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Maritime Legacies and the Law

Effective Legal Governance of WWI Wrecks

Craig Forrest

The recent centenary of WWI has prompted a shift in the way attention is focused on legacy shipwrecks. This timely book considers the development of the laws that apply to these wrecks and the issues that surround them, and deftly analyses the adequacy of the existing legal framework to fulfil its promise of protecting legacy wrecks for future generations as historical and archaeological resources, memorials and, most importantly, as maritime war graves.
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Index

Craig Forrest

A1 (British submarine) 293

A3 (British submarine) 293

A7 (British submarine) 175

A19 (German torpedo boat) 64

abandonment (of ownership) 91–6

Aboukir HMS 27, 29, 52, 81, 108, 126, 150, 169–70, 175, 221, 228, 280, 285, 304

Admiral Nakhimov 82

Adriatic Sea 22–3, 31, 35, 41, 45, 49, 51–2, 116, 181, 236

Adventure Galley 235

AE1 27, 33, 49, 62

AE2 2, 17, 51, 62, 105, 107

Aegean 15, 49

Agincourt HMS 78

aircraft 6, 32, 36, 46, 94, 103, 134, 139, 144–5, 203–4, 208–9, 211, 220, 223, 225–7, 261, 273, 289, 303

Albania 41, 51

Albatross 22

Alcitpe 62

Algeria 50–51, 183

Amalfi 23, 125, 236

Amiral Charner 24

Amphion HMS 9, 56, 232, 247–8, 255, 302

Anchor Line 40

Anglia HMHS 42, 150

Antilles 42

Antisubmarine Division (British Admiralty) 61

Anzac cove 2,

Aquitania 41, 44

Arabic 44

Aragon 79

Arbuthnot, Robert 20

Archaeological standards 212–214

archipelagic (zone) 107, 220, 226, 278

Ardent HMS 168, 260

Ardgantock 90

Ardmount 52

Area 110, 112, 224–7, 229, 233, 262, 278, 280, 282

Arethusa HMS 10–11

Arfon HMT 56, 204, 292–3

Argentina 78, 136

Ariadne 11

Ariane 33–4

Ariel HMS 29

Armistice 45–6, 239

Armstrong, Elswick 79

Armstrong, Whitworth 78

Athos 41

Atlantic 25, 36, 38, 49

Atlas of the 2Seas Project 68

Aud 162, 299

Audacious HMS 34, 38, 51, 56, 161, 181

Australia 5, 9, 17, 31, 36, 39, 40, 42, 49, 51–2, 70, 75, 95, 99, 106–7, 128, 173, 221, 233, 236, 239, 240–42, 244–5, 249, 251–2

Austria 113

Austria-Hungary 4, 22, 26, 35, 45, 49, 51, 83, 102

auxiliary vessels (ships) 3, 5, 31, 38–40, 44, 46, 51, 79–82, 99, 139–40, 144–5, 150, 255, 264, 267–9

B11 (British submarine) 15, 122

Bacchantes class cruisers 27

Baden 13, 172

Balfour, Arthur 7, 18

Baltic Sea 21–2, 50–51, 194, 298–9

Barbaros Hayreddin 17

Barley 64

Baron Gautsch 45

Barrara 42 HMAT 40

Barsac 70, 149

Bayern 172

Beaufoy, Katy 252

Beatty, David 14, 18–19, 165

Bela MV 164, 170

Belgium 1, 4, 50–52, 55, 58, 62, 64, 68, 70, 99, 115–17, 128–9, 140, 164, 177–81, 197, 236, 239, 242–3, 244, 249, 269, 297–8

