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Enforcing Cybersecurity in Developing and Emerging Economies

Institutions, Laws and Policies

Zeinab Karake, Rana A. Shalhoub and Huda Ayas

This unique, innovative examination of cyberspace policies and strategies and their relation to cyber laws and regulations in developing and emerging economies uses economic, political, and social perspectives as a vehicle for analysis. With cyber risk at the top of the global agenda as high-profile breaches increase worries that cybersecurity attacks might compromise the world economy, this analysis becomes relevant across disciplines.
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Index

Zeinab Karake, Rana A. Shalhoub and Huda Ayas

access

costs 18, 145, 172–3, 227, 235

hypotheses formulation 144–6, 153

active cyber deterrence 102–3

ad injectors 4

Africa

constructs 158–69

cost structure of Internet access 172–3

cybercrime 66, 125–6

cybersecurity 136–9

digital divide 117

email use 239–40

IDI value 199–200

Internet diffusion rate 18, 23, 44, 241

Internet of Things 248

Internet penetration 63, 172, 240–41

large youth bulge 200

public governance initiatives 99

public sector employment freezes 97

recommendation for 246

smart cities 63

telephone line penetration 18–19

Aramco, Saudi Arabia 25

Argentina

classification 176

constructs 158–69

cyber law 191

cybersecurity 133–5

Internet use rates 174

QCNCS 185, 187, 236

status on IPR 193

Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 129, 130–31, 246

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

cybersecurity 128–9, 246

regional cooperation 61, 184

awareness programs

inadequacy of 64

lack of 227

banking sector cyberattacks 35–7, 39, 70

costs associated with 40

inadequate level of security 69, 233

preparedness 5, 203

big data 6–7

Bitcoin 4, 41, 54

Brazil

classification 176

constructs 158–69

cyber law 191

Internet diffusion rates 21

Internet use rates 174

National Cybersecurity policy 238

QCNCS 185, 187

security investment 33–4

Snowden impact 56–8

status on IPR 193

see also Latin America

cheetahs 186, 188, 236

China

classification 177

constructs 158–69

cyber activities 106, 113, 233

cyber law 49, 190–91

cyberattack competencies 53, 59, 182

cybercrime 44, 47–50, 130, 233

cybersecurity policy 181–2, 238

data localization laws 58

hard and soft technologies 145

Internet use rates 175

largest number of Internet users 45, 48

QCNCS 181–2, 185, 187–8

revenue-generating promises 106, 234

Snowden impact 56

spam email 37–8

status on IPR 193

storing intellectual property outside 43–4

success of industrial reform 95

classification of countries 176–8

‘Cloud Shift’ 32

Coase, R.H. 93, 112

collaborative skills 92–3

competitive advantage

cyber space creating 226

cybersecurity and 78–9

e-commerce bringing opportunities to exploit 122

employees as source of 15

employees stealing to improve 44

how economies can create 112, 142–3

how firms can create new forms of 115

Internet connectivity as aspect of 172

resource-based 84–7, 92, 94, 96, 106, 229–30, 234

VRIO resources 9

computer emergency response teams (CERTs) 103, 134, 139, 160–62, 184

consumer loyalty 34

content analysis of cybersecurity policy 139–40, 158–69, 235

cookbook for developing cybersecurity policy 239

cooperation

among democratic countries 54–5

ASEAN member states 129, 184

China and United States 181–2

common digital platform for 239

conditions for success 251

cross-border 126

with cybersecurity providers 101

developing/emerging economies 24, 104–5, 245

development measures 227

economic and technical 244–5

global 17–20

government and business 172, 244

horizontal 242

India, Israel and Sweden 250

institutional environment 137

international 2, 60, 124–5, 138, 140, 158–9, 180–81, 245–6

international law enforcement agencies 42

as knowledge-based resource 119

private-public 12, 36, 61, 140, 165–7, 180, 244, 247

regional 60, 89, 135, 140, 245–6

costs of cybercrime 24–6

in banking/financial sector 40

to businesses 4

difficult to measure 6, 22

to global economy 4, 22, 38, 43, 223

Iranian nuclear program 47

of ransomware attack 41

to victims 4

costs of cybersecurity 79–81

Council of Europe/Budapest Convention 20, 23–4, 124–6

country risk levels 204–10, 215

credibility 103

credit card fraud 3–4, 43, 80

cyber army 54

cyber cultural system 122

cyber deterrence

active 102–3

cybersecurity policy and 103, 105

effectiveness concerns 100

improving in developing/emerging economies 104

passive 100–102

cyber health 81, 224

cyber insurance 84

cyber law

acting as insurance policy 173

for competitive advantage 78

as determinant of high quality and comprehensive National Cybersecurity policy 219

