Linking EU Climate and Energy Policies
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Linking EU Climate and Energy Policies

Decision-making, Implementation and Reform

Jon Birger Skjærseth, Per Ove Eikeland, Lars H. Gulbrandsen and Torbjørg Jevnaker

Based on an innovative theoretical framework combining theories of EU policy making, negotiation and implementation, this comprehensive book examines EU climate and energy policies from the early 1990s until the adoption of new policies for 2030. The authors investigate how the linking of climate and energy concerns in policy packages has facilitated agreement among EU leaders with very different policy ambitions. Employing in-depth studies from a diverse range of energy-economic countries, the book also explores the impact of the implementation of policies on the climate and energy policy framework and the Energy Union initiative.
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Chapter 10: Comparative analysis and consequences for EU 2030

Jon Birger Skjærseth, Per Ove Eikeland, Lars H. Gulbrandsen and Torbjørg Jevnaker


What comparative lessons can be drawn from domestic implementation of the EU’s climate and energy package for 2020? And what are the implications for the negotiations on 2030 targets and policies? The authors’ first conclusion concerning the status of implementation of the EU climate and energy package is that transposition of the package in national legislation has generally been completed, after significant delays – particularly regarding CCS. However, application and realization of policies and measures have varied significantly among the four countries that are the focus of this volume: Germany, Poland, the Netherlands and Norway. Secondly, variation in domestic politics emerges as a more potent explanation of variation in implementation than ‘fit’ and adaptation pressure. Implementation of a package of policies has been easier than might have been the case with implementation of single policies. The third conclusion concerns the good overall correspondence between differing national implementation experiences and national positions on new EU policies. These positions fed into and influenced the 2030 climate and energy negotiations. The final outcome reflected a re-packing compromise that could build on implementation experiences with the package for 2020.

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