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Disclosing Entrepreneurship as Practice

The Enactive Approach

Bengt Johannisson

Some contemporary practice theories are not well suited to studying entrepreneurship as ongoing creative organizing. In order to catch the emergence of entrepreneurship, the scholar has to adopt a dwelling mode and immerse themselves into the concrete doings, the practices, of ‘entrepreneuring’, thus amalgamating the researcher and entrepreneur identities. Enactive research thus means that the scholar enacts a real-life venture and uses auto-ethnographic methods to organize the insights being gained. Two enacted, year long, projects, are reported in detail and the methods used and the findings from the research are reported in this thought-provoking book.
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Index

Bengt Johannisson

activism/activist 3, 5, 9, 1718, 72, 74, 78, 869, 90, 92, 96, 102, 108, 110, 115, 134, 14041, 143, 146, 148, 194, 196, 201, 212
agency 5, 12, 14, 20, 24, 2830, 39, 4650, 52, 546, 647, 73, 78, 95, 112, 125, 1289, 148, 150, 161, 164, 167, 191, 16970, 172, 175, 184, 189, 196
as distributed 29, 182
as enforced by personal network 55
as imputed 164, 16971
affection/emotion 12, 223, 369, 47, 51, 934, 97, 100, 105, 113, 121, 125, 143, 151, 16870, 177, 189, 198, 211
ambiguity 23, 3840, 127, 162, 169, 173, 184
entrepreneuring as thriving on ambiguity 38, 4041
vs. risk and uncertainty 23, 3940, 184
analogy 23, 33, 41, 48, 56, 64, 83, 102, 141, 17681, 188, 212
and metaphor 8, 61
Anamorphosis Project/case, The 13, 104, 10814, 12234, 13885, 190, 197, 199, 2039, 212
Anamorphosis defined 160
art and entrepreneurship 78, 26, 46, 53, 80, 100, 104, 108, 11015, 128, 132, 140, 14259
authenticity 63, 708, 7880, 94, 97, 106, 1434, 201
definition 27, 29
as an entrepreneur 20, 269, 50
in personal networks 278, 35, 42, 49
as a researcher 3, 6, 9, 17
bricolage 11, 14, 48, 57, 140, 17583
causation 4, 83, 91, 177
chronos 21, 74, 101, 176
conation 12, 223, 36, 39, 51, 164, 177, 189, 211
conscientiousness 14, 164, 1904, 198, 210
creativity 3, 7, 39, 60, 144, 1723, 211
child creativity 145, 165, 204
critical social science research – and beyond 195202
enactive research and ALLEA’s
code of conduct 198
the enactive approach as phronetic
research 200
crystallization 65, 104
Design Factory venture, the 117, 148, 151, 167, 179
disposition 32, 45, 49, 568, 175
Bourdieu’s definition 356
formative disposition 14, 367, 49, 50, 589, 75, 16274, 176, 18081, 186, 191
formative dispositions as enveloping
personal relations 58, 164
effectuation 4, 36, 83, 160, 169, 177, 191
enactive research 611, 18, 23, 256, 37, 54, 63102, 140, 154, 159, 162, 181
vs. abductive research 10
as an academic responsibility 2029
as a bridge between scientific
knowledge and practical
knowing 1567, 162
closing of enacted events 1545
as constructive and productive 197
as a context for learning and
education 2029
vs. conventional methods 10
definition 3, 9
and ethical concerns 195202
and identities/roles 87
as interactive research 1827, 6677, 834, 1078, 157, 203, 212
as an original approach 634, 20913
the phases of enactive research 8794
the rationale for enactive research 816
and research quality 98102
as value creation 73
enactment 1, 5, 9, 2021, 356, 416, 5051, 55, 578, 61, 667, 70, 73, 757, 80, 83, 828, 9092, 979, 102, 1045, 10910, 117, 121, 1257, 132, 134, 1389, 141, 143, 147, 14961, 167, 17078, 186, 189, 191, 1934, 197, 200, 203, 207, 212
and affection/conation 5051
as collaborative research 5463
defined 41
empirical reports 11057
and entrepreneuring 446
forms of 88, 98, 102, 105
and improvisation 1769