Bemis, Gregg 96, 171–2, 198–9

Beneditto Brin 24, 122

Berlin 35, 38, 102

Bernoulli 34

Bingham, Edward 19

Birmingham HMS 26

Black Prince HMS 20, 54, 166–7

Black sea 15, 22, 50

Blücher 14–15

Board of Trade (British) 79–80, 91, 148

Bogatyr 13

Bosforus 62

Bosnia 23, 52

Bosphorus 17

Bouvet 2, 16, 24, 60, 105, 107, 115, 122, 171

Boyle, Edward 16

blockade 28–9

Bluebell HMS 300

Branlebas 64

Brazil 36, 51, 78, 116, 128, 221

Bremse 43, 172

Breslau 15

Brilliant HMS 178

Bristol HMS 13

Britain see United Kingdom

Britannia HMS 31

Britannic HMHS 42

British Expeditionary Force 40

British-India Steam Navigation Company 53, 149

British Sub-Aqua Club (BSAC) 55–6, 173–4

Broke HMS 21

bronze 54, 126, 158, 169

Brugge 53

Brummer 43, 172

Bulwark HMS 265

burial at sea 245–6

C3 (British submarine) 51

C12 (British submarine) 121, 143

C15 (British submarine) 33

C29 (British submarine) 46

C31 (British submarine) 33, 51

C33 (British submarine) 33

C34 (British submarine) 46

cables (undersea) 109, 190–91, 207

see also pipelines

Cairnhill 89, 302

Calgarian HMS 264

Calvados 41

Campbell, Gordon 32

Cambodia 41

Cameroon 6

Campania HMS 203–4

Canada (Canadian) 5, 40, 42, 48, 51, 75, 113, 128, 221, 242, 249, 251–2, 270

Canopus HMS 12

Cap Trafalgar 37, 79, 255

capture 82–4, 102, 122, 151

Carmania HMS 37, 102, 255

Caroline HMS 73

Carthage 17, 52, 62

Caribbean 36

Castilian 206

Ceramic 79

Chatham Naval Memorial 251

Chauncey 25

Choules, Charles 65

Churchill, Winston 10, 15, 18

Chile 12–13, 17, 37, 51–2, 78, 109, 117, 162

China 6, 12, 26, 50, 52, 78, 95, 128, 205, 221

City of Winchester 36

coal 6, 12, 20, 35, 38–9, 57–8, 80, 114, 182, 188

Coastal Motor Boat 4 HM 73

Code books 13–14, 18, 22–3,123,

Cöln 11, 55, 57–8, 109, 172, 174, 178

colliers 13, 17, 39

Comité Maritime International (CMI) 128

commerce raiders 8, 12, 35–9, 49, 79, 82, 95, 128, 195

commercial exploitation (of legacy wrecks) 53–7, 70–2, 86, 120–7, 134–5, 148–9, 174, 207–8, 215–7, 235, 277–8

common heritage of mankind 110

Commonwealth War Graves Commission see Imperial War Graves Commission

Comoran 37, 82, 126, 162, 195, 269, 301

condenser 54, 126, 167, 169

contiguous zone 104, 108–9, 112, 221, 223, 268, 270, 278, 298–9

continental shelf 104, 108–9, 190–91, 195, 222–29, 272, 278–82, 285, 289, 298

contraband 28, 101, 103

convoy 25, 30, 43, 64, 90

copper 90, 148–9, 158

Coronel, battle of 2, 8, 12–13, 49, 255

Cornwall HMS 13

Cornwell, Jack 271

Council of Europe 3

Covington 42

Cox & Danks 151, 172

Cradock, Christopher 12

Crathie HMT 40

Creosol RFA 264–5

Cressy HMS 27, 29, 52, 81, 108, 126, 150, 169–70, 175, 221, 228, 280, 285, 304

Croatia 52, 72, 236

Cromarty Firth 81, 125, 150, 180

Cunard 37, 44, 79, 89, 204

Curie 122, 143

customary international law 98, 103, 106, 145, 189–90, 227, 259, 273, 278, 303

Cuthrie HMT 64

D2 (British submarine) 33

D5 (British submarine) 46

D6 (British submarine) 46

D8 (British submarine) 33

Dague 25, 52, 270

Danton 24, 57–8, 109, 183, 191–2, 219, 254, 270

Dardanelles see Gallipoli campaign

Dartmouth HMS 36

deep seabed 66, 104–5, 108, 110, 213, 224, 227

Defence HMS 20, 162, 168, 174

del Greco, Carlo 33

Denmark (Danish) 43–4, 51–2, 54, 64, 70, 114, 128, 162, 166–8, 221, 253, 299

Department of Culture, Media and Sport 148, 267, 276–7

Department of Transport 53, 151–2, 155

derelict (ships) 130, 146–7

Derfflinger 15, 19–20, 83

destroyer 9–11, 13, 17, 19–23, 25, 27–30, 35–6, 43–44, 52, 62, 78, 81, 83, 122, 151, 163, 167–8, 172, 210

