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Maritime Legacies and the Law

Effective Legal Governance of WWI Wrecks

Craig Forrest

The recent centenary of WWI has prompted a shift in the way attention is focused on legacy shipwrecks. This timely book considers the development of the laws that apply to these wrecks and the issues that surround them, and deftly analyses the adequacy of the existing legal framework to fulfil its promise of protecting legacy wrecks for future generations as historical and archaeological resources, memorials and, most importantly, as maritime war graves.
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Table of cases

Craig Forrest

AUSTRALIA

 

Pfaltz, The [1922] VLR 286 (VSC) 9, 70, 101

CANADA

 

Her Majesty The Queen in Right of Ontario v Mar-Dive Corporation et al. [1997] AMC 1000 92, 95, 132

IRELAND

 

Bemis v Minister for Arts, Heritage, Gaeltacht and the Islands [2005] IEHC 207 199

Bemis v Minister for Arts, Heritage, Gaeltacht and the Islands [2007] 3 IR 255 199

SINGAPORE

 

Simon v Taylor [1975] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 338 92, 142

UNITED KINGDOM

 

A-G v Glen Line and Liverpool and London War Risks Association (1930) 37 LI.L. Rep. 55 (HL) 87

Arrow Shipping Co Ltd v Tyne Improvement Commissioners, The Crystal [1894] A.C. 508 184, 188

Auguste Legembre, The [1902] P.123 138

Boston Corporation v Fenwick & Co Ltd (1923) 39 T.L.R. 441, 16 Asp. M.L.C. 239 184

Charlotte, The (1848)3 W.Rob. 68 133

Crystal, The see Arrow Shipping Co Ltd v Tyne Improvement Commissioners, The Crystal

Dee Conservancy Board v McConnell [1928] 2 K.B.159 185

Egypt, The (1932) 44 LI.L.Rep. 21 92

Emden, The [1920] 2 LI.L.Rep.7 8, 22, 24, 36, 37, 49, 52, 85, 107

Gas Float Whitton (No.2), The [1896] P.42 (C.A.) 130

Germania (No.2), The [1918] A.C. 472 (P.C.) 101

HMS Thetis [1833] 166 E.R.312 51, 130, 178

Kastor Navigation Co Ltd v AGF MAT (The Kastor Too) [2004] 2 Lloyd’s Rep.119 86

Königsberg, The (1920) 2 LI.L. Rep.7 36, 49, 52, 81, 85, 95, 107, 117, 122, 123, 220

Morris v Lyonesse Salvage Co (The Association and The Romney) [1970] 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 59 137

Odessa, The [1916] 1 A.C.145 85

Parlement Belge, The (1880) 5 P.D. 197 99

Pierce v Bemis (The Lusitania) [1986] 1 Q.B. 384 92, 96, 171, 172, 198

Pretoria, The (1920) 5 LI.L. Rep. 112 138

Salvage Association, The, Re [2003] EWCH (Ch) 1028 91

Tubantia, The [1924] P. 78 92, 98, 99, 125, 136, 137

War Onskin, The (1799) 165 E.R. 323: 2 C.Rob. 299 129

Zeta, The (1875) 21 T.L.R.648 156

UNITED STATES

 

Bemis v Lusitania 99 F.ed 1129 171

Bemis v RMS Lusitania [1995] A.M.C. 1665 96

Blackwall, 77 U.S (10 Wall 119L Ed. 870 (1869) 130

Cobb Coin Co v Unidentified, Wrecked and Abandoned Sailing Ship, 549 F.Supp. 540 (S.D.Fla. 1982) 132, 138

Columbus America Discovery Group, Inc v Unidentified Wreck of the S.S. Central America [1989] A.M.C.1955 137

Columbus-America Discovery Group, Inc v Atlantic Mutual Insurance Company,42 F.Supp.1327 (E.D.Va. 1990) 138

Columbus-America Discovery Group, Inc. v. Atlantic Mutual Insurance Company, 974 F.2d 450 (4th Cir.1992) 92, 93, 96, 138

Columbus-America Discovery Group, Inc.v. Atlantic Mutual Insurance Company, [1995] AMC 1985, (4th Cir.2007) 132

Eads v Brazelton, 22 Ark. 499 (1861) 132

E L Soba v Fitzgerald, [1997] A.M.C. 2254 132

F Moyer v The Wreck of the Andrea Doria, 836 F.Supp.1099 (D.N.J.1993) 137

Institute of Aeronautical Archaeological Research Inc. v Wreck of Type A ‘Midget’ Japanese Submarine, Civ. No.92-0052-BMD (Hawai’i, July 1, 1993) 135

Klein v Unidentified, Wrecked and Abandoned Sailing Ship. 758 F.2d 1515 (11th Cir.1985) 133

Martha’s Vineyard Scuba Headquarters, Inc v Unidentified, Wrecked and Abandoned Steam Ship, 833 F.2d 1059 (1st Cir.1987) 92

Odyssey Marine Exploration, Inc v Unidentified Shipwrecked Vessel, 675 F.Supp.2d 1126 (MD.Fla. Dec 22, 2009) aff’d 657 F.3d 1159 (11th Cir. Fla Sept 21, 2011) 139

Odyssey Marine Exploration, Inc. v. Unidentified Shipwrecked Vessel, 657 F.3d 1159 (11th Cir. 2011), cert. denied, 132 S.Ct. 2379 (2012) 268, 302

Platoro Ltd, Inc v The Unidentified Remains of a Ship, 614 F.2d 1051 (5th Cir. 1980); 1981 A.M.C. 1087 132

Prins Frederick, (1820) 2 Dod. 451 99

RMS Titanic, Inc v The Wrecked and Abandoned Ship (Titanic I), 924 F.Supp. 714, 716 (E.D. Va. 1996) 137

Subaqueous Exploration & Archaeology Ltd v The Unidentified, Wrecked and Abandoned Ship, 577 F.Supp. 597, (D.Md. 1983) 132

Sabine, The 101 U.S. 384 (1879) 130

The Schooner Exchange v McFaddon, (1812) 7 Cranch. 116 99

Thompson v One Anchor and Two Anchor Chains, 221 F. 770 (W.D.Wis. 1916) 132

Treasure Salvors, Inc v Unidentified, Wrecked and Abandoned Sailing Ship, 408 F.Supp 907 (S.D.Fla 1976) 92

Treasure Salvors, Inc v. Unidentified, Wrecked and Abandoned Sailing Ship, 569 F.2d 330 (5th Cir. 1978) 92, 96, 132

Wiggins v 1100 Tons, More or Less, of Italian Marble (The Clythia), 186 F.Supp. 452 (E.D.Va. 1960) 132

Yukon Recovery v Certain Abandoned Property, 205 F.3d 1255 (11th Cir.2000) 92

Zych v Unidentified, Wrecked and Abandoned Ship, 755 F.Supp. 213 (N.D.Ill. 1990) 92

INTERNATIONAL

 

The ARA Libertad Case (Argentina v Ghana), [2012] ITLOS Rep 21 99

North Sea Continental Shelf Case [1969] ICJ Rep 3 108, 109