driver in diffusion of cyber activities 243

in hypothesis 146–51, 153

importance in prevention and response 12

lack of, leading to legislative digital divide 171

maturity of 146–51, 213, 236

organizations undertaking leadership 20

in sample countries 189–97, 236, 247

see also legal system

cyber law index (CLI) 195–6, 215–18

cyber militias 141

cyber policies

and associated strategies 222, 231, 238–9, 247

guiding regulatory environment 5

in New Zealand 87

relation to cyber strategies 229–31

cyber space

assessing socioeconomic influences of 232–3

barriers on adoption 219

as borderless 2, 105–6, 170, 225, 246

as chaotic 170

as complex environment 223

creating control mechanism over 1–2

criminal activities associated with 88, 223–4

cybersecurity policies as compass 173

deterrence theory and 10–11, 99–100, 102–4, 230–31

developing/emerging economies 121–2, 171, 219, 232, 240–41

as dynamic capability 116

economics of 77

future research 249–51

globalization of 13–15

impediment to commerce in 119

infrastructure as digital code 179

international convention on 124–6

involvement of private sector in 243

key to survival in 28

as major component of global business 225–6

‘model’ set of laws for 173

need for development of cyber culture 224, 243–4

need for legal foundation to govern 3, 5, 65, 150–51, 241

new business opportunities and 244

novel legal questions 189

as public good 81–4

recommendations for 244–7

relation to IT development 22

resource synergy in 118

Russia and 50–51, 53

skepticism about efficacy and usefulness 239

strategies to increase adoption and diffusion 227–8

Third World War and 59

thriving 17–20

trust and security in 32–3, 35–6, 71, 173, 225, 231–2

unsecure 68–9

use of 113–14, 143, 146–7, 149, 240

cyber strategic divide 226, 248

cyber terrorism 61, 67, 70, 130, 138

cyberattacks

China’s competencies 53, 59, 182

economic costs of 24–6

education 4–5

examples of 24–6

Microsoft as target 54

types of 32–3

see also banking sector cyberattacks; cybercrime

cybercrime

drivers in developing countries 63–7

effectiveness of legislation 2

fertile ground for 67–9

in financial sector 35–40

as global and multinational 23

importance of trust 33, 70–71

increasing exponentially 38–9

individuals fighting 2

as an industry 40–46

in nation states 46–58, 100, 103, 233

OECD’s recommendations 2–3

types of 32–3, 88

variety of 5–6

see also costs of cybercrime

cybercrime-as-a-service (CaaS) 46

cybersecurity

competitive advantage and 78–9

difficulty of achieving effective 106

economic approach to 79–81

economics of 77–8, 112–13

future research avenues 247–51

IT trends and 6–8

legal system and 21–4

policies and strategies 11–13

public goods approach to 81–4

recommendations for 237–47

resource-based approach to 84–96

cybersecurity policy

as concern of private sector 105

content analysis 139–40

cookbook for developing 239

cyber deterrence and 103, 105

economic constructs 158–9

maturity of 139, 236, 239, 248–9

necessity of 58–63

policy constructs 165–7

political constructs 167–9

predictive model of maturity

development 178–212

results of statistical analysis 212–19

quality and comprehensiveness of 231, 234–8

social constructs 160–63

strategic importance of 237–8

technical constructs 163–5

cybersecurity policy framework 222

developed by ITU and EU 246

recommendation for 246–7

research summary 231–7

underlying theories 229–31

cybersecurity programs, success factors 32

data collection 173–4, 236

Internet usage in sample countries 174–6

World Bank classification of countries 176–8

denial see deterrence by denial

denial measures 103

Denial of Service (DoS) attacks 37, 40, 45

detection 11–12

deterrence by association 10–11, 231

deterrence by denial 10, 100–102, 104, 231, 251

deterrence by entanglement 10–11, 231

deterrence by norms and taboos 10–11, 231

deterrence by punishment 10, 102–4, 230–31, 251

deterrence theory 10–11, 78, 99–104, 113, 230–32

deterrent declaration 103

developed countries

comparison with developing/emerging economies 13, 94, 143, 172, 188, 229, 232, 248