Dogger Bank 8, 13–15

Dover 9, 29, 57, 114, 179, 254

Dreadnought class 8, 18, 24, 122, 125

Pre-Dreadnought class 8, 12, 18, 24, 27, 78

Dreadnought HMS 7, 29

Dresden 12–13, 36–7, 52, 162, 172

Duke of Albany 263

Duke of Edinburgh HMS 20

Dutch 13–14, 43, 45, 51, 67, 108, 136, 158, 161, 164–67, 169–70, 298

see also Netherlands

E3 (British submarine) 33, 55, 126, 164, 255

E5 (British submarine) 66–7

E6 (British submarine) 11, 46

E7 (British submarine) 51

E9 (British submarine) 26

E10 (British submarine) 107, 295

E11 (British submarine) 17

E13 (British submarine) 52

E14 (British submarine) 16, 51, 62

E15 (British submarine) 51

E16 (British submarine) 33

E18 (British submarine) 67, 107, 117, 263, 266

E20 (British submarine) 51

E39 (British submarine) 46

E45 (British submarine) 61

E49 (British submarine) 46

E50 (British submarine) 262, 266

East Coast War Channels project 50, 64, 68

Edinburgh HMS 260

Egypt 51

Elbing 21, 78, 168

Eleonora 62

Emden 8, 22, 24, 36–7, 49, 52, 85, 107

English Heritage 64, 106, 203, 209, 257, 274, 288, 291

see also Historic England

Erin HMS 78

Estonia 51, 107, 117, 263

Etruria 24

Eumaeus 149

exclusive economic zone (EEZ) 108–9, 114, 190–91, 222, 224, 226, 272, 278–82, 289

Falaba 29, 44

Falklands, Battle of 2, 8, 12–13, 49, 110, 255

Falklands War 260

Faulkner HMS 21

Fearless HMS 10, 266

Fiji 251

Finland 13, 22, 51–2, 95

Fisgard II HMS 264

Fisher, Jacky 59

fishing 182–3

fishing vessel 3, 13–14, 39–40, 45, 55, 58, 65, 66, 80, 102

Fleet Air Arm Museum 73, 204

Flora 27

Folkestone Salvage Company 151

Forgotten Wrecks project 68, 255

Formidable HMS 28, 161, 165

Fortune HMS 53, 167

Foucault 32

France (French) 1, 4–9, 17–18, 23–4, 26, 28, 31–6, 39, 41, 45–6, 49, 51–2, 58, 60, 62, 64, 68, 70, 78, 80, 93, 95, 97, 102, 105, 107, 114–17, 122, 125, 128, 134, 141, 143, 145, 149, 177, 182–3, 194, 196–7, 206, 218, 234, 236, 238, 241–5, 249, 254, 269–70, 285, 296–7

