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Law and Society in China

Vai I. Lo

Law and Society in China examines the interplay between law and society from imperial to present-day China. This synoptic book traces the developments of law in Chinese societies, investigates the role of law in social governance, and discusses China’s ongoing reforms towards the rule of law with Chinese characteristics. In fostering a comprehensive, rather than piecemeal and disconnected, understanding of the interaction between law and society in China, this book will reduce misconceptions about and enhance appreciation for Chinese law.
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Index

Vai I. Lo

accompanying rule 87, 142

‘active judicature’ 159

adjudicatory committee 152–54, 179–81, 192

‘administering the government in accordance with law’ 137, 169, 170, 172, 174, 189

‘administration of justice for the people’ 159, 187

administrative detention 149, 161

administrative law 12, 44, 51–55, 70, 95

administrative litigation 12, 161, 175

administrative reconsideration 161–62

administrative regulation 11, 54, 85, 117, 142–43, 144, 147, 165, 197

Advisory Council 87–8

All-China Federation of Trade Unions 107

All-China Women’s Federation 107

All-China Lawyer Association 157

An Outline of Political Tutelage 95

analogy 55, 56–7, 61, 86, 116

Andrey Vyshinsky 111

Anhui 125

annotations of legal provisions 59–61, 70–71, 194

anomie 15

Anti-Rightist Movement 105, 117–18, 120–21

Aquinas, Thomas 6

arbitration 147, 149, 158–60, 190, 200

aristocrats 14, 36, 38, 42, 45–6, 68, 72

Aristotle 14–5

artisans 46, 68, 78

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank 130

Austin, John 7, 10

authority 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 14, 32, 38–9, 48, 70–71, 170, 174, 176

autonomous regions 115, 140, 143, 152, 182, 183–85

autopoietic theorists 9

auxiliary judicial staff 178, 180

avoidance of law 191

bankruptcy 29, 86, 126, 147, 150, 165, 197

bao 64

basic law 59, 142–44, 146–48, 165, 197

basic people’s court 152–53, 158, 178, 179–80

Beijing 30, 79, 93–5, 103, 177

Beijing Consensus 191

Beiyang government 93, 100, 195

benevolence 33–7, 47–9, 70

benevolent governance 48, 50

doctrine of benevolence 48–9

Bentham, Jeremy 7, 17

Bohannan, Paul 14

Bolshevik Revolution 79–80

Bourgeois 98, 109

Boxers 29–30

BRICS Summit 163

Britons 27–8

Buddhism 37–8, 40, 69, 133

Bureau for Instituting Systems 84

bureaucrats 39, 46, 68, 98, 116, 194, 195

burning of books and burial of Confucian scholars 25

cabinet minister 141

canon law 72

capitalism 16, 105, 110–11, 120, 122–23, 134, 136

cases 11, 43, 44, 48–9, 51, 53–4, 57–8, 60–62, 65–6, 70, 90, 93, 96–7, 151, 153, 155, 159, 161, 177–79, 180–81, 182–85, 186–88

categorical imperative 6

Catholic priests 27–8, 74

Catholicism 27

Central Executive Committee 97

Central Military Commission 140

Central People’s Committee 96

Central People’s Government 118

Central People’s Government Council (CPGC) 103–4

Central Politburo 80, 134

Chang’an 26

Cheng Yi 38

Chiang Kai-Shek 80, 95–6

China Arbitration Association 159

China Communist Youth League 107

China Court Trials Live Broadcast 185

China Enforcement Information Online 185

China Food and Drug Administration 141

China Judgments Online 185

China Judicial Process Information Online 185

Chinese Dream 134

Chinese Soviet Republic 81, 96

Chinese United League 77

Chongqing 187

Christian Literary Society 78

Christianity 28, 69, 74, 133

Cicero, Marcus Tullius 5–6

circuit court 175, 187–8

civil law 8, 10, 11, 12, 44, 51–2, 56, 71–2, 86, 89, 93–5, 101, 111, 141, 147, 163, 190, 195–96

Civil War 81, 104, 109, 167

clan rules 63–4, 66, 67, 194

class struggle 14, 112, 119–21, 123, 132, 134–35, 196

Cold War 103

Collected Statutes 54

collectively owned enterprise 104, 106–7, 126–27

collectivization 103

collegiate bench 158, 179, 180, 192

colonization 30, 85

command economy 103–4, 115, 126, 129, 196

commodity economy 98

common law 7, 10, 11, 190, 192

commoners 38–9, 42, 45–6, 58, 66–7, 69, 72, 99, 194

Communist Party of China (CPC) 79, 80–81, 91, 97, 99, 101, 103–5, 108–9, 112–15, 118–22, 135–36, 138–39, 168

