Context, Process and Gender in Entrepreneurship
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Context, Process and Gender in Entrepreneurship

Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research

Edited by Robert Blackburn, Ulla Hytti and Friederike Welter

By combining high quality and in-depth research in the field, this book provides a state of the art analysis of the current topical issues in European entrepreneurship and small business research. With contributions from international experts, the book provides a particular focus on the behaviour between individuals and groups within different contexts; the personal and structural factors that shape entrepreneurial and small business activity; and a focus on gender in entrepreneurship within different contexts.
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Chapter 6: Determinants and measurement of entrepreneurial self-efficacy among women entrepreneurs: empirical evidence from Germany

Silke Tegtmeier and Jay Mitra


Women play an increasingly important role in entrepreneurship and economic development throughout the world (Sternberg et al., 2013; Xavier et al., 2013; European Commission, 2013; Federal Statistical Office, 2013). In 2012 on average 4.8 per cent of all adult women were nascent or young entrepreneurs according to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (Sternberg et al., 2013). The rate of entrepreneurial activity among women in the European Union was 5 per cent (Xavier et al., 2013). In Germany the rate amounts to 3.5 per cent (Sternberg et al., 2013). We know that entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) is among the most important antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions and activity (Ajzen, 1991; Kolvereid, 1996; Krueger et al., 2000; Moriano et al., 2012; Jaén and Li-án, 2013). What we do not appear to know is what determines ESE for women entrepreneurs, especially at the level of different countries and regions. Our interest is in the German context. It is of considerable interest to obtain a critical understanding of ESE among women entrepreneurs because governments increasingly recognize the need to encourage women in forming and growing new ventures. To understand how self-efficacy is acquired in different contexts also helps us to appreciate factors of particular cohorts of women entrepreneurs.

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