as process 51, 868, 97, 1212, 13956
entrepreneur 1, 4, 20, 28, 38
children as natural-born entrepreneurs 19, 204
expert entrepreneur 31
as a legitimate peripheral participant 43
radical entrepreneur 7, 47, 173
entrepreneurial/entresearcher intention 2730, 357, 39, 42, 48, 53, 557, 64, 74, 83, 91, 956, 101, 150, 154, 158, 163, 166, 1756, 185, 191
entrepreneurial/entresearcher vision 39, 41, 47, 55, 60, 78, 80, 83, 87, 90, 97, 99, 101, 116, 121, 1345, 138, 148, 152, 167, 175, 183, 18990, 194, 201
the entrepreneurial university 6, 10, 15, 1945, 199214
the entrepreneurial weft 174, 176
entrepreneuring
as creative organizing 11, 21, 29, 44, 46, 56, 64, 99, 106, 152, 169, 1825, 209
a practice theory of entrepreneuring 17592
as a science of unique events 83
Steyaert’s proposition 2
entrepreneurship theory 63, 70, 74, 78, 16192
entresearcher 5, 915, 78109, 13946, 15862
ethical aspects 196202
environment
ambiguous 9, 11, 14, 23, 36, 38, 51, 55, 57, 64, 69, 845, 162, 164, 168, 179, 183, 188, 200
enacted 25, 32, 3544, 55, 5960, 65, 70, 81, 85, 102, 127, 178
regulated 173
episteme 12, 323, 88, 159, 213
epistemology 6, 18, 31, 54, 103, 141, 213
ethnobiography 94
ethnographic research 65, 75, 98
auto-ethnography 67, 948, 147, 167
confessional tale 66, 87, 967, 100, 105, 15760
ethnography vs. enactive research 97
impressionistic tale 78, 87, 967, 105, 12038, 158
realist tale 58, 957, 1045, 10921, 156, 173
evaluating academic research – rigour, relevance and originality 21013
event 4, 7, 1314, 523, 55, 645, 74, 76, 825, 9092, 957, 10415, 11933, 13958, 16379, 1825, 191, 199203, 21213
existential vs. instrumental motivation 12, 1821, 29, 423, 49, 567, 61, 79, 106, 109, 143, 145, 158, 163, 1667, 186, 189, 206, 210
existentialism 12, 19, 247
experiment 14, 20, 33, 18590
by the entrepreneur 25, 5759
as formative disposition 1646
as intervention 30, 46, 83, 89, 105, 1329, 1524
by the researcher 23, 31, 79, 8385
flow 25, 91, 114, 147, 150, 161, 165, 174
glocal 59, 61, 90
Gottfrid’s Barn venture, the 11720, 130, 1358, 148, 15051, 155, 179, 190, 206
grit 141, 164, 1904, 198, 210
habitual entrepreneurship 61, 65, 119, 135, 164, 189
identity 13, 234, 2730, 90, 205, 209
academic 88, 90
amalgamated as entresearcher 3, 5, 9, 14, 63, 668, 7182, 8890, 99, 14044, 159, 163, 193, 199, 202, 212
collective 5960
entrepreneurial 7, 245, 423, 49, 58, 1656, 18081, 186
researcher 37, 108
textual 96
imitation 20, 66
creative imitation 845, 180
impression management 28
improvisation 43, 523, 567, 75, 81, 85, 89, 97, 99, 114
as routinized 14, 45, 1634, 17582
industrial district 54, 59, 168
institution/institutionalization 378, 43, 478, 512, 65, 90, 98, 103, 1089, 120, 1245, 1323, 14042, 145, 14951, 153, 1579, 167, 169, 1725, 197, 208, 211
institutional entrepreneurship 173
vulnerability of 38, 46, 5051, 79, 99, 156, 1634, 171, 173, 177, 1834, 203
interactive/collaborative research 12, 1825, 6871, 73, 8084, 108, 146, 151, 157, 174, 199
action science 6770
engaged scholarship 10, 679, 82
participative action research 679
interpretive research 72
interruption 856, 147
intrapreneurship/organizational entrepreneurship 80, 122
intuition 1, 4, 35, 84, 135, 176
kairos 33, 35, 745, 101, 176
definition 21
knowledge/knowing
actionable knowing 33
embodied 67, 12, 3046, 5054, 94, 156, 162, 166
formal knowledge as a ‘secondary
intellectual product’ 31
principles for creating knowledge
about and knowing for
entrepreneuring 162
situated/local 5, 32, 41, 50, 546, 61, 81, 85, 89, 97, 121, 161, 173, 1767, 196, 213
tacit 38, 51, 53, 56, 65, 71, 85, 132, 152, 156, 166
liquid world 1, 5, 29, 456, 83, 90, 188
stemming change 5, 58, 161