Compendium of Six Laws 95

compensatory committee 153

Comte, Auguste 3

‘concrete administrative acts’ 161

conflict theory 4, 22

conflict-of-laws principles 58, 163

‘confluence of Chinese and Western learning’ 83, 85

Confucian classics 41, 43, 60, 68

Confucianism 24, 25–6, 31, 33–8, 40, 43, 68–70, 108, 120, 194

‘Confucianism outside and Legalism inside’ 43

Confucianization 44–5, 70, 198

Confucius 33–4, 36, 48, 82

consensus theory 4, 22

consideration for others 33

Constitution 76–8, 84, 87–9, 91, 95–6, 100, 116, 120, 137–39, 140–44, 152, 154, 170, 171, 173, 196–97

Constitution Protection Movement 79

constitutional monarchy 78, 83–5, 98, 195

constitutionalism 76, 88, 100, 137, 195

Consultative Bureau 87

consumer protection 197

contracting-out 126

‘contradictions against the people’ 113

‘contradictions among the people’ 113, 115

conviction and sentencing by analogy 56–7

cooperative joint venture 146

correctional police institute 156

counterrevolutionaries 96, 113, 116, 120–21, 198

court president 97, 152–53

criminal codes 55, 59

criminal justice reform 178–79

criminal law 12, 44, 51, 55–9, 63, 70–72, 84–5, 93–4, 117, 146, 148, 195

Critical Feminists 18

Critical Legal Study 14, 18

Critical Race Theory 18

‘crossing the river by groping for the stones’ 133

cross-jurisdictional adjudication 177

Cultural Revolution (Great Cultural Revolution) 108–9, 119–21, 123–24, 132, 134, 137, 152, 155, 162, 166, 196, 198

Dalian 126, 182

Daodejing (Tao Te Ching) 31

Dayu 23

decree 11, 40, 53, 59, 76, 85, 91, 96, 100, 115, 117, 153, 196

déjà vu 166

Democracy Group 89

‘democratic centralism’ 105, 116

Deng Xiaoping 124, 134

Deng Xiaoping’s Theories 138

departmental rule 142–44, 148, 197

departmentalism 174

dialectical materialism 17–8

differentiated prerogatives and obligations 45–7, 49, 122

director responsibility system 126

dispatched workers 131

dispute resolution 119, 123, 151, 158–59, 187, 190, 199–200

division president 179–80

Doctrine of precedent 11

Doctrine of the Mean 37

Dong Zhongshu 37

Durkheim, Emile 15–6

Dutch 27

Dworkin, Ronald 7–8

dynasty 27, 51, 53, 67, 70, 71, 195

e-commerce 133

edict 40–41, 45, 55, 61, 67, 71, 75, 88, 194

Ehrlich, Eugen 9, 17

‘eight groups qualified for consideration’ 45

eight-grade wage scale 106

elder brother and younger brother 33

Elements of International Law 83

Emperor Guangxu 30, 76, 85, 98, 100

Emperor Puyi 31, 77

Emperor Shizu 27

Emperor Taizong 26

Emperor Wu 25, 36, 43

Empress Dowager 30, 76–7, 88, 98

employment 12, 52, 103, 107, 131–32, 165, 196

‘enforcing the law according to the circumstances’ 50

equality and mutual benefit 138

equity joint venture 128, 146

equity-joint-venture commercial banks 128

ethnic minority 27, 64, 74, 98, 132, 146–47

Europe 71, 98–9, 126, 129

European imperialism 28, 79, 98

evolution theory 14–5, 83

evolutionary myth 19

expository statutory annotations 59–61

extraterritoriality 89–90, 100, 101, 166, 195

fa 37, 40–41, 42–5, 55, 69–70, 72, 122, 198

Fa Jing 55

factionalism 38

family instructions 63–4, 67, 194

father and son 33

fengjian 45

fengshui 32

feudalism 105

filial piety 33–4, 46, 48

financial court 152, 177

Finnis, John 6

First World War (WWI) 79, 99

Five-Anti Movement 107

five cardinal relationships 33

five constant virtues 37–8, 44

‘five degrees of mourning’ 44, 46

Five Dynasties 26, 210

floating population 131

Forbidden City 28

Foreign Affairs Group 75, 77–8, 82–3

foreign law firms 157

foreign-invested enterprises 127, 150

forest court 152

‘four comprehensives’ 170

‘four conversions’ 185–86

four innate cardinal virtues 35

Free Trade Agreements 130

French Revolution 72

Friedman, Laurence 19–20

friends 33

Fuller, Lon 6

functionalism 14–7, 21

G20 Summit 163

Gang of Four 109–20, 124

Gemeinschaft 3

General Administration for Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine 141

