Show Less
You do not have access to this content

Secession in International Law

A New Framework

Milena Sterio

Secession in International Law argues that the effective development of criteria on secession is a necessity in today’s world, because secessionist struggles can be analyzed through the legal lens only if we have specific legal rules to apply. Without legal rules, secessionist struggles are dominated by politics and sui generis approaches, which validate secessionist attempts based on geo-politics and regional states’ self-interest, as opposed to the law. By using a truly comparative approach, Milena Sterio has developed a normative international law framework on secession, which focuses on several factors to assess the legitimacy of a separatist quest.
Show Summary Details
This content is available to you

Bibliography

Milena Sterio

LAW REVIEW ARTICLES AND BOOKS

Ahmed, Dirdeiry M. (2015), Boundaries and Secession in Africa: Challenging Uti Possidetis, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Alvarez, Alejandro (1909), Latin America and International Law, American Journal of International Law 3, p. 269

Benzig, Matteo (2005), Midwifing a New State: The United Nations in East Timor, Max Planck Yearbook of UN Law 9, p. 295

Boas, Gideon (2012), Public International Law: Contemporary Principles and Perspectives, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing

Borgen, Christopher J. (2007), Imagining Sovereignty, Managing Secession: The Legal Geography of Eurasia’s “Frozen Conflicts,” Oregon Review of International Law 9, p. 477

Borgen, Christopher J. (2009), The Language of Law and the Practice of Politics: Great Powers and the Rhetoric of Self-Determination in the Cases of Kosovo and South Ossetia, Chicago Journal of International Law 10, pp. 1–5

Brilmayer, Lea (1991), Secession and Self-Determination: A Territorial Interpretation, Yale Journal of International Law 16, p. 177

Brown, Bartram S. (2005), Human Rights, Sovereignty, and the Final Status of Kosovo, Chicago-Kent Law Review 80, p. 235

Brownlie, Ian (2008), Principles of Public International Law, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press

Buchanan, Alan (1991), Secession: The Morality of Political Divorce from Fort Sumter to Lithuania and Quebec, Boulder, CO, USA: Westview Press

Bucheit, Lee (1978), Secession: The Legitimacy of Self-Determination, New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University Press

Burri, Thomas (2010), The Kosovo Opinion and Secession: The Sounds of Silence and Missing Links, Georgetown Law Journal 11, p. 881

Burri, Thomas (2014), Secession in the CIS: Causes, Consequences, and Emerging Principles, in Christian Walter, Antje von Ungern-Sternberg, and Kavus Abushov (eds), Self-Determination and Secession in International Law, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 138–54

Cassese, Antonio (1995), Self-Determination of Peoples: A Legal Reappraisal, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Cassese, Antonio (1999), Ex iniuria ius oritur: Are We Moving towards International Legitimation of Forcible Humanitarian Countermeasures in the World Community? European Journal of International Law 10, p. 23

Castellino, Joshua (2014), International Law and Self-Determination: Peoples, Indigenous Peoples, and Minorities, in Christian Walter, Antje von Ungern-Sternberg, and Kavus Abushov (eds), Self-Determination and Secession in International Law, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 27–44

Charney, Jonathan I. (2001), Self-Determination: Chechnya, Kosovo and East Timor, Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 34, p. 455

Coppieters, Bruno and Legvold, Robert (2005), Statehood and Security: Georgia after the Rose Revolution, Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press

Cornell, Svante E. (2001), Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus, London, UK and New York, NY, USA: RoutledgeCurzon

Crawford, James (1979), The Creation of States in International Law, New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press

Crawford, James (2006), The Creation of States, Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press

Cvijic, Srdjan (2007), Self-Determination as a Challenge to the Legitimacy of Humanitarian Intervention: The Case of Kosovo, German Law Journal 8, p. 57

De Chand, David, South Sudan Claims Right of Self-Determination, available at www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/de_chand.html

Dumienski, Zbigniew (2014), Microstates as Modern Protected States: Towards a New Definition of Micro-Statehood, Occasional Paper, Centre for Small State Studies, available at http://ams.hi.is/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Microstates_OccasionalPaper.pdf