Frauenlob 11, 21, 66, 71–2, 168, 174

French Polynesia 38

Friedrich Carl 22

Friedrich der Grosse 83

G8 (British submarine) 262, 266

G96 (German torpedo boat) 64

Gaea 64

Gairsoppa 276

Gallipoli campaign 2, 15–18, 49–50, 52–3, 60, 62, 64, 115–16, 131, 211, 245, 256

Garibaldi 23, 52, 236

Gaulois 24

Germany

national law 194, 295–6

war at sea 6–47

Ghana 251

Glasgow HMS 12–13

Glenart Castle HMHS 42, 252

Gloucester HMS 276

Gneisenau 12–13, 49, 110

Goeben 15

Goliath HMS 17, 51, 107, 115

Good Hope HMS 12, 49, 109, 117, 255

Gottfried 64

Ghurka HMS 29, 163

graves see war graves

Greece (Greek) 43, 51–2, 78, 95, 116, 127–8, 206, 221

Guam 37, 126, 162, 195

H5 (British submarine) 46

H21 (British seaplane lighter) 73

H52 (British submarine) 81

Haiti 235

Hamburg America 37, 40

Hamburg-South America Line 79

Hampshire HMS 126, 163, 175, 260

Harper, JET 165, 168

Harrovian 158

Harvey, Francis 19

Hatsuse 78

Hawke HMS 28

Hela 27

Helgoland 32

Heligoland Bight, battle of 2, 10–12, 14, 26, 33, 49, 164

Hermes HMS 27

Hersing, Otto 26

Highflyer HMS 38

Hindenberg 151, 172

Hipper, Franz 14, 19

Historic England 30, 64, 202–3, 274, 288

see also English Heritage

Høvding Shipbreakers 84, 93, 152

Hogue HMS 27, 29, 52, 81, 108, 126, 150, 169–70, 175, 221, 228, 280, 285, 304

Holbrook, Norman 15, 17

Hong Kong 251–2

Horton, Max 27

hospital ships 38, 42–3, 100, 145, 150, 152, 252

human remains 66–7, 70–71, 168, 182, 208, 210–11, 225, 246–50, 257–8, 260–70, 278, 282–3, 287, 291, 296, 306

hydrophones 30

India 5, 36, 40, 50, 75, 97, 242, 249, 251–2

Italy 4, 8, 22–3, 26, 31–2, 40–41, 49, 50–51, 99, 102, 105, 109, 117, 128, 141, 177, 181, 183, 206, 236, 243–5

Imperatristae Mariya 22, 50, 125

Imperial War Graves Commission 243, 245, 248–50, 285, 294

Indefatigable HMS 19, 54, 162, 166, 174, 280–81

Inflexible HMS 12, 16

Institute of International Law 84, 142–3, 145–6, 258–60, 275, 277–82, 303

International Law Association 207

International Maritime Organisation (IMO) 105, 114, 128, 147, 186, 189

International Seabed Authority 110, 224–5

Intrepid HMS 178

Invincible HMS 12, 20, 54, 65, 162, 165

in situ preservation 58, 65, 70, 116, 133, 137, 212–3, 227, 257, 267, 277, 288, 290, 306

Iphigenia HMS 178

Iron Cross 27–8

Irresistible HMS 2, 16, 51, 115, 171

Ireland, Republic of (Irish) 51, 95–6, 124, 128, 162, 164, 195, 203, 206, 221, 223, 236, 252, 288, 299–300

Israel 51, 105, 116

J6 (British submarine) 62

Jacob Jones USS 25, 30

Japan 4–7, 12, 25–6, 49–50, 52, 78, 82, 93–4, 102, 113, 128–9, 134, 145, 248

Jellicoe, John 9–10, 18, 20–21, 26, 165

Joule 34, 62, 115

Jutland, Battle of 2, 8, 18–21, 29, 49, 54, 60, 62, 64–9, 71, 73, 108, 126, 128, 162, 165–69, 174, 212, 233, 239, 255–56, 265–66, 280, 298–99, 302