cyber policies, strategies and laws 23–4, 68, 70

cybersecurity awareness as top priority 64

digitization risk 77

factors powering economic growth 144

mobile and smart phone penetration rates 64

moral responsibility 106

technology’s power at firm level 145

developing/emerging economies

blocks to use of cyber space 13, 19–20

comparison with developed countries 13, 94, 143, 172, 188, 229, 232, 248

cyber space and 13–15

cybercrime

drivers 59, 63–7

expected to increase 5

as fertile ground for 67–9

in nation states 46–58

cybersecurity policy

concern of private sector 105

slow-moving in crafting and implementing 22–3

digital transformation 104–5

ecosystems 121–3

financial resources 218–19

initiatives to develop digital economies 21–2

RBV and 96–9

revenue-generating promises 106

ways to improve cyber deterrence 104

digital arms race 47

digital divide 117, 123, 171–2, 198, 200, 226–7, 240

digital exclusion 226–7

digital transformation 104–5, 117, 189

digitization of governments 151–2, 236

displaced employees 44

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks 25, 40, 45, 52, 124

dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP) 115–16

e-government

Brazil among leaders in development of 133

countries enacting related legislation 189

cybercrime cost obstacle 18

cybersecurity policy and strategy as important for 119

dependent on supportive institutional environment 113, 121

education recommendation 243

interactive features of 151

maturity of 151–2, 210–12, 218

public sector and 243

removing barriers to growth 132

E-Government Maturity Index (EGDI) 211–12, 215

economic approach to cybersecurity 79–81

economic constructs 158–9

economic development

fundamentals 28

Human Development Index and 200–201

ICT as crucial for 9, 21

improving workforce skills for 29

main determinants 15

economic/financial base 142–4

Economic Freedom Index (EFI) 205, 215

economic triggers of cybercrime 66–7

ecosystems 121–3

education

application of ICT to 121

bank employees 42

cyberattacks 4–5

governmental provision 96, 141

importance of 29, 61, 141, 152, 243

including ICT in 228

as intangible resource 230

of legislators 189, 247

low levels of 118, 141

pertinence 37

Russian 53

electronic commerce

business challenges 189–90

consumer behavior 33–5

cyber law for 122, 153, 189

e-Asian reference framework for 128

economic potential of 149

growth impact of 5, 148

impact on economy 113–14

need for infrastructure

communication 240

institutional 147

network 145

telecommunications 172

Philippines and Malaysia’s initiatives 150

significant impediment to 119

small and medium sized enterprises 122

as strategy for growth and development 116

trust in 71, 242

electronic data interchange (EDI) 114–15, 118

empirical assessment 123–4

African countries 135–6

Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation 130–31

Association of Southeast Asian Nations 128–9

Council of Europe/Budapest Convention 124–6

Middle East countries 135–6

Organization of American States 131–5

United Nations resolutions 126–8

enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems 118

Estonia

classification 177

constructs 158–69

Convention on Cybercrime 125

cyber law 191

cyberattacks 24–5, 52–3, 89, 100, 141, 223

cybersecurity education 141

cybersecurity policy 61, 241

ICT infrastructure 218

Internet use rates 175

QCNCS 185–6, 236

status on IPR 193

ethics 1, 15–16, 101, 126–7

extrinsic resources 89–90

factors of production 28, 120

financial/economic base 142–4

financial resources 203–4, 218–19, 235, 237

financial sector

Brazilian 132–3

cybercrime in 35–40

as most susceptible to information security threats 52