metaphor 11, 19, 33, 75, 79, 83
practice process as weaving of a
rag-rug 14, 57, 185191
mētis 12, 326, 54, 81, 121, 1612, 176, 1812, 189, 194, 201, 2078, 210, 213
definition 32
micro-dramas (disruptions) 12032
circumstances 14, 32, 39, 41, 80, 105, 1218, 165
experiments 14, 23, 31, 835, 105, 109, 121, 1328
predicaments 14, 105, 122, 12832
modes of approaching the world
building, etic 1, 4, 25
dwelling, emic 4, 23, 25, 76, 79, 102
narrative approach 4, 41, 72, 78, 82, 95, 154
ontology 18, 46, 141, 161, 191
of becoming 2, 5, 11, 246, 4454, 556, 8081, 166, 1824
of being 21, 38, 45, 64, 71, 83, 177, 183
of site 35, 469, 54, 589, 612, 166
organizing context 54, 5861, 158, 166
original research 89, 195, 20913
paradigm 3, 9, 1621, 48, 57, 69, 84, 88, 192
personal 7, 11, 16, 36, 112, 148
engagement and commitment in research 6, 8, 37, 64, 68, 718, 86, 90, 94, 967, 140, 158, 207, 212
experience and knowledge 5, 53, 65, 158, 166
network as bridge between individualism and societism 58
network/ing 24, 279, 424, 489, 52, 55, 589, 83, 108, 135, 1623, 1668, 1749, 188, 201
predicament 14, 12832
relations 245, 29, 35, 164, 174, 1868
theory 4
phenomenology 12, 17, 1926, 29
phronesis 12, 326, 54, 81, 121, 1612, 189, 194, 200, 2078, 213
definition 32
playfulness
in practice 19, 60, 1645
in research 6, 37, 108
practice 1, 35, 456
community of practice 15, 23, 5960, 70, 102, 159, 193, 203
definition, Schatzkian vs. own 4650
(delayed) practice turn 10, 46
of enactive research 8794
and entrepreneuring 1112, 22, 37, 41, 44, 49, 538, 827, 16192
and ethics 195202
as everyday doings 20, 11, 956
general positioning of entrepreneuring as practice 54
as a learning context 2079
and the local situation 546
and organization research 4953
practice theory for entrepreneuring, proposed principles 17585
conclusive model – the weaving of a rag-rug including ‘tabby with tufted inlay’ 1869
the conscientiousness–grit duality 19091
pragmatism 1924, 34, 41, 98, 108
process 1819, 104
as entrepreneuring/venturing 2, 8, 12, 26, 39, 737, 12138, 147, 179
and knowledge creation 10, 3032, 70, 948, 181, 204
and methodology 3, 9, 11, 26, 647, 8294, 15060, 199
as philosophy 203, 389
and practice 51, 548, 162, 175
as situated 1314, 37, 423, 82, 97, 101, 17585
as the weaving of a rag-rug 12, 14, 162, 18591
as weaving vs. ‘crazy quilting’ 57
rationalization/rationalize 26, 74, 76, 85, 91, 95, 14950, 160, 163, 16970, 201
reflexive methodology 3, 73, 934
research domain 13, 30, 66, 69, 80, 82, 84, 8890, 9798, 1034, 106, 108, 140, 1445, 197, 200, 209
familiarization with 1069
resource-dependence view 38
rhythm 14, 22, 24, 89, 185
routine 20, 378, 45, 5052, 65, 82, 85, 99, 122, 125, 177, 182, 1956
serendipity/ous 21, 42, 169, 179
shadowing 4, 94
situation 11, 3037, 4045, 836, 161206
according to Joas 5058
defined 14
situated knowledge 5, 32, 50, 213
SNI venture, the 11620, 13031, 1378, 148, 151, 155, 168, 179, 206
social constructionism/constructivism 12, 2022, 26, 38, 75, 77, 99
social construction as intentional 74
social/societal entrepreneurship 11, 11617, 143, 149, 171, 213
social experimenting 83, 102
SORIS project/case/event, the 13, 104, 106, 1089, 11521, 12559, 16485, 18990, 195, 197, 199208, 213
student commitment 147, 151
style 17, 78, 104, 105, 180
synchronicity 21
synchronization/timing 21, 32, 54, 169, 176, 210
systems/complexity theory 378, 75
teacher–student relationship 2048
techne 12, 323, 88, 159, 210, 213
university as an arena for entrepreneurial learning 86, 923, 98, 1479, 159, 1734
conscientized students as an
outcome of enactive research 203
the university’s triple mission 15, 82, 106, 172
vignette 105
VYC venture, the 119, 138, 1512, 179, 206