Global, Regional and National Perspectives
Edited by Nigel Bankes, Irene Dahl and David L. VanderZwaag
As demonstrated in the various chapters of this volume, the law and policy frameworks governing aquaculture are exceedingly complex. A tangled array of international guidelines and codes of practice for aquaculture have emerged, especially under the auspices of the FAO, along with numerous multilateral agreements, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, emphasizing the needs to protect and wisely use coastal and marine environments. In an increasingly globalized world, issues of international trade and access and benefit sharing of aquatic genetic resource are becoming more prevalent. Legal and policy directions also flow from the regional level, for example from regional fisheries management organizations and bodies and the European Union. National legal systems add a further layer of complexity with aquaculture activities often subject to a plethora of laws and multiple agencies. A reality standing out in all the national case studies is the constantly changing law and policy seascapes. Many countries still struggle along without specifically tailored aquaculture legislation and continue to rely on an array of relevant legislation such as fisheries acts, land use laws and general environmental protection statutes. As described by one writer, countries seem to be stuck with designing the aquaculture law and policy boat while sailing it.
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