financial triggers of cybercrime 66–7

forensics 105, 129

future research recommendations 247–51

gazelles 186–8, 236

Gilder’s Law 13–14

Global Action on Cybercrime (GLACY) 126

global cooperation 17–20

Global Cybersecurity Agenda (GCA) 124

Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) 20, 90, 139

globalization

of countries in study sample 158–9

of cyber space 13–15

as driver of change 87, 96–7

NCPF and 138

governance mechanisms 93–4

governments

acting reactively 149

control of banks 204

cybersecurity awareness 64

degree of digitization 151–2, 236

digital economy and 21

education and 96, 141

engaging in cybercrime 5–6, 46

institutional theory for illuminating impact on strategies 94

as lagging behind on policy 225

naming and shaming 102–3

national cybersecurity strategies and 178

need for cooperation 55, 172

new information economy and 16

opportunistic behavior 206

priority for local 61

public and private sectors and 97–8, 180

recommendations for 242–5, 250–51

role in developing control mechanisms 18

role in economic development 28

role in protecting public health system 82

Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) 53, 89, 136, 249

hacktivism 45, 66–7

Human Development Index (HDI) 200–203, 215

hypotheses formulation

access, technical capabilities and Internet penetration 144–6, 153

economic/financial base 142–4

government digitization, degree of 151–2

maturity of cyber law 146–51

soft side infrastructure 140–42, 152–3

summary 235–6

ICRG (International Country Risk Guide) rating 206–10, 215

ICT

access indicators 197–8

adoption by public and private sectors 226

application to health and education 121

bringing cybersecurity risks 2, 125

capability 119

confidence in 141, 160–62

connectivity and access obstacles 227

as crucial element for economic growth 21

cybersecurity increasing confidence in 12

diffusion as means of economic development 9

global differences in development 200

hard side development 22

impact 198

in Africa 139

in Latin America 132

infrastructures

constructs defining 197

developing 170–73, 218

need for necessary controls 218, 237

Romanian 211

United Arab Emirates and Qatar 218

intensifying socioeconomic divisions 233

intensity 198

readiness 198

Saudi Arabia’s spending on 22

Singapore promoting 184

skills indicators 198

strategies to improve 227–8

surge in investments in 170

techno-optimism and techno-pessimism 117–18

use indicators 197–8

ICT Development Index (IDI) 197–200, 213, 215, 218

identity theft 3–4, 38, 40–42, 135

IDI see ICT Development Index (IDI)

IMPACT see International Multilateral Partnership Against Cyber-Threats (IMPACT)

India

classification 177

constructs 158–69

cyber law 191

e-signatures as legally binding 190

government policy 57–9, 130–31, 250

Internet use rates 175

NSA spying on 45–6, 56

public sector and 97–8

QCNCS 185, 187–8

revenue-generating promises 106, 234

status on IPR 193

up-linking policies 150

industry, cybercrime 40–46

infections 4–5, 83

information economy 16–17

Information Security Governance (ISG) 228

information warfare 100, 238

insider threats 39–40

institutional environment theory 152

institutional mechanisms 95–6, 113, 219, 239

institutions, theory of 93, 120–21

intangible resources

knowledge-based 90–91, 119–20

versus tangible resources 90–96

intellectual property (IP) 16, 32, 43–4, 69–70, 77, 103, 136, 189–90

intellectual property rights (IPR)

joining WTO 190

statistical variable 215–18

status of countries on 193–5

International Multilateral Partnership Against Cyber-Threats (IMPACT) 20, 138–9

International Telecommunication Union (ITU) 6, 20, 32, 89–90, 123–4, 172, 197–9, 239, 246

