137

green growth 143

green revolution 50–51

Greenberg, Daniel S. 5–6, 12, 85, 93, 99

growth models 3–4, 68, 158

in China 39, 41

in the EU 121–2, 127, 139

in Hong Kong 78

in India 45, 51, 59

in Japan 65

in Singapore 70, 75, 144

in the UK 144, 147, 153

in the US 94–7, 102, 104, 111

Haldane principle 146, 163

Harvard University 49, 93

health care 5, 40, 161

in China 43

in the EU 125–6, 130

in Hong Kong 79

in Singapore 71

in the UK 151

in the US 87–8, 91, 98, 100, 103, 106

health insurance 88, 91

higher education 3, 9, 17, 168

see also universities

in China 28, 36, 44

in the EU 119, 123–5, 129, 137–8

in Germany 156

in Hong Kong 80–81

in India 45–6, 48, 51, 53–4, 57, 59–61, 63

in Japan 67

in Singapore 70–71, 73–4

in the UK 142, 145–6, 149–50, 153

in the US 89–92, 94, 106–7, 110, 112–13

Higher Education Funding Council for England 149

high-yield crops 50

Hong Kong 16, 68, 76–83, 162, 173

competitiveness 80

education 77, 81

elite actors 67, 76–7, 79, 81, 83

funding 67, 77, 79–80

governance 67, 80–81, 83

growth models 78

health care 79

innovation 76–8, 80, 83

knowledge policies 67–8, 76, 78–9, 83

knowledge systems 68, 80

power 81

R&D expenditure 76

recruitment 80, 83

technology 83

universities/higher education 67, 78–81, 83

Hong Kong University of Science and Technology 80

Horizon 2020116, 130, 132–3, 135

housing 40, 105, 167

Human Brain Project 133

Human Genome Project 99–100

Humboldt model 124

hydrogen bomb 24

Imperial College London 74

incubators 25, 43, 176

India 15–16, 45–65, 68, 161–2, 164, 173

agriculture 45, 48, 50–51, 58, 63

defence 46–7, 54

economic growth 59–60

education 46–7, 49–52, 55–7, 60, 62

elite actors 47–8, 50, 52–4, 57, 64

funding 46, 57–8, 60–61, 64

governance 54, 56–7, 61, 63

growth models 45, 51, 59

innovation 47, 58

knowledge policies 45–64

knowledge systems 57–8

metagovernance 64

mobility 46, 48, 162

modernization 45, 48, 51, 56, 63

networks 55

power 46–50, 52

R&D expenditure 45, 59

recruitment 55, 57, 60–62

research institutes 46

state formation 47–53, 55–6, 64

technology 45, 48, 50, 52–3

universities/higher education 45–8, 51, 53–4, 57–63

Indian Agricultural Research Institute 48

Indian Association for the Advancement of Science 47

Indian Institute of Science 47, 62

Indian Institutes for Science Education and Research 61

Indian Institutes of Management 49, 60

Indian Institutes of Technology 47–9, 52, 60

Indian National Congress Party 52, 60–61, 63

indigenous innovation 27, 39

individualism 25

Indonesia 66

industrialization 23, 29, 42–3, 48, 50–51, 54, 69, 72, 78, 85

infectious diseases 34

inflation 40, 50, 70, 96, 119

information technology 45–6, 59, 104–5, 107, 110, 125, 133

innovation 4, 7, 11, 14, 17–18, 160, 164, 167–8, 171–3, 175

in China 22, 25, 27–30, 33, 36–43

in the EU 116, 121, 125–6, 128–30, 132, 134–7

in France 155

in Germany 154

in Hong Kong 76–8, 80, 83

in India 47, 58

in Japan 65–6

in Singapore 72, 74–6

in the UK 143–4, 149

in the US 84–5, 92, 96, 101, 105–11, 114

Innovation and Technology Board 77

institutionalization 1, 6, 10, 18, 48, 50, 55–6, 64, 85–6, 109, 118, 122, 130, 164, 171–5