Dunoff, Jeffrey L., Ratner, Steven R., and Wippman, David (2015), International Law: Norms, Actors, Process, New York, NY, USA: Wolters Kluwer

Falk, Richard A. (1999), Kosovo, World Order, and the Future of International Law, American Journal of International Law 93, p. 848

Fan, Hua (2007), The Missing Link between Self-Determination and Democracy: The Case of East Timor, Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights 6, pp. 176–95

Franck, Thomas M. (1976), The Stealing of the Sahara, American Journal of International Law 70, p. 694

Franck, Thomas (1993), Postmodern Tribalism and the Right to Secession, in C. Bormann, R. Lefeber, and M. Zieck (eds), Peoples and Minorities in International Law, Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 3–27

Franck, Thomas M. (1998), The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance, American Journal of International Law 92, p. 46

Franck, Thomas M. (1999), Lessons of Kosovo, American Journal of International Law 93, p. 857

Gruda, Zeinullah (2005), Some Key Principles for a Lasting Solution of the Status of Kosova: Uti Possidetis, the Ethnic Principle, and Self-Determination, Chicago-Kent Law Review 80, p. 353

Hanna, Roya M. (1999), Right to Self-Determination in In Re Secession of Quebec, Maryland Journal of International Law 23, p. 213

Hannum, Hurst (1990), Autonomy, Sovereignty, and Self-Determination, Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press

Hannum, Hurst (1993), Rethinking Self-Determination, Vienna Journal of International Law, 34, p. 1

Hannum, Hurst (1993), Self Determination, Yugoslavia and Europe: Old Wine in New Bottles, Transnational and Contemporary Problems 3, pp. 57, 66

Hasani, Enver (2005), Self-Determination under the Terms of the 2002 Union Agreement Between Serbia and Montenegro: Tracing the Origins of Kosovo’s Self-Determination, Chicago-Kent Law Review 80, p. 305

Hashmi, S.H. (1996), Self-Determination and Secession in Islamic Thoughts, in M. Sellers (ed.), The New World Order: Sovereignty, Human Rights and the Self-Determination of Peoples, Oxford, UK: Berg, pp. 117–51

Henkin, Louis (1979), How Nations Behave, New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press

Henkin, Louis (1999), Kosovo and the Law of “Humanitarian Intervention,” American Journal of International Law 93, p. 824

Hinck, John (1990), The Republic of Palau and the United States: Self-Determination Becomes the Price of Free Association, California Law Review 79, p. 915

Hooper, James R. and Williams, Paul R. (2003), Earned Sovereignty: The Political Dimension, Denver Journal of International Law 31, p. 355

Horowitz, Donald L. (2003), A Right to Secede? in Stephen Macedo and Allen Buchanan (eds), Secession and Self-Determination, New York, NY, USA: New York University Press, pp. 50–76

Kelly, Michael J. (2005), Pulling at the Threads of Westphalia: Involuntary Sovereignty Waiver? Revolutionary International Legal Theory or Return to Rule by the Great Powers? UCLA Journal of International Law and Foreign Affairs 10, p. 361

King, Iain and Mason, Whit (2006), Peace at Any Price: How the World Failed Kosovo, Ithaca, NY, USA: Cornell University Press

Kohen, Marcelo G. (2006), Introduction, in Marcelo G. Kohen (ed.), Secession: International Law Perspective, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–20

Kohen, Marcelo G. and Del Mar, Katherine (2011), The Kosovo Advisory Opinion and UNSCR 1244 (1999): A Declaration of “Independence from International Law?” Leiden Journal of International Law 24, p. 109

Kruger, Heiko (2014), Nagorno-Karabakh, in Christian Walter, Antje von Ungern-Sternberg, and Kavus Abushov (eds), Self-Determination and Secession in International Law, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 214–32

Lang, David Marshall (1962), A Modern History of Soviet Georgia, London, UK: Grove Press

Leslie, Peter (1999), Canada: The Supreme Court Sets Rules for the Secession of Quebec, Publius: The Journal of Federalism 29, available at https://matskut.helsinki.fi/bitstream/handle/123456789/402/Leslie.pdf?sequence=1

Lu, Bingbin (2004), The Case Concerning East Timor and Self-Determination, Murdoch University Electronic Law Journal 11, No. 2