K4 (British submarine) 56, 252, 265

K6 (British submarine) 265

K17 (British submarine) 56, 252, 262, 265

Kaiser 172

Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse 38, 102, 107, 255

Kaiser Wilhelm II 6–8, 18, 295

Karlsruhe 36, 55, 172

Kashima 78

Kent HMS 13

Keyes, Roger 10–11

King Bleddyn 149

Kléber 25, 197, 269

Kolberg 15,

Königin Luise 9, 40, 164, 255, 303

Koningin Regentes 43

Königsberg 36, 49, 52, 81, 85, 95, 107, 117, 122–3, 220

Kronprinz Wilhelm 38

Krupp 78–9

L132 (aircraft) 32

L135 (aircraft) 32

LV71 (Lightship) 25

Laboe Memorial 252

Laconia 44, 89, 302

Laertes HMS 11

Lance HMS 9

Landrail HMS 9

Laurel HMS 11

Laurentic 56, 79, 82, 124, 150, 152, 256

law of finds 96, 137, 194–6, 208, 215, 268, 301

law of the sea 101–14

conventions 103–112, 219–25

history of 101–3

Leinster 162, 300

Leipzig 13, 36–7, 110

Léon Gambetta 24, 51

Leonardo da Vinci 24, 125, 236

Leviathan 42

Liberty HMS 11

Libya 51

Lika 23

Lion HMS 11, 14, 19

Liverpool and London War Risk Insurance Association 88–9

Llandovery Castle HMHS 42

Lloyd’s of London 88, 90–91, 158–9

Lloyd’s International Underwriting Association 91

London 161

Louis HMS 18

Ludgate 148

Lusitania 29, 44, 52, 58, 79, 89, 91, 95–6, 119, 152–3, 171–2, 181, 195, 198, 232, 252–3, 300

Lützow 20–21, 54, 166

M33 (coastal bombardment vessels) HMS 73

Macedonia HMS 13

Madagascar 235

Magdeburg 13, 22, 52

Mainz 11, 109, 164

Majestic HMS 17, 51, 115, 170

Malaysia 24, 36, 107, 251

Malta 36, 51

Managing Cultural Heritage Underwater Project (MACHU) 64

Mantola 53, 71, 125, 149, 175, 256, 276, 301, 305

Marechiaro 43

Mariotte 18

Maritime Archaeology Sea Trust 51, 65

maritime lien 135, 160, 186

Markomania 52

marine insurance 85–91

marine scientific research 109

Mary Rose 81

Mary Rose HMS 44

Mauretania 41, 44, 79, 102

Mecidiye 122, 143

Medaglia d’Oro al Valore Militare 33

Mediterranean 15, 24–5, 41, 45, 49, 219, 229

Medusa 33

memorials 237–60

Mendi 41, 221, 232, 236, 251, 253–4, 264, 303

Merchant marine 43–45

Mersey HMS 36

Mesudiye 2, 15, 122, 302

Metal Recoveries (Orkney) Ltd 153, 181

Meteor 38

Micronesia 6

Midilli 62

Minas 41

Mines 34–5

Minesweeper 9, 35, 38, 64, 100, 204

Ministry of Defence (MoD) 95, 149, 163, 181, 202, 260, 265–6, 275–6, 281, 305

Moldavia HMS 42, 56, 264

Möltenort Memorial 252

Moltke 14, 172

Monge 32

Monmouth HMS 12, 49, 51, 109, 117

Morocco 38, 51, 107, 255

Mount Vernon 42

Mousquet 24, 36, 52, 107

Möwe 38

Muavenet-i Milliye 17

multibeam Sonar 60

museums 55, 57, 71, 73, 81, 124, 135, 163, 166–8, 174, 179, 204, 253, 257

Myanmar 251

Namibia 6

Nasmith, Martin 17

Natal HMS 81, 124, 150, 153, 180–81, 265

Nautical Archaeological Society (NAS) 173

Naval Ode 1, 250

navigational hazard 57–8, 114, 172, 177–79, 191–2, 201, 204

Navy Salvage Division (British Admiralty) 61, 178

Nereide 33, 124

Nestor HMS 19, 54, 167

Netherlands 51–2, 64, 102, 114, 116–7, 124, 128, 162, 166, 196–8, 207, 221, 223, 236, 269, 280, 285, 298–99, 304

see also Dutch

neutral shipping (vessels) 28–9, 31, 43, 49–50, 52, 62–3, 88–9, 101, 103, 107, 128–9, 231

New Zealand 5, 40, 62, 75, 128, 242, 249, 252

Nigeria 252

Nomad HMS 19, 54, 162, 167, 174

Norddeutscher Lloyd 36, 38, 79, 80

North of England Association 88

Northern Ireland 35, 38, 51, 124, 203, 288

North Sea 8, 10, 14, 26, 28, 34, 36, 46, 49, 52, 58, 64, 117, 136, 162, 165, 181, 194, 229, 233, 262, 297–9