intellectual property 4, 32, 39, 42

internationalization 17, 22, 69, 154

Internet Highway programme 99

Iran 67

IRDO 59

irrigation systems 50

Israel 70

Italy 118, 121

Janata Party 50

Japan 54, 65–7, 98, 110, 125, 173

economic growth 65

education 65

elite actors 65

growth models 65

innovation 65–6

knowledge policies 66

knowledge systems 66–7

modernization 65

networks 65–6

recruitment 65

research institutes 65

technology 65–6

universities/higher education 65–7

Jawaharlal Nehru University 54

Jessop, Bob 17

Juncker, Jean-Claude 128

Katz, L.F. 89

Key Technologies programme 29–30

Knowledge and Innovation Communities 129

knowledge democracy 164–5

Knowledge Innovation Project 28–9, 36

knowledge networks 11, 65, 131, 141, 173, 176

knowledge policies 18–19, 66, 158, 162–5, 171–4, 176–7

in China 22–7, 29, 32–42, 44, 78, 162

definition of 11–13

in the EU 116–17, 119–24, 126–8, 130–34, 136–7, 139–40

in Germany 156–7

in Hong Kong 67–8, 76, 78, 79, 83

in India 45–64

in Japan 66

in Singapore 66–7, 74, 82

in the UK 141–53

in the US 26, 84–9, 91–2, 94, 100–105, 107–12, 114

knowledge production 6, 8–9, 11, 16, 28, 64, 79, 92, 103, 152, 161, 166, 168, 174