Internet

banking 36–7

as borderless 138, 224

consumer benefits 34–5, 171

difficult to regulate 225

diffusion impact 59–60

diffusion rates 17–18, 21

economy 2, 112, 114

exchange points (IXPs) 173

high cost of access 18

sovereignty 49–50

study on economic impact of 17

trade-related perspective 118

uniqueness 116, 189, 235–6

unwillingness to purchase goods over 19

Internet-based ethics 15

Internet-based phone services 38

Internet of Things (IoT) 6–8, 60, 101, 223–4, 248

Internet penetration

hypotheses formulation 144–6, 153

link with trade liberalization 172

rate (IPR) 174–6, 200, 213, 215–18, 236–7, 240

rise of 1, 63–4

strong relationship with usage price 18

Internet use rates

China with largest number 45, 48

constraint on 239–40

fastest growth in developing/emerging economies 44–5

North Korea, limited 54

sample countries 173–6, 232

intrinsic resources 88–9

Iran

classification 177

constructs 158–69

cyber law 191

cyberattacks 25

cybercrime 53

Internet use rates 175

QCNCS 185, 187

IT trends 6–8

jurisdiction 24, 57–8, 125, 150, 246

Kaspersky Lab 51

knowledge-based resources 90–91, 119–20

koalas 186–8, 236

labor quality 28–9

Latin America

cybersecurity policy 131–5, 218, 241–2

digital divide 117

e-government ranking 210

Internet diffusion rate 23

Internet penetration 63

public sector and 97–9

recommendation for 248–9

smart cities 62

leadership

for cooperation 246

corruption of political 66

in cyber law development 20

e-government 151–2

Russia’s desire to gain 50

legal system

cybersecurity and 21–4

in reactive mode 3

revamping 15–17, 104

legislative digital divide 171

local loop infrastructure 18–19

localization 55–8

loopholes of jurisdiction 246

malware 4, 8, 25, 40, 45–7, 53, 66, 69–70, 79, 88, 101–2, 136, 184

maturity

constructs defining 251

of country’s financial base 144

of country’s IT infrastructure 200

of cyber law 146–51, 213, 236

of cyber law index 218

of cybersecurity policy 139, 236, 248–9

of e-government 151–2, 210–12, 218

of NIST model 62

technical 144, 197

see also QCNCS (quality and comprehensiveness of National Cybersecurity policy and strategy)

maturity index

cyber law 195–6, 215–18

e-government 211–12, 215

Microsoft

as cyberattack target 54

cybersecurity performance study 8

Edward Snowden incident 56–7

Middle East cybersecurity 135–6

military risk 45, 59, 100, 102, 132, 181, 238

mobile phones

as alternative to personal computers 19, 197

penetration rates 19, 34

predicted sales 32

use in cyberattacks 38, 68

model development

definitions 178

dependent variable 179–88

determinants 189–212

monetary policy 17, 204

Moore’s Law 13

Multi-criteria Risk and Decision Science Approach 80–81

multicollinearity 213–19

multidivisional form (MDF) 94–5

nation states, cybercrime 46–58, 100, 103, 233

National Cybersecurity Policy Framework (NCPF) 137–8

National Security Agency (NSA) spying leak 45, 55–7

NCPF see National Cybersecurity Policy Framework (NCPF)

neoclassical theory 15, 93, 121

Network Infrastructure Approach 80–81

New Economy 15–16

New Institutional Economics (NIE)

institutional environment 93, 119, 219, 249

theory 120–21

used in isolation from resource-based theory 93

New Political Economy 97–8

NIE see New Institutional Economics (NIE)

NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) model 62

North Korea cybercrime 54–5, 233

Obama, B. 50, 143

OECD 2–3, 224

online shopping see electronic commerce

open source software 6

Organization of American States (OAS) 131–5

passive cyber deterrence 100–102

passive measures 103

patriotic hackers 53

penalty measures 103

Penrose effect 141–2, 152–3

policy constructs 165–7

political constructs 167–9

political triggers of cybercrime 66–7

population increases

advantages and disadvantages 28

in cities 61–2

youth bulge 200

predictive statistical model of maturity of cybersecurity policy

development 178–212

results of statistical analysis 212–19

prevention 11–12

process-oriented approach 114–15

production economics-based approach 114

productivity paradox 114

property-based resources 90, 119–20

public goods approach 81–4

punishment

ineffective and inefficient 247

jurisdiction and protection 24

in Saudi Arabia 136

see also deterrence by punishment

Putin, V. 50, 58

QCNCS (quality and comprehensiveness of National Cybersecurity policy and strategy)

of China 181–2, 185, 187

defined as dependent variable 178

descriptive statistics 215

in hypotheses 235–6

rating 181

of research study countries 185–8

of Singapore 182–4, 186

summary of results 236, 238

ransomware 3–4, 40–41, 54–5, 81, 124

RBV see resource-based view (RBV)

recovery 101

redundancy 101

regression analysis 212–18, 236–7

regulatory environment

current state of 36, 233

heterogeneous 244

importance of 5

need for mature 241

research study

avenues for further research 247–51

conclusions and recommendations 237–47

content analysis of cybersecurity policies 139–40, 158–69, 235

countries’ ecosystems 121–3

data collection 170–73, 236

empirical assessment 123–39

formulation of hypotheses 140–53, 235–6

ICT infrastructures 170–73

model development 178–212

research summary 234–7

results of statistical analysis 212–19, 236–7

theories

and perspectives 112–19

underlying 229–31

types of resources 119–21

resource-based theory 8–9

absent research using 106, 234

barriers, as crucial criterion 119–20

economies and sustainable competitive advantage 230

elements constructed on 85–6

from perspectives of growth and country 86

study premise based on 113

as used in isolation from NIE 93

resource-based view (RBV)