Lynch, Dov (2004), Engaging Eurasia’s Separatist States: Unresolved Conflicts and De Facto States, Washington, DC, USA: US Institute of Peace Press

Machar, Riek and Dhurgon, Teny, South Sudan: A History of Political Domination—A Case of Self-Determination, University of Pennsylvania, African Studies Center, available at www.africa.upenn.edu/Hornet/sd_machar.html

Malanczuk, Peter (1997), Akehurst’s Modern Introduction to International Law, New York, NY, USA: Routledge

Marr, Andrew (2013), The Battle of Scotland, London, UK: Penguin

Nanda, Ved (1972), A Critique of the United Nations Inaction in the Bangladesh Crisis, Denver Law Journal 49, p. 53

Nanda, Ved (1981), Self-Determination under International Law: Validity of Claims to Secede, Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 13, pp. 257–80

Nunes, Joe (n.d.), East Timor: Acceptable Slaughters, available at http://chss.montclair.edu/english/furr/nunestimor.html

Oeter, Stefan (2014), The Role of Recognition and Non-Recognition with Regard to Secession, in Christian Walter, Antje von Ungern-Sternberg, and Kavus Abushov (eds), Self-Determination and Secession in International Law, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 45–67

Oppenheim, Lassa (1992), Oppenheim’s International Law, edited by Robert Jennings and Arthur Watts, 9th edn, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press

Orentlicher, Diane (1998), Separation Anxiety: International Responses to Ethno-Separatist Claims, Yale Journal of International Law 23, pp. 1–78

Orentlicher, Diane (2003), International Responses to Separatist Claims: Are Democratic Principles Relevant? in Stephen Macedo and Allen Buchanan (eds), Secession and Self-Determination, New York, NY, USA: New York University Press, p. 21

Perritt, Henry H., Jr (2005), Final Status for Kosovo, Chicago-Kent Law Review 80, p. 3

Peters, Anne (2014), The Principle of Uti Possidetis Juris: How Relevant Is It for Issues of Secession? in Christian Walter, Antje von Ungern-Sternberg, and Kavus Abushov (eds), Self-Determination and Secession in International Law, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 95–137

Reisman, Michael W. (1999), Kosovo’s Antinomies, American Journal of International Law 93, p. 860

Robinson, Jennifer (2010), Self-Determination and the Limits of Justice: West Papua and East Timor, Future Justice, pp. 168–88

Rothbard, Murray N. (2004), Man, Economy and State with Power and Market (Scholars Edition), Auburn, AL, USA: Ludwig von Mises Institute

Rushdie, Salman (2005), Shalimar the Clown, New York, NY, USA: Random House

Scharf, Michael P. (2003), Earned Sovereignty: Judicial Underpinnings, Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 31, p. 373

Simpson, Gerry J. (1993–1994), Judging the East Timor Dispute: Self-Determination at the International Court of Justice, Hastings Law Review 17, p. 323

Sterio, Milena (2013), The Right to Self-Determination under International Law: “Selfistans,” Secession and the Rule of the Great Powers, Abingdon, UK: Routledge

Summers, James (2014), Kosovo, in Christian Walter, Antje von Ungern-Sternberg, and Kavus Abushov (eds), Self-Determination and Secession in International Law, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 235–54

Tancredi, Antonello (2006), A Normative “Due Process” in the Creation of States through Secession, in Marcelo G. Kohen (ed.), Secession: International Law Perspectives, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 171–207

Thio, Li-Ann (2006), International Law and Secession in the Asia and Pacific Regions, in Marcelo G. Kohen (ed.), Secession: International Law Perspectives, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 297–354

Tomuschat, Christian (2006), Secession and Self-Determination, in Marcelo G. Kohen (ed.), Secession: International Law Perspectives, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 23–45

Trebicka, Viola (2007), Recent Development: Lessons from the Kosovo Status Talks: On Humanitarian Intervention and Self-Determination, Yale Journal of International Law 32, p. 255

Vezgerbaite, Ieva (2012), Remedial Secession as an Exercise of the Right of Self-Determination of Peoples, Legal Studies Department, Central European University, available at www.etd.ceu.hu/2012/vezbergaite_ieva.pdf