knowledge systems 1, 4, 15, 67–8, 162, 171–2, 174–5

in China 25, 27, 29–31, 36

in Germany 157

in Hong Kong 68, 80

in India 57–8

in Japan 66–7

in Singapore 68

in the UK 147, 153

in the US 91, 111, 114

Kuwait 176

laboratories 11, 14, 85–8, 92–5, 107, 114, 131

language 5, 16, 71

Lasker, Albert and Mary 88

Lawrence Radiation Laboratory 86–7

Lee Kuan Yew 69, 71

life sciences 32, 34, 58, 101

linguistic turn 21

Lisbon Strategy 124–7, 129, 134, 137–8

Lisbon Treaty 123

Maastricht Treaty 121, 137

Macauley, T.B. 46

Macron, Emmanuel 128, 155

macrosociology 13–14, 19

Made in India 53–4, 59

Major, John 143, 147, 153

Malaysia 66, 68–9

Manhattan Project 85

manufacturing 39, 43, 59, 64–5, 69, 77–8, 82, 100

Mao Zedong 24, 36, 42–3

marketization 8, 13, 18, 33, 39–40, 110, 113, 146, 161, 164–6

see also economic growth

Martin, B.R. 11, 152

Marxism 10, 166

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 49, 75, 85, 94

materials science 34, 164, 166

Max Planck Institutes 156–7

May, Theresa 153

Mayo Clinics 71

Medicaid 91, 106

medical schools 88, 91, 98, 103, 106, 113

Medicare 91

medicine 34, 87–9, 91, 98

meritocracy 69

Merton, Robert K. 7, 114

metagovernance 11, 16–18, 21, 163–5, 173

in China 22, 41–3

in the EU 121–3, 126–7, 131, 138–40, 173

in India 64

in the US 112

Middlemas, Keith 142

migration 1, 9, 138, 162, 175

military 24, 70, 85, 94, 97, 136, 165

see also defence

MINT 67

Mitterrand, François 155

mixed economy model 166

mobility 4, 11, 13, 15, 159, 162, 170

in China 24, 27–8, 42

in the EU 123, 125, 128–9, 134, 172

in India 46, 48, 162

in Singapore 73

in the UK 145, 152

in the US 92, 111–12

modernization 166–7, 177

in China 22–4, 28, 30, 42–3

in France 155

in Germany 154

in India 45, 48, 51, 56, 63

in Japan 65

in Singapore 68, 82

in the UK 145, 147, 153

in the US 90, 104

Modi, Narendra 52–7, 59–64

molecular biology 13

Monnet, Jean 139

Myrdal, Jan 63

Nalanda University 54

Nanyang University 68, 73–4

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 87–8

National Bureau for Economic Research 109

National Institutes of Health 87–8, 91, 96, 98–100, 105–6

National Institution for the Transformation of India 52–3

National Institutional Ranking Framework 53, 61

National Key Laboratories 34, 38

National Nanotechnology Initiative 99

National Natural Science Foundation of China 30–31, 35–6, 38, 170

National Research Board 108

National Research Council 108

National Research Foundation 74, 76, 79, 81

National Science Foundation 38, 86–8, 93, 95–6, 99–101, 105, 108, 119, 132, 138

national security 1, 3, 12, 18, 88, 90, 103, 111–12, 114, 126, 130, 161, 163, 170

National University of Singapore 73–4

nationalism 48–9, 52, 63, 107

nation-building see state formation

Nehru, Jawaharlal 47, 49–50, 52–3

networks 4, 9, 11–12, 15, 17, 20–21, 159, 165–6, 170–71, 173, 175–6

in China 25, 27, 35–7, 39, 43

in the EU 119–21, 123, 131

in India 55

in Japan 65–6

knowledge networks 11, 65, 131, 141, 173, 176

in the UK 141–2

in the US 89, 95, 108–10, 112

neuroscience 103, 133

neutrinos 38

Nigeria 67

Nowotny, Helga 131

Nurse, Paul 148–9

Obama, Barack 102–8, 111, 155

Obamacare 103–4

Office for Science and Technology Policy 105, 107

Office of Technology Assessment 108

one child policy 24

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 38, 40–41, 166

Osborne, George 143

Pakistan 50

Paris Agreement 106

patents 95–6, 151

path dependency 82

Pathways to Impact 148

People’s Action Party 69

pharmaceuticals 45–6, 71, 139, 141, 155

physics 13, 32, 34, 47, 97, 133, 148

plagiarism 37

plant science 81

populism 1, 53, 102, 112, 126, 134, 170

Porter, Michael E. 70

Portugal 137

poverty 1, 48, 50, 55

power 1, 7–10, 13–15, 18, 21, 119, 160, 167–8, 171, 173

in China 35, 38, 41–2, 46

in the EU 122–3, 134

in Hong Kong 81

in India 46–50, 52

in Singapore 69

in the US 84, 86, 109

President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology 107

Price, Don K. 92–3

Princeton University 109

private sector 41, 61, 96

privatization 33, 142, 164

professionalization 10

protein technology 34

public–private partnerships 57, 59, 159

pure science 5–6

quantum technologies 133

R&D expenditure 7, 16, 175

in China 22–3, 29–32, 34, 42

in the EU 122, 124–5, 127

in Germany 157

in Hong Kong 76

in India 45, 59

in Singapore 70–71

in the UK 142

in the US 95–7, 100, 104

race 89

Raman, C.V. 47

Reagan, Ronald 96–8

Reaganomics 96

recruitment

in China 25, 27–8, 34, 37, 42

in the EU 131

in France 156

in Germany 157

in Hong Kong 80, 83

in India 55, 57, 60–62

in Japan 65

in Singapore 69–70, 72, 74

in the UK 144, 151

in the US 88–9, 93

Redding, Gordon 41

reflexivity 18, 138, 164

regulation 2–3, 6, 9, 13, 15, 159–60, 164

remuneration 25–7, 32, 34, 62

see also reward systems

renewable energy 104, 106, 110

research, global politics of 1–21, 169–71, 177

Research, Innovation and Enterprise Council 74

research and development see R&D expenditure

Research Assessment Exercise 150–52

Research Excellence Framework 151–2

Research Grants Council 77, 80–81

research institutes 2, 164

in China 24, 26, 30, 33–4, 37–8, 42–3

in the EU 137

in Germany 156–7

in India 46

in Japan 65

in Singapore 72

in the US 110

research policy 3, 14, 16–19, 21, 76, 84, 86, 118, 142, 155–6, 158–61, 163–4, 169–70, 172

