An International Law Response
Chapter 4: The international legal and governance framework
In this chapter, the fragmented nature of the international legal and institutional framework for oversight of energy subsidies is mapped and analysed. Key international institutions and sources of international law are examined, including: the WTO; UNFCCC; and IGOs (OECD, IEA, IMF, World Bank and the G20, APEC). Recognising the growing influence of non-governmental organisations towards the development of international norms and law particularly in the environmental context, the role and relevant activities of a number of key international NGOs are reviewed. The chapter also assesses the UNFCCC regime, including the system of Nationally Determined Contributions which to date has produced at least five national commitments with some reference or commitment to fossil fuel subsidy reform.
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