Von Mises, Ludwig (1919), Nation, State, and Economy: Contributions to the Politics and History of Our Time, Indianapolis, IN, USA: Liberty Fund, p. 34

Wakaengela, M. and Koko, S. (2001), The Referendum for Self-Determination in South Sudan and its Implications for the Post-Colonial State in Africa, reprinted in Conflict Trends 3, p. 23

Walter, Christian (2014), The Kosovo Advisory Opinion: What It Says and What It Does Not Say, in Christian Walter, Antje von Ungern-Sternberg, and Kavus Abushov (eds), Self-Determination and Secession in International Law, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 13–26

Walter, Christian (2014), Postscript: Self-Determination, Secession, and the Crimean Crisis, in Christian Walter, Antje von Ungern-Sternberg, and Kavus Abushov (eds), Self-Determination and Secession in International Law, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 293–311

Walter, Christian and von Ungern-Sternberg, Antje (2014), Introduction: Self-Determination and Secession in International Law—Perspectives and Trends with Particular Focus on the Commonwealth of Independent States, in Christian Walter, Antje von Ungern-Sternberg, and Kavus Abushov (eds), Self-Determination and Secession in International Law, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 1–9

Wedgwood, Ruth (1999), NATO’s Campaign in Yugoslavia, American Journal of International Law 93, p. 828

Weller, Marc (2008), Escaping the Self-Determination Trap, Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

Whelan, Anthony (1994), Wilsonian Self-Determination and the Versailles Settlement, International & Comparative Law Quarterly 43, p. 99

Williams, Paul R. (2003), Earned Sovereignty: The Road to Resolving the Conflict Over Kosovo’s Final Status, Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 31, p. 387

Wippman, David (1996), International Law and Ethnic Conflict in Cyprus, Texas International Law Journal 3, p. 141

Worster, William Thomas (2009), Law, Politics, and the Conception of the State in State Recognition Theory, Boston University International Law Journal 27, p. 115

NEWSPAPER ARTICLES AND BLOGS

Adesnik, David, How Russia Rigged Crimean Referendum, Forbes, March 18, 2014, available at www.forbes.com/sites/davidadesnik/2014/03/18/how-russia-rigged-crimean-referendum/

Anderson, Jon Lee, A History of Violence, The New Yorker, July 23, 2012, available at www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/07/23/a-history-of-violence-4

Ash, Timothy Garton, This Dependent Independence Is the Least Worst Solution for Kosovo, The Guardian, February 21, 2008, available at www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/feb/21/kosovo

BBC, The Devolution Debate This Century, n.d., available at www.bbc.co.uk/news/special/politics97/devolution/scotland/briefing/c20scot.shtml

BBC, Macmillan Speaks of “Wind of Change” in Africa, n.d., available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/3/newsid_2714000/2714525.stm

BBC News, Brexit: Nicola Sturgeon Says Second Scottish Independence Vote “Highly Likely”, June 24, 2016, available at www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotlandscotland-politics-36621030

BBC News, Catalans Declare Independence as Madrid Imposes Direct Rule, October 27, 2017, available at www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-41780116

BBC News, Catalonia Profile, April 21, 2016, available at www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-20345071

BBC News, Regions and Territories: Abkhazia, n.d., available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3261059.stm

BBC News, Scotland Referendum, n.d., available at www.bbc.co.uk/news/special/politics97/devolution/scotland/briefing/history.shtml

Bilefsky, Dan, For Crimes, Secession Is Only as Good as Recognition, New York Times, March 15, 2014, available at www.nytimes.com/2014/03/16/world/europe/for-crimea-secession-is-only-as-good-as-recognition.html

Black, Andrew, Scottish Independence: Referendum White Paper Unveiled, BBC News, November 26, 2013, available at www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-25088251

Casperson, Nina, Will There Be Peace in Nagorno-Karabakh? Two Things Stand in the Way, Washington Post, May 31, 2016, available at www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2016/05/31/nagorno-karabakhs-frozen-conflict-has-two-big-obstacles-to-a-peaceful-solution/

Catalan Legal Body Rules against Regional Government over Referendum, France24.com, March 3, 2017, available at www.france24.com/en/20170303-catalan-legal-body-rules-against-regional-government-over-referendum