North Sea Divers & Co Ltd 93

Norway (Norwegian) 33, 38, 43–4, 51, 64, 84, 93, 95, 112, 116, 128, 152, 162

Nur-ul Bahir 16, 62

Nürnberg 13, 110

Oakley HMS 165

objects of an historical and archaeological nature 3, 110–12, 286

Ocean HMS 2, 16, 51, 105–7, 115, 171

Odessa 85

Odyssey Marine Exploration 81, 89, 149, 175, 276, 301–2

Olympic 32, 41

Orkney Islands 55, 173

Ostend 30, 50, 53, 177–8, 253

Ouse HMS 204

outstanding universal value 115, 117–9

ownership 76–96

loss of

see also abandonment 91–95

transfer of 80–82

P319 (French torpedo boat) 52

Pallada 13, 22

Papua New Guinea 6, 27, 33, 49, 62

passenger liners (ship) 3, 25, 28–9, 40, 42, 44, 53, 56, 79, 89, 91, 95, 150, 264–5, 300

Pathfinder HMS 26–7, 56, 162

Pegasus HMS 36, 51–2, 81, 95, 123, 150, 247

Pfaltz 9, 70, 101

Plymouth Naval Memorial 251

pipelines (undersea) 57, 73, 109, 180, 183, 190–91, 207, 219

see also cables

Poland 64

pollution 58, 73, 86, 105, 113–14, 129, 140, 150, 182, 186–92

Pommern 21, 54, 165–6

Portsmouth Naval Memorial 251

Portugal 51, 63–4, 69–70, 113, 128–9, 223, 234

Posen 21

President Lincoln 42

Princess Royal HMS 11, 14

Principe Umberto 41

Prinz Adalbert 22

Prinz Eitel Friedrich 38, 79

Prinzregent Luitpold 172

prize 9, 28, 33, 39, 82–85, 101–2, 126, 129, 152

Prut 122

Q-ship 32–3, 81, 62, 80–81, 102, 136

Queen Elizabeth HMS 182

Queen Mary HMS 19, 54, 61, 162, 166–7, 212, 255, 280–81

Receiver of Wreck 95, 135, 147, 154–62, 171, 174, 199, 203–4, 292, 294

Regina Margherita 24

Rehber 62

Renarro 62

Resadiye 78

Rewa HMHS 42

Richard Montgomery 206

River Clyde 17

Rizzo, Luigi 23

Rohilla 43, 152

Roland Morillot 122

Rostock 54, 167

Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales 68

Royal Edward 40

Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) 79

Royal Marine Artillery 252

Royal Mail Steam Packet Company 79

Royal Marine Light Infantry 252

Royal Naval Air Service 209

Royal Naval Reserve Trawling Section 39

Royal Navy Submarine Command 251

Roxburgh HMS 57

Russia 4–8, 13, 15, 22, 26, 35, 49–52, 78, 82, 93–4, 101–2,116, 122, 125, 128, 134, 144–5, 183, 226, 236, 240, 245

Ryazan 37, 82

S35 (German destroyer) 168

S90 (German destroyer) 25–6, 52

S117 (German destroyer) 35

S118 (German destroyer) 35

S119 (German destroyer) 13, 35

S126 (German destroyer) 27

Sadomaru 82

Salta 42

salvage

conventions 112–3, 128–9, 218

foundations 129–30

legacy wrecks 53–7, 121–7

and marine peril 131–33

and maritime property 130–131

and success 133–5

Salvage Association 91

salvage contract 53, 71, 91, 126, 148–9, 152–3, 155, 170, 175, 177, 184, 302

Salvor’ rights 135–39

Samoa 6

Sanders, William 33

San Diego USS 25, 165, 195, 269, 301

Santa Isabel 13

Santa Maria 235

Saracen 197

Scapa Flow 3, 10, 26, 29–30, 45–6, 55, 65, 81, 83, 125, 151, 153, 172–4, 180, 265, 291, 294