General Secretary of the CPC 169

Genghis Khan 27

gentleman 36

Gesellschaft 3

Ginsberg, Morris 3

God Worshippers 29

governance 168-69

corporate governance 21, 150

patriarchal governance 63–4

political governance 21, 103

social governance 5, 21–4, 31, 34, 41, 50, 63, 68, 71–3, 99, 102, 121–23, 167, 173, 176, 189–90, 196–99, 201–2

state governance 169–70, 172–73

government rules 142–44

Grand Canal 26

grand mediation 159

Great Leap Forward 108

Great Learning 37

Great Wall 25, 28

Greater China 130

Grotius, Hugo 6

Grundnorm 7

Guangdong 25, 28, 78–9, 129

Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area 129

Guangxi 29

Guangzhou 74–5, 126, 152, 177

guiding cases 182–83

Habermas, Jürgen 16

Han Characters 25

Han Dynasty 25–6, 36–7, 40, 43, 53, 60, 68, 210

Han Fei 32, 36

Han Language 25

Han People 25

Hangzhou 177

Hart, H.L.A. 7–8

Heaven and Earth 42

hierarchy of legal norms 142–44

high people’s court 145, 152–53, 184–5

Hoebel, Adamson 10, 17

Holmes, Oliver Wendell 9

Hong Kong 28, 77, 126, 128, 130, 160

Hong Xiuquan 29

‘household co-production responsibility system’ 125

household registration 106–7, 131–32, 196

housing accumulation fund 131

‘human community of common destiny’ 163–64

human feelings 50–51

human rights 78, 91, 99, 100, 139, 150–51, 165, 175, 178, 188, 196, 200

humanism 47–9, 70, 198

humanitarianism 49

Hunan 80–81

Hundred Day Reform 76, 85, 100

husband and wife 33

impartiality 49–51, 174–75, 184, 189

imperial court 53, 60, 68, 100

imperial law 43, 49, 70–71, 94

imperialism 28, 74, 75

indigenous 10, 32, 98, 100, 133, 166, 168, 173, 191

Industrial Revolution 98

injunction 55, 59

instruction 59

instrumentalism 14, 17–8, 21

‘integration between Heaven and the human’ 34

integration of li and fa 42–5, 55, 122, 198

intellectual property court 152, 177

intermediate people’s court 152–53, 178

International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (CIETAC) 159–60