Catalonia Is Still Pushing for an Independence Vote that Spain Calls Illegal, PRS’s The World, March 6, 2017, available at www.pri.org/stories/2017-03-06/its-ex-president-trial-catalonia-still-pushing-independence-vote

Catalonia’s Push for Independence from Spain, BBC News, November 11, 2015, available at www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-29478415

Clegg, David, Advocate General Says SNP’s Referendum Plans Would Be “Contrary to the Rule of Law,” The Courier, January 17, 2012, www.thecourier.co.uk/news/politics/93217/advocate-general-says-snps-referendum-plans-would-be-contrary-to-the-rule-of-law/

Crawford, James, Report: State Practice and International Law in Relation to Unilateral Secession, February 19, 1997, available at https://is.muni.cz/el/1422/jaro2006/MP803Z/um/1393966/INTERNATIONAL_LAW_AND_UNILATERAL_SECESSION.pdf

Crimea Referendum: Voters “Back Russia Union,” BBC News, March 16, 2014, available at www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-26606097

Devolution’s Swings and Roundabouts, BBC News (April 7, 1999), available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/events/scotland_99/the_scottish_parliament/306850.stm

England, Will, Kremlin Says Crimea Is Now Officially Part of Russia after Treaty Signing, Putin Speech, Washington Post, March 18, 2014, available at www.washingtonpost.com/world/russias-putin-prepares-to-annex-crimea/2014/03/18/933183b2-654e-45ce-920e-4d18c0ffec73_story.html?utm_term=.a1c7a694aea9

Fick, Maggie, Over 99 Percent in Southern Sudan Vote for Secession, USA Today, January 30, 2011, available at http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/topstories/2011-01-30-2052877353_x.htm

France24.com, African Union Chief Calls for Sanctions on Those “Blocking Peace” in S. Sudan, January 28, 2018, available at www.france24.com/en/20180128-african-union-chief-faki-30th-summit-sanctions-peace-south-sudan

Garcia, Rafael Arenas, Why Catalonia Should Stay with Spain, New York Times, May 9, 2017, available at www.nytimes.com/2017/05/09/opinion/why-catalonia-should-stay-with-spain.html?_r=0

Georgia/Abkhazia, Violations of the Laws of War and Russia’s Role in the Conflict, Human Rights Watch, March 1, 1995, available at www.hrw.org/report/1995/03/01/georgia/abkhazia-violations-laws-war-and-russias-role-conflict

Goodenough, Patrick, Crimea Vote: Putin Cites Kosovo “Precedent,” CNS News.com, March 16, 2014, available at www.cnsnews.com/news/article/patrick-goodenough/crimea-vote-putin-cites-kosovo-precedent

Govan, Fiona, Catalonia Can Call Itself a “Nation,” Rules Spain’s Top Court, The Telegraph, June 29, 2010, available at www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/spain/7861118/Catalonia-can-call-itself-a-nation-rules-Spains-top-court.htm

The Guardian, EU Still Unmoved by Spain's Standoff with Catalan Separatists, March 29, 2018, available at www.theguardian.com/world/2018/mar/29/catalanindependence-european-leaders-unmoved-spain-standoff-with-separatists

The Guardian, Scottish Independence Referendum: Scotland Votes No—As It Happened, September 19, 2014, available at www.theguardian.com/politics/scottish-independence-blog/live/2014/sep/18/scottish-referendum-results-live-coverage-of-the-independence-vote

Hamid, Shadi, Everyone Says the Libya Intervention Was a Failure. They’re Wrong, Brookings Institution, April 12, 2016, available at www.brookings.edu/blog/markaz/2016/04/12/everyone-says-the-libya-intervention-was-a-failure-theyre-wrong/

International Crisis Group, Georgia: Avoiding War in South Ossetia, November 26, 2004, available at www.crisisgroup.org/europe-central-asia/caucasus/georgia/georgia-avoiding-war-south-ossetia

King, C., Tbilisi Blues, Foreign Affairs, August 25, 2004, available at www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/russia-fsu/2004-08-25/tbilisi-blues