see also knowledge policies

history of 5–9

Research UK 148–9

reward systems 12, 14, 26, 151

Robbins report 145–6

Rockefeller Institute 87

Rome Treaty 123

Roosevelt, Franklin D. 85, 87

Rothschild principle see customer–contractor model

Russia 176–7

see also Soviet Union

salaries see remuneration

Saudi Arabia 176

Schuman Plan 117

Science Advisory Board 85

Science and Engineering Research Council 148

Science and Technology Commission 24, 42

Science and Technology Studies 9–10, 12, 167–8

science parks 31, 39, 64, 77

science wars 8

Scientific Social Responsibility 56

Scott, Peter 145–6

Seaborg, Glenn 86

security see food security; national security

self-regulation 7

self-sufficiency 22–3, 27, 51, 53, 106, 161, 177

SEMATECH consortium 95

Sen, Amartya 54

September 11100, 103

Shanmugaratnam, Tharman 73

Sharif, Naubahar 78

Shastri, Lal Bahadur 49

Shils, E. 93

Silicon Valley 110

Simon, Herbert 91

Singapore 16, 54, 68–83, 144, 162, 164, 173

defence 70

education 68, 71, 73

elite actors 67–9, 72, 75

funding 67, 72, 74, 76

governance 67, 69–70, 72, 82

growth models 70, 75, 144

health care 71

higher education 70

innovation 72, 74–6

knowledge policies 66–7, 74, 82

knowledge systems 68

mobility 73

modernization 68

power 69

R&D expenditure 70–71

recruitment 69–70, 72, 74

research institutes 72

state formation 71, 82

technology 69

universities/higher education 67–8, 71–6

Singapore Management University 74–5

Singapore University 68

Singapore University of Technology and Design 74–5

Single European Act 121, 137

Slaughter, Anne-Marie 108–9

smart specialization 129, 162

social media 104

social reproduction 3, 155, 163

social sciences 12, 24–5, 38, 146–7, 151

socialism 54, 63, 84

societal embeddedness 4, 15, 43, 58, 136, 160

Socrates programme 123

Sombart, Werner 84

South Africa 175

South America 175

South Korea 66–7

Soviet Union 4, 23, 49–50

space programmes 29, 45–8, 50, 54, 56–7, 59, 63

Spain 137

Spark Programme 30

SPRING 75–6

start-ups 25, 57, 75, 79, 98, 176

state formation 11, 16–18, 21, 65, 161–3, 165, 173

in China 33, 41–2

in the EU 116–17, 123, 126, 136–7, 139, 173

in France 156

in Germany 156–7

in India 47–53, 55–6, 64

in Singapore 71, 82

in the US 112

State Key Laboratories 81

state-owned enterprises 40–41

stem cells 8, 34, 101, 103, 106, 111

Stephan, Paula 88

Strategic Defense Initiative 95

structural-functionalist theory 7

Superconducting Super Collider 97–8

Sweden 33

Syria 138

TACTICS 67

Taiwan 67, 79

Tan, Tony 73

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research 47–8, 52

taxation 78, 96, 99, 105

in the US 107

technology 1, 8–10, 14, 17, 166

in China 22–4, 29–31, 34, 43

in the EU 120, 123, 128, 134

in France 155, 162

in Hong Kong 83

in India 45, 48, 50, 52–3

in Japan 65–6

in Singapore 69

in the UK 147–8

in the US 84, 93–4, 96, 99–100, 103–4, 108, 110–11, 114, 164

Thailand 66

Thatcher, Margaret 147–8, 150, 153

Thatcherism 144, 153

think tanks 29, 38–9, 64, 109, 143

Third Way 100, 143

tiger economies 67–8, 175

see also individual countries

Torch Programme 30–31, 39

trade unions 7, 84, 120, 142

transparency 6, 12, 35, 150, 165

Truman, Harry S. 86

Trump, Donald 104–7, 111, 114, 163

Trumpcare 106

tuition fees 146

Turkey 67

UK Research and Innovation 149, 153

Ukraine 138

United Kingdom 16, 46–9, 51, 68, 122, 126, 137, 139, 141–53, 156, 163–4, 171, 174