as based on Coase’s theory of firm 112

of cybersecurity 84–96

developing/emerging economies and 96–9

economic unit of analysis 142

of economy 115

future research avenue 229

from macroeconomic perspective 230

overview 78–9, 233–4

providing solid theoretical foundation 118–19

resource synergy 116, 118

resources

barriers to prevent imitation of 119–20

enhancing optimal use of 105–6

extrinsic 89–90

intangible 90–96, 119–20

intrinsic 88–9

knowledge-based 90–91, 119–20

property-based 90, 119–20

soft side 140–42, 152–3, 200–203

tangible 90–96, 119–20

types of 119–21

valuable 85–6

VRIO 9

VRIS 86–7, 230

response 11–12

RFID (radio frequency identification) tags 6

risk

ASEAN countries minimizing 60

assessment 127, 207, 242

digitization 77

level of country 204–10, 215

military 59, 100, 102, 132, 181, 238

rule of law

conditions under weak 147–8

country risk and 204–6, 210

determinant of comprehensive national cybersecurity policy 235

integrity important to development 119

as key to success 15–16

main determinant of economic prosperity 65, 146, 153

meaning of 148

national respect for 113

policy construct 140, 165–7

Russia

attacks on Estonia and Georgia 52–3, 89, 141

classification 177

constructs 159–69

cyber law 192

cyber policy 238

cybercrime 44, 46–7, 50–53, 233

Internet use rates 176

as not supporting cybercrime convention 125

QCNCS 185, 187

revenue-generating promises 106, 234

Snowden impact 56, 58

status on IPR 194

Schumpeterian economy 16–17

Singapore

autonomy in governance 98

classification 177

constructs 159–69

cyber law 192

cybersecurity strategy 90, 182–4, 241

fighting cybercrime 129, 184, 186

Internet use rates 176

legal initiatives 149–50

promoting ICT 184

QCNCS 182–6

smart cities 61–2

status on IPR 194

zero-manpower growth policy 97

smart cities 7, 61–3, 251

Snowden, Edward 55–8

social constructs 160–63

soft side infrastructure 140–42

soft side resources 140–42, 152–3, 200–203

software piracy 60, 66, 79

Sony hack 4, 6, 38, 54

Southeast Asia see Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

spamming 37–8

spear phishing 38, 41, 52

statistical analysis results 212–19, 236–7

Symantec 3–4, 59, 70, 242

Table Top Approach 80–81

tacit knowledge 91

tangible resources

versus intangible resources 90–96

property-based 119–20

technical capabilities 144–6, 153, 197, 235

technical constructs 163–5

technical skill-set

deficiency of 19, 65–6

recommendation for 247

as soft-side component 140–41

techno-optimism 117

techno-pessimism 118

technology trends 6–8

tortoises 186, 188, 236

tragedy of the commons phenomenon 106

transaction costs 93–4, 122, 171, 243–4

transparency 15–16, 122, 127, 152, 235, 243

trust

in American businesses 56

concept of 70–71, 232

consumer–provider 34–5, 232

creating framework of 9

in cyber space 32–3, 35–6, 71, 173, 225, 231–2

establishing 242–3

importance of 33, 70–71

for insiders 39–40

in markets and contracting 147

as most important aspect of e-commerce 242

recommendations for government 244–5

relationship with systems’ security 70

underground server economy 3–4

United Arab Emirates (UAE)

classification 178

constructs 159–69

cyber law 192

cybercrime legislation 135

digitization of economies 113

e-government initiative 151, 243

ICT infrastructure 218

Internet diffusion rate 21

Internet use rates 176

mobile phone penetration 19, 64

national cybersecurity policy 241, 247

policies and strategies 89

QCNCS 185, 187

special cybercrime units 23

status on IPR 195

United Nations resolutions 126–8

valuable resources 85–6

Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) 213–14, 216

VRIO (Valuable, Rare, hard to imitate, and efficiently organized) resources 9

VRIS (Valuable, Rare, hard to imitate, and hard to substitute) resources 86–7, 230

WannaCry ransomware 3, 54

workforce skills 29

World Bank classification of countries 176–8

World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) 123–4, 197