international legal community 162–64

International Settlement Area 90

interpretation 38, 43–4, 60, 62, 136, 144–46

interpretations of law 44

‘inward reform and outward opening up’ 124

‘iron rice bowl’ 107, 131

Islam 27

ius civile 7

ius gentium 7

ius naturale 7

Japanese Meiji Restoration 89

Jiang Zemin 137

Jiangxi 80–81

Jin Code 44, 55

Jin Dynasty 55, 210

Jiujiang 165

Joint Framework of the Chinese People Political Consultative Conference 115

judge 118–21, 148, 151–54, 159, 178, 182

judge assistant 180

judge performance evaluation system 183

judge quota system 179

judge college 156

judicial accountability 155, 179–81, 185

judicial clerk 180

judicial competency 182–85, 197

judicial independence 89, 92, 117, 154, 181–82, 192

judicial transparency 184–85, 186, 189

Judicial Yuan 95

‘jumped into the sea’ 131–32

jus commune 72

Kang Youwei 76, 84

Kant, Immanuel 6

Kelsen, Hans 7

Khrushchev, Nikita 105–6, 121

King Zhou 24

Korean War 103

Kublai Khan 27

Kuomintang (KMT) 78, 80–81, 91, 95–6, 99, 101, 103, 114, 195–96

Kürwille 3

labour 5, 12, 15, 33, 68, 106, 113–15, 117, 149, 160, 196

labour-dispute arbitration committee 160

labour-dispute mediation committee 160

‘labour, education and inculcation’ 117, 150–51, 165

landlord 12–3, 80, 104, 113, 116, 118

Laozi 31

law correspondence course 156

law in action 9

law in books 9

Law Revision Office 85–6

law-jobs 16–7

lawyer 5, 66, 88, 92–5, 100, 105, 117–18, 120, 148, 151, 157, 185

lease 29, 52, 126

Legal Answers and Questions 59–60

legal acculturation 186–88

legal anthropology 13

legal education 151, 155–58, 196

legal consciousness 135–36, 176, 186, 188

legal nihilism 120–23, 135, 162, 196

legal pluralism 9, 194–95, 199

legal positivism 5–9, 70

legal realism 9

Legalism 24–5, 31, 38–9, 40, 43, 69

Legislative Yuan 95

Lenin 110

letter-and-visit 161–62, 175, 188, 190

lex mercatoria 72, 200

li (例) (case precedent) 59, 62

li (礼) 33, 37–9, 40, 55, 69–70

li inside and fa outside’ 44

Li Si 36

Liang Qichao 76, 84

Liao 26

liberal democracy 190

lifelong accountability system 174–75, 201

Lin Zexu 28

‘list of government powers’ 174

‘listening to testimonies in five ways’ 48

‘litigation masters’ 66

‘living law’ 9, 17, 71, 195

Llewellyn, Karl 16–7

local government rule 142–44

local protectionism 162, 174, 177

local regulation 142–44

Long March 81, 99

40

(a neighbourhood comprised of five ‘baos’) 64

Ma Xiwu Adjudicatory Style 97

Macau 27, 74, 126, 128, 130, 160

MacIver 2–3, 5

Madagascar 28

Maine, Henry Sumner 8, 14

‘making convictions based on law’ 56, 58

‘making judgments according to law’ 49

Manchus 28–9, 74, 77, 85, 98

‘mandate of Heaven’ 24, 36, 41, 47, 67, 198

Mao Zedong 80–81, 103, 109, 134

Mao Zedong’s Thoughts 112–14, 138

Marco Polo 27

maritime court 152

Maritime Silk Road 69, 74

Marx, Karl 4, 17–8, 109

Marxism 11, 109–12

Marxism-Leninism 103, 112, 121, 138

Marxist 17, 80, 105

‘mass line’ 113–14, 118-19, 134, 196

mass trials 118, 121

‘matching Heaven with virtue’ 47

May Fourth Movement 79

‘mean persons’ 45–6

mediation 63–7, 71, 115, 122–23, 158–60, 175, 187, 199–200

grand mediation 159

judicial mediation 158–59, 175

people’s mediation 118–19, 196

people’s mediation committee 119, 153, 158, 160

‘men ploughed and women weaved’ 69

Mencius 35, 48, 82

meritocracy 36

Merryman, John Henry 11

Middle Ages 71

Ming Dynasty 28, 38, 54, 59, 61, 74, 210

Ministry of Education 156

Ministry of Justice 87, 92–3, 117, 120, 152, 157, 158, 196

Ministry of Public Security 117, 120, 149, 155

mirror thesis 20

‘moderately prosperous society’ 134, 170

Mohism 24, 31–2

Mongolian Empire 27

moral teaching 47, 198

morality 5–7, 19, 70, 72, 170, 172, 198, 200

Mozi 32

municipalities directly under the central government 140, 143, 152, 182–84

mutual non-aggression 138

mutual non-interference with internal affairs 138

mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity 138

Nanjing 29, 80, 187

Nanjing Provisional Government 91–3

National Congress of the Chinese Soviet Republic 96

national law 11–2, 157, 164

National People’s Congress (NPC) 104–5, 117, 140–41, 142, 144, 152

National Uniform Legal Profession Qualification Examination 157

natural law 5–6, 8–9, 41, 70, 110

naturalization of law 45, 198

negative list 129–30

New Cultural Movement 79–80, 99

New Democracy 105

New Zealand 130

Neo-Confucianism 27, 38

Ningbo 126

non-action 31

Nonet, Philippe 14

non-Han ethnic groups 69

non-market-driven economy 115

Northern Expedition 80, 99

Northwest Institute of Political Science and Law 155–56

NPC Standing Committee 140–45, 152

One Belt One Road 130

one-child policy 132

One Hundred Flowers Blossom Movement 105, 118, 121

Open Coastal Cities 126

open-door policy 126, 146

Opium War 28, 74, 75, 82, 90

organizational reform 177–78

Parsons, Talcott 4

Pashukanis, Evgeny 110

patent 82, 146, 148, 151

paternal power 42, 63

partnership 127, 130, 150, 157

patriarch 48, 52, 63–4, 68–9, 71

peaceful coexistence 138

Pearl River 75

peasants 24, 28, 46, 68, 78, 96, 99, 104, 116, 121

Peng Zhen 97, 114–15, 124, 136

people-oriented 155, 159, 173, 187

people’s assessors 175, 185–86

People’s Bank of China 128

people’s court 115, 120–21, 139–40, 152–54, 158–60, 175–80, 181, 183–85, 187–88

‘people’s democratic dictatorship’ 134, 138

people’s police 118, 120, 149

people’s procuratorate 115, 120, 139, 140, 153, 155, 175

People’s Republic of China 81

performance bonus distribution mechanism 183

‘petty person’ 36

ping-pong diplomacy 103

Plato 14–5

plebeian 32, 36, 38, 45, 68, 122, 195, 198

political science-and-law administrative cadre college 156

‘politics in command’ 112, 114, 120–23, 196

populism 190, 198

Pound, Roscoe 9, 15

presiding judge meeting system 180

pre-trial conference 178

primary rules 8

principle 38

principle of ‘enact, amend, repeal and interpret simultaneously’ 173

principle of ‘imposing lenient sentences upon admission of guilt and acceptance of punishment’ 179