Koh, Harold Hongju, Syria and the Law of Humanitarian Intervention (Part III—A Reply), Just Security, October 12, 2013, available at www.ejiltalk.org/syria-and-the-law-of-humanitarian-intervention-part-iii-a-reply/#more-9613

Kramer, A.E., A French-Brokered Peace Offers Russia a Rationale to Advance, New York Times, August 14, 2008

Kyiv Post, Nicaragua Recognizes Crimea as Part of Russia, March 27, 2014, available at www.kyivpost.com/content/ukraine/nicaragua-recognizes-crimea-as-part-of-russia-341102.html

Mamdani, Mahmood, Africa: South Sudan—Rethinking Citizenship, Sovereignty and Self-Determination, Pamgazuka News, May 4, 2011, available at www.pambazuka.org/governance/south-sudan-rethinking-citizenship-sovereignty-and-self-determination

Mamdani, Mahmood, Can the African Union Save South Sudan from Genocide? New York Times, January 8, 2017, available at www.nytimes.com/2017/01/08/opinion/can-african-union-save-south-sudan-from-genocide.html?_r=0

McElroy, D., South Ossetians Police Tell Georgians to Take a Russian Passport, or Leave Their Homes, Daily Telegraph, August 30, 2008

Minder, Raphael, Spain Sets Stage to Take Control of Catalonia in Independence Fight, The New York Times, October 19, 2017, available at www.nytimes.com/2017/10/19/world/europe/catalonia-independence-referendum.html

MSNBC, Kosovo Declares Independence from Serbia, February 18, 2008, available at www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23203607

New Scottish Independence Bill Published, BBC News, October 20, 2016, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-37708545

Ortiz, Fiona and Phillips, Braden, Separatist Parties Win Catalonia Election in Spain, World News, November 26, 2002, available at www.reuters.com/article/us-spain-catalonia-idUSBRE8AO08S20121126

Orttung, Robert and Walker, Christopher, Putin’s Frozen Conflicts, Foreign Policy, February 13, 2015, available at http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/02/13/putins-frozen-conflicts/

Papers Reveal Oil Fears over SNP, BBC News, September 12, 2005, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/4238744.stm

Polgreen, Lydia, Refugee Crisis Grows as Darfur War Crosses a Border, New York Times, February 28, 2006, available at www.nytimes.com/2006/02/28/international/africa/28border.html

RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty, News Analysis: Russian Buildup Focuses Concerns around the Black Sea, February 23, 2016, available at www.rferl.org/a/russia-black-sea-military-buildup-turkey/27569877.html

Referendum Results: Turnout a Record High as Scots Vote No to Independence, Scotland Now, September 19, 2014, available at www.scotlandnow.dailyrecord.co.uk/news/referendum-results-turnout-record-high-4286461

Refugees International, DR Congo: Katanga in Crisis, June 25, 2014, available at www.refugeesinternational.org/reports/2015/10/13/dr-congo-katanga-in-crisis?rq=democratic%20republic%20of%20congo

Refugees International, Internal Displacement in Iraq: More than Just Mosul, November 15, 2016, available at www.refugeesinternational.org/reports/2016/iraq

Reliefweb, With Famines Looming, We Need to Step Up Now, May 17, 2017, available at http://reliefweb.int/report/south-sudan/famines-looming-we-need-step-now

Rettman, Andrew, Republika Srpska Defies EU and US, EU Observer, January 10, 2017, available at https://euobserver.com/foreign/136490

Richardson, Charles, A Big Win for African Self-Determination, Crikey, July 11, 2011, available at www.crikey.com.au/2011/07/11/richardson-a-big-win-for-african-self-determination/

Rosenberg, Matthew, Breaking with the West, Afghan Leader Supports Russia’s Annexation of Crimea, New York Times, March 23, 2014, available at www.nytimes.com/2014/03/24/world/asia/breaking-with-the-west-afghan-leader-supports-russias-annexation-of-crimea.html

Scottish Parliament, About the Scottish Parliament, n.d., available at www.parliament.scot/abouttheparliament/16719.aspx

Search for Common Ground, South Sudan, Conflict Analysis Brief, available at www.sfcg.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/SFCG-South-Sudan-Conflict-Analysis-2-pager.pdf