Scapa Flow Salvage & Shipbreaking Co Ltd 151, 153

Schanrhorst 12–13, 49, 110, 255

Scotland 29, 106, 203–4, 252, 288

Scott HMS 164, 175

scrap metal 48, 54, 70, 83, 126, 150, 184, 304

scuttle 3, 13, 17, 21, 37–8, 45–6, 51, 55, 62, 65, 81, 83, 89, 107, 122, 125, 151, 172, 178, 183, 300

Secretary of State’s Representative for Maritime Salvage and Intervention (SOSREP) 155, 294

Seedler 38

Senator Holthusen 52

Severn HMS 36

Sèvres, Treaty of 242

Seydlitz 15, 151, 172

Scheer, Reinhard 18–21

Shark HMS 168

shared heritage 302–5

Sierra Leone 251

Sirius HMS 51, 178

Skùli Fógeti 64

Slovenia 116

Somme, Battle of 2, 241, 244

South Africa 5, 40, 51, 75, 112, 117, 141, 221, 233, 241, 249, 253, 303

South African Labour Corps 41, 253, 264

Southampton HMS 11, 21

sovereign immunity 98–100, 102, 110, 139–148, 279–85

Soviet Union 94, 105, 122, 134

Spain 9, 51, 64, 78, 93, 102, 128–9, 223, 234

Sparrowhawk HMS 21, 166, 169

Spectator 148

Spithead Marine Salvage 151

Sri Lanka 252

Stanley Ship-Breaking & Salvage Co Ltd 81, 150, 181

Stock Force 81

Stromness Salvage Syndicate 151, 172

Strongbow HMS 44

Suffren 24, 234

Sultan Osman-ı Evvel 78

subrogation 86–7, 89–90, 149–50, 152, 302

Superb HMS 302

Surrender 45, 82–5, 151

Sussex HMS 276

Suvla Bay 2

Sweden (Swedish) 51, 64, 93, 95, 116, 128, 162–3, 183, 263

Sydney HMAS 36, 85

Szent István 23, 72, 236

T319 (French torpedo boat) 64

T47 (German destroyer) 22

T51 (German destroyer) 22

Tahiti 49–50

Tainui 79

Takachiho 25, 52

Tampa 25

tankers 39, 79, 99, 113, 145, 186, 264

Tanzania 6, 36, 51–2, 95, 107, 117

Tartar HMS 90

Teleconia 8

territorial sea 77, 104, 1069, 111, 139, 187, 189, 191–2, 195, 263, 270, 278–9, 283, 299

Terschelling Wreck Museum 166

Texas USS 73

Thailand 22, 52

Thetis HMS 51, 130, 178

Thomas W Irvin HMT 39, 64

Ticonderoga 42

Tiger HMS 14

Tipperary HMS 21, 54, 167

Titan 27

Titanic 43, 209

Togo 6

Torrey Canyon 113–4, 186–7

Transylvania 40

trawler 13–14, 16, 27, 39, 44, 61, 64, 80, 204–5

Treaty of St Germain 83–4

Treaty of Versailles 46, 83–4, 242

Trombe 122

troopships 12, 16, 39–42, 52, 56, 62, 66, 100, 145, 247, 253, 264, 303

Triumph HMS 17, 51, 78, 115

Tyrwhitt, Reginald 10

Tubantia 98, 125, 136–7

Tunisia 51

Turbine 23

Turbulent HMS 21, 168

Turkey (Turkish) 2, 15–18, 40, 49–51, 60, 62, 70, 74, 78, 97, 105–6, 115–16, 122, 143, 206, 242, 302