principles of ‘using facts as the basis’ and ‘applying law as the yardstick’ 175

‘principles of Heaven’ 38, 41, 50

private annotations of law 60

private enterprise 82, 127, 131, 147

private settlement 186

procedural justice 135

procurator college 156

Procurator-General’s Office 104

procuratorate 115, 120–21, 139–40, 144–45, 152–55, 166, 175

proletariat 18, 109–10, 112, 114, 116, 121, 122

proletariat justice 134

‘promoting virtue and being prudent with punishment’ 58

Provisional Central Government 96

Provisional Highest Tribunal 96

Provisional President 77–8

‘prudent infliction of punishment’ 56-7

public choice theory 17

public law 12, 72, 111, 115–18, 196

public security organ 117, 120, 149, 155

qigong 32

Qin Dynasty 25, 53–4, 61, 68, 210

Qing Dynasty 28–30, 58, 60, 74–8, 82–90, 97–8, 99–101, 195, 210

Qingdao 126

Quality Foreign Institutional Investor Scheme 128

Quotations of Chairman Mao 121

railway transportation court 152

Raz, Joseph 7–8

Red Guards 108, 120

Reformation Group 76, 83–5

Renmin University of China 155–56

renminbi 128

renqing 49–51

reply 145

reprimand 182–83

residents’ committee 107, 119, 196

retroactive investigation system 174–75, 201

revolutionary justice 112

right to the use of land 139

Rightists 105, 108, 120

Ruijin 81

rule (科) 55

‘rule by law’ 71, 195

‘rule of law’ 42, 84, 91, 112, 117, 134, 137–38, 156, 168–93, 198, 201

‘rule of li’ 42

‘rule of person’ 35, 37, 42, 85, 135, 137, 169, 198

‘rule of virtue’ 35, 37, 42, 171–72, 189, 198–99

rule-of-law China 168, 170, 172

rule-of-law society 171, 189

rules of adjudication 8

rules of change 8

rules of obligation 8

rules of recognition 8

sanbiaofa 32

Sarat, Austin 19

School of Combined Learning 82

science of mind 38

science of rationality 38

Second World War (WWII) 91, 95

secondary rules 8

self-governing or specific regulation 142–44

Self-Strengthening Movement 75–6, 77

Selznick, Philip 14–5

semi-feudal 105

Seoul Development Consensus for Shared Growth 191

Shaan-Gan-Ning Border Area Government 81, 97

Shaanxi 81

Shandong 79, 80, 99

Shang Dynasty 23–4, 47, 58, 67, 210

Shang Yang 32, 38, 40

Shanghai 90, 93, 126, 177

Shanhai Pass 28

Shantou 126

Shen Jiaben 85, 90

Shenyang 187

Shenzhen 126, 128, 182, 187

shock therapy 133

Shu 26

Shun 23

Silk Road 25–6, 69, 74

Sino-Japanese War 76, 104, 167

Six Statutes of Tang 54

social contract myth 19

social hierarchy 37, 42, 45–6, 55, 68, 72, 122

social justice 19

social security 131, 147, 165, 197

social theory of law 9

socialism 80, 101, 105, 110–11, 113, 135, 172

‘socialism with Chinese characteristics’ 134, 138, 166, 168

‘socialist democracy’ 134–35

socialist legal system 103, 109–12, 114–19, 155, 167

‘socialist market economy’ 125, 129, 133, 138–39, 147, 156, 164, 196

socialist modernization 138

‘socialist rule of law’ 140, 172–76, 198

‘socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics’ 168–72, 189, 197

socialization of law 135–36

socio-legal studies 13, 20, 21

sociology of law 13

sole judge 179

solidarity 15, 146

‘mechanical solidarity’ 15

‘organic solidarity’ 15–6

Somalia 28

‘Son of Heaven’ 68

Song Dynasty 26–7, 38, 58, 59, 61, 210