Sekularac, Ivana, Kosovo Pitches Peace Treaty, Recognition to Old Master Serbia, Reuters, October 23, 2014, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/10/23/us-serbia-kosovo-visit-idUSKCN0IC1B220141023

Shah, A., Crisis in East Timor, available at www.globalissues.org/article/92/crisis-in-east-timor

SNP Outlines Independence Plans, BBC News, August 14, 2007, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/6944934.stm

Solana, Javier, Press Statement—By Dr Javier Solana, Secretary General of NATO, March 23, 1999, available at www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/opinions_27615.htm

Ukraine Crisis: “Russians” Occupy Crimea Airports, BBC News, February 28, 2014, available at www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-26379722

Umbrage in Catalonia, The Economist, November 24, 2012, available at www.economist.com/news/leaders/21567088-even-though-spectre-secession-unwelcome-distraction-spain-still-needs

UN Welcomes South Sudan as 193rd Member State, UN News Centre, July 14, 2011, available at www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=39034#.VFKEhWd0x9A

United Nations Meetings Coverage, Security Council, Security Council Approves “No-Fly Zone” over Libya, Authorizing “All Necessary Measures” to Protect Civilians, by Vote of 10 in Favor with 5 Abstentions (March 17, 2011), available at www.un.org/press/en/2011/sc10200.doc.htm

UNMIK News Coverage, Ban Ki-moon Urges Restraint by All Sides after Kosovo Declares Independence, February 18, 2008, available at https://news.un.org/en/story/2008/02/249372-ban-ki-moon-urges-restraint-all-sides-after-kosovo-declares-independence

Vidmar, Jure, Crimea’s Referendum and Secession: Why it Resembles Northern Cyprus More than Kosovo, EJIL: Talk! March 20, 2014, available at www.ejiltalk.org/crimeas-referendum-and-secession-why-it-resembles-northern-cyprus-more-than-kosovo/

VOANews, Nations Move to Recognize South Sudan, July 9, 2011, available at www.voanews.com/a/nations-move-to-recognize-south-sudan-125287568/142049.html

Who Recognized Kosovo as an Independent State? n.d., available at www.kosovothanksyou.com/

TREATIES, DECLARATIONS, LEGISLATION, REPORTS

56 Cong. Rec. at 8671 (February 11, 1918)

Advisory Opinion, 2010 ICJ 5 (July 22)

Capotorti, Franco (Special Rapporteur), Study on the Rights of Persons Belonging to Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/384/Rev.1 (1977)

Carley, Patricia, Nagorno-Karabakh: Searching for a Solution, a United States Institute of Peace Roundtable Report, United States Institute of Peace (1998)

Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, available at www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cw.html

Conclusion of the Extraordinary European Council in Brussels, ¶ 2 (September 1, 2008)

Conference on Yugoslavia, Arbitration Commission Opinion No. 1, 31 ILM 1494 (1992)

Conference on Yugoslavia, Arbitration Commission Opinion No. 6 on the Recognition of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia by the European Community and Its Member States, 31 ILM 1507 (1992)

Copenhagen Conference on the Human Dimension of the CSCE, 29 ILM 1305, ¶ 32 (1990)

Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, GA Res. 2625 (1970)

Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, GA Res. 1514 (1960)

Declaration on the “Guidelines on the Recognition of New States in Eastern Europe and in the Soviet Union,” 31 ILM 1486 (1992)

Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities arts 4, 5, 10, 34 ILM 351 (1995)

GA Res. 390 A(V), ¶ 1 (December 2, 1950)

GA Res. 1541 (XV) (December 15, 1960)

GA Res. 2625 (XXV) (October 24, 1970)

GA Res. 50/6, ¶ 1 (October 24, 1995)

Generalitat de Catalunya, Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, available at www.gencat.cat/generalitat/eng/estatut/index.htm

Human Rights Committee, General Comment 23, UN Doc. A/49/50 (Vol. I), at 108 (1994)

Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on the Conflict in Georgia, Report (September 2009)

Interim Agreement for Peace and Self-Government in Kosovo, February 23, 1999, UN Doc. S/1999/648 (June 7, 1999), available at https://peacemaker.un.org/kosovo-rambouilletagreement99

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights art. 27, December 16, 1966