Tuscania 42

U3 23

U4 23

U5 24, 33, 41, 124

U6 32–3

U8 29, 57, 60, 158, 162, 205

U9 27–9, 169

U11 33, 163

U12 23, 29, 51, 123–4, 247

U13 33

U14 40, 122

U15 26, 255

U18 293

U19 264

U20 5, 44, 52, 253

U21 17, 24, 26–8, 56, 170

U22 33–4

U23 32

U24 28, 44

U26 22–3

U27 28, 33, 55, 164

U28 33, 44

U29 29

U35 43, 63, 69, 247

U38 41

U39 41

U40 163

U42 164

U46 57, 162

U50 44, 89

U52 24, 40

U53 30

U55 42, 56, 89

U56 252

U60 56

U63 41

U64 24, 254

U65 41

U69 123, 158

U76 84, 93, 152

U80 124

U81 149

U86 42

U90 151

U94 56

U95 254

U103 32, 293

U116 180

U117 25

U140 25

U151 25

U156 25

UB4 123

UB10 57, 178

UB13 136

UB14 23

UB21 57, 162–3

UB26 122, 143

UB29 31, 62

UB31 57, 162–3

UB32 62, 123

UB33 57, 123, 162

UB35 56–7, 162

UB36 62

UB38 57, 114, 123, 162–3, 179, 192

UB40 56, 158

UB41 56, 137

UB44 32

UB47 24

UB48 33

UB53 32

UB54 62

UB55 57, 123, 162

UB56 57, 123, 162

UB57 56, 264

UB58 57, 123, 162

UB64 56

UB65 57, 107, 264, 266

UB72 123, 163

UB78 163

UB81 107, 123, 151, 163, 264, 266,

UB89 57

UB91 25

UB108 43

UB109 30, 57, 123, 162

UB115 32

UB116 30–31, 57, 123, 151, 175

UB122 210

UB123 300

UB133 123

UC2 34, 123

UC4 300

UC5 42, 122, 151

UC12 14, 122, 143

UC17 165

UC21 62

UC26 57, 162

UC42 57, 162

UC32 123

UC47 123

UC49 42, 56

UC51 180

UC62 61

UC64 123, 158

UC65 33, 64

UC68 62

UC70 123, 204–5, 293

UC72 57, 162

UC76 56

UC77 56, 61

UC79 57, 61, 123, 162

Undaunted HMS 35

Underwater Archaeology Research Department (DRASSM France) 70, 194, 196, 254, 269

Undine 22

UNESCO 69, 120, 193, 207, 214, 222, 225, 230, 235–6, 254, 272, 274

United Kingdom

national legislation 153–61, 199–206, 260–70

review of national legislation 279–95

war at sea 6–47

United States (US) 4–5, 25–6, 28–30, 37–8, 41, 43–4, 49, 51, 56, 63, 67, 74, 79, 81, 89, 93–4, 96, 105, 112, 124, 132–5, 137–8, 141, 165, 171, 175, 195, 198, 208, 214, 221, 234, 264, 267–9, 301–2

Unwin, Edward 17

Verdun, Battle of 2, 240–41, 256

V4 (German destroyer) 166

V27 (German destroyer) 19, 54, 167

V29 (German destroyer) 19, 54, 167

V44 (German destroyer) 81, 83, 210

V48 (German destroyer) 168

V81 (German destroyer) 62

V82 (German destroyer) 81, 83, 210

V187 (German destroyer) 11

Van der Tann 19, 172

Vanguard HMS 56, 149, 153, 175, 181, 197, 263, 265

Vaterland 41

Venezuela 105, 116

Verona 41

Victoria Cross 15–17, 19, 32–3, 271

Victory HMS 81, 276

Vindictive HMS 178, 253

von Ingehohl, Friedrich 9,

von Arnauld de la Perière, Lothar 63

von Reuter, Ludwig 45

von Spee, Graf Maximilian 12–13, 37, 49

von Tirpitz, Alfred 7, 20, 60

Wales 68, 288

Wairuna 62

Warilda 42, 56

war graves 65–7, 237–8, 260–71, 282, 284–5, 293–4, 306

Warrior HMS 20, 62, 169,

war risk insurance 85–91, 123, 148, 152, 198, 302

Wear HMS 16

Weddigen, Otto 27

White Star Line 79, 124, 152

Wien 23, 177

Wiesbaden 20–21, 54, 166–7

Wilhelmshaven 10, 15

Wolf 38

World Federation of Underwater (CMAS) 69

world heritage 115–9, 306

wreck removal 86, 114, 150, 177–9, 185–6, 191–2

X1 (Italian submarine) 122

Yemen 36

Zeebrugge 30, 50, 53, 55, 61, 177–8, 253

Zéléé 49

Zenta 23, 52

Zhemchug 22, 36, 52