see also Brexit

competitiveness 144, 148

defence 142, 145

economic growth 143, 147

education 141–3, 146, 149, 153

elite actors 144, 146

funding 142, 144, 148–50

governance 141, 144, 146, 148–53

growth models 144, 147, 153

health care 151

innovation 143–4, 149

knowledge policies 141–3

knowledge systems 147, 153

mobility 145, 152

modernization 145, 147, 153

networks 141–2

R&D expenditure 142

recruitment 144, 151

technology 147–8

universities/higher education 74, 80–81, 141–2, 144–7, 149–50, 153

United States 2–4, 15–16, 22, 27, 33, 38, 40–41, 49, 68, 70–71, 84–115, 118–20, 122, 125, 132–4, 137–8, 141, 143, 145–6, 155, 158–9, 161, 163–4, 171–2, 174–5, 177

agriculture 87, 89, 106

competitiveness 97, 99–101, 114

defence 86, 90, 94, 96–9, 105, 112–13, 145

economic growth 94, 97, 102, 111–12

education 84–5, 88–90, 93, 102–3, 106–7, 110–14

elite actors 86, 93, 102, 109, 112–14

funding 84, 86–9, 91–3, 96–102, 106–7, 110–11, 113–14

governance 85–6, 89–92, 94–5, 101, 110–11, 114–15

growth models 94–7, 102, 104, 111

health care 87–8, 91, 98, 100, 103, 106

higher education 112

innovation 84–5, 92, 96, 101, 105–7, 109–11, 114

knowledge policies 26, 84–9, 91–2, 94, 100–105, 107–12, 114

knowledge systems 91, 111, 114

metagovernance 112

mobility 92, 111–12

modernization 90, 104

networks 89, 95, 108–10, 112

power 84, 86, 109

R&D expenditure 95–7, 100, 104

recruitment 88–9, 93

research institutes 110

state formation 112

taxation 107

technology 84, 93–4, 96, 99–100, 103–4, 108, 110–11, 114, 164

universities/higher education 27, 60, 73–5, 80, 84–97, 101–3, 106–7, 109–10, 112–14, 124, 132, 134, 165

universities 7–9, 14, 25, 71–4, 76, 164, 168–9, 171–2, 176

see also individual universities

in China 22–4, 26–32, 34, 36–8, 42, 81

in the EU 118–19, 128–32, 136–9, 173

in France 156

in Germany 154, 156–7

in Hong Kong 67, 78–81, 83

in India 45–7, 53–4, 57–63

in Japan 65–6

in Singapore 67–8, 71–6

in the UK 74, 80–81, 141–2, 144, 146–7, 149–50

in the US 27, 60, 73–5, 80, 84–9, 91–7, 101–3, 106–7, 109–10, 112–14, 124, 132, 134, 165

world-class 31, 61–3, 72–3

Universities Governance Commission 57

University of Chicago 93

University of Hong Kong 80

University of Pennsylvania 93

University of Science and Technology of China 36, 38

University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences 36

US Steel 92

van Noorden, R. 13

veterinary sciences 87

Vietnam War 70

Vision 203053, 57

Volcker, Paul 96

von Clausewitz, Carl 5

Wang Nai-Xing 26

war on coal 103, 106

warfare–welfare nexus 12, 88–91, 96, 114, 161, 163–4, 170

Warsaw Pact 161

welfare state 7, 69, 91, 100, 122, 137, 163, 170

see also warfare–welfare nexus

White House Council of Economic Advisers 109

Willetts, David 143

Witt, Michael A. 41

world-class universities 31, 61–3, 72–3

Xi Jinping 29

Yale University 74

Ziman, John 8–9