League of Nations Official Journal, Special Supplement No. 3, at 5–10 (1920)

Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion, 2004 ICJ Reports 136

Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, December 26, 1933, 165 LNTS 19

Report of the International Committee of Jurists Entrusted by the Council of the League of Nations, Advisory Opinion, The Legal Aspects of the Aaland Islands Question, L NOJ 7–10, Supp. 3 (1920)

Report of the Special Committee on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States, UN GA Res. 25th Sess., Supp. No. 18, pp.99, 98, UN Doc. A/8018 (1970)

SC Res. 217 (November 20, 1965)

SC Res. 384 (December 22, 1975)

SC Res. 389 (April 22, 1976)

SC Res. 713, UN Doc. S/RES/713 (September 25, 1991)

SC Res. 752, UN Doc. S/RES/752 (May 15, 1992)

SC Res. 757, UN Doc. S/RES/757 (May 30, 1992)

SC Res. 820, UN Doc. S/RES/820 (April 17, 1993)

SC Res. 824, UN Doc. S/RES/824 (May 6, 1993)

SC Res. 859, UN Doc. S/RES/859 (August 25, 1993)

SC Res. 940 (July 31, 1994)

SC Res. 959, UN Doc. S/RES/959 (November 19, 1994)

SC Res. 1160, UN Doc. S/RES/1160 (March 31, 1998)

SC Res. 1244, UN SCOR 54th Sess., 4011th mtg. at ¶11(e), UN Doc. S/RES/1244 (June 10, 1999)

SC Res. 1264 (June 11, 1999)

SC Res. 1808 (April 15, 2008)

Scottish Independence Referendum Act (repealed 2013), available at www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2013/13/contents

Security Council Report, Special Research Report No. 3: Cyprus: New Hope after 45 Years on the Security Council Agenda, available at www.securitycouncilreport.org/special-research-report/lookup-c-glKWLeMTIsG-b-4474149.php?print=true.

Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia 2006, Art. 1, available at https://web.gencat.cat/en/generalitat/estatut/estatut2006/titol_preliminar/

The Aaland Islands Question: Report Submitted to the Council of the League of Nations by the Committee of Rapporteurs, League of Nations Doc. B7/21/68/106 (1921)

Treaty of Guarantee Between the Republic of Cyprus and Greece, the United Kingdom, and Turkey art. IV, August 16, 1960

UN World Conference on Human Rights, 32 ILM 1663, 1665, ¶ 2 (1993)

United Nations, Charter of the United Nations, October 24, 1945, 1 UNTS XVI, available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3930.html

United Nations, Trusteeship Council, available at www.un.org/en/sections/about-un/trusteeship-council/index.html

US Department of State, Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice, U.S. Recognizes Kosovo as Independent State, February 18, 2008, available at https://2001-2009.state.gov/secretary/rm/2008/02/100973.htm

CASES

Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo (Advisory Opinion) 2010 ICJ 404 (July 22)

Burkina Faso v. Mali, 1986 ICJ 554 (December 22)

Case Concerning East Timor (Portugal v. Australia), 1995 ICJ 90, ¶ 10

Conference on Yugoslavia Arbitration, Commission Opinion No. 2, 31 ILM 1497 (1992)

East Timor (Portugal v. Australia), 1995 ICJ 90 (June 30)

Frontier Dispute (Faso/Mali), 1986 ICJ ¶¶ 20–26 (December 22)

Kosovo Advisory Opinion, 2010 ICJ ¶ 56 (July 22)

Legal Consequence of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion, 2004 ICJ 136 (July 9)

M.G. Kohen and K. Del Mar, The Kosovo Advisory Opinion and UNSCR 1244 (1999)

Prosecutor v. Tadic, Case No. IT-94-1-T, ¶ 70 (International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, October 2, 1995)

Reference re Secession of Quebec, 19982 SCR 21

Supreme Court of Canada, Reference re Secession of Quebec, [1998] 2 SCR 217 (Can.)

The Aaland Islands Question: Report Submitted to the Council of the League of Nations by the Committee of Rapporteurs, League of Nations Doc. B7.21/68/106 (1921)

Western Sahara (Advisory Opinion), [1975] ICJ Reports 12