Southern and Northern Dynasties 26, 43–4, 210

Soviet jurists 116

Soviet model 106, 109, 120–21, 196

Soviet Union 103, 106, 109, 111, 120

Special Economic Zones (SEZs) 126, 143

Spring and Autumn 43

Spring and Autumn Period 24, 42, 47, 55, 68, 210

Stalin 105, 111, 121

standard 59

Standing Committee of the Central Political Bureau 117

State Administration for Industry and Commerce 141, 159

State Administration for Market Regulation 141

State Administrative Council (SAC) 104

State Bureau for Letters-and-Visits 162

State Constitution Day 169

State Council 105, 117, 140–44

state-enacted law 41, 50, 72

State Intellectual Property Office 151

state of mind 38

state structure 116, 120, 137, 146

State Supervisory Commission 140

state-formulated law 59, 64

state-owned enterprise 106, 131

Statute of Shang Ji 54

statutory interpretations 144–45

administrative interpretation 144

judicial interpretation 144–45

legislative interpretation 144

procuratorial interpretation 144–45

study of code 59, 60–61

substantive law 12, 51

Sui Dynasty 64, 210

sui generis 189

sumptuary rules 46

Sun Yat-Sen 77, 78–9, 80, 91, 95, 99, 100, 195

‘sunshine’ judicial mechanism 175, 184

superstructure 17, 109, 136

Supreme People’s Court 140, 144–46, 149, 152–54, 159, 175–77, 179, 181–85, 187–88

Supreme People’s Procuratorate 115, 140, 145, 153, 155

Taiping Heavenly Kingdom 29

Taiping Revolution 29

Taiwan 81, 103, 126, 128, 130, 160

Tamanaha, Brian 11, 19

Tang Code 26, 44, 52, 57–9

Tang Dynasty 26, 37, 60–61, 64, 210

Taoism 24, 31–2, 38, 40, 133

‘telepathy between Heaven and the human’ 37, 49

Ten Kingdoms 26, 210

Thompson, Edward Palmer 19

Three-Anti Movement 107

three cardinal guides 37–8, 43–4, 46–7, 70

Three Kingdoms 26, 210

Three People’s Principles 77, 95

Three Represents 138

Tianjin 93, 126

trade union 107, 115

trademark 146, 148

trans-administrative-district adjudication 175, 177, 187

Twenty Points Program 97

‘two contradictions’ 113, 119, 196

two-children policy 132

two-tiered trial system 153

Tönnies, Ferdinand 3

unilateral most-favoured-nation privilege 29

United Nations 103, 163

universal love 32

urban household registration 106, 131

Utilitarianism 7, 32

villagers’ committee 107, 119, 196

vital force 38

Volksgeist 8

von Ihering, Caspar Rudolph Ritter 17

von Savigny, Friedrich Carl 8

Wang Shouren 38

Warlord Period 29, 91, 93–5

warlords 78–9, 93–4, 99, 101, 167, 195

Warring States Period 24, 38, 47, 55–6, 68, 210

Washington Consensus 190–91

Watson, Alan 18

‘way of Heaven’ 34, 42, 198

Weber, Max 7, 16

WeChat 184

Weibo 184

Wesenwille 3

Western models 72, 84, 90, 195, 198

Western powers 74, 98, 166, 167

Wheaton, Henry 83

wholly foreign-owned enterprise 128, 146

‘will of Heaven’ 32

will of the people 32, 47, 111, 198

wisdom 35

World Trade Organization (WTO) 125, 149-50

WTO Agreements 130

Wuchang Uprising 30, 77

Xi Jinping 169

Xi Jinping’s New Era Socialism with Chinese Characteristics 138

Xi’an 30

Xi’an Incident 81

Xia Dynasty 23, 210

Xiamen 126

Xing Shu 55

Xinhai Revolution 30

Xiongnu Kingdom 25

Xunzi 35–6, 56

Yan’an 81

yang 32

Yangtze River 23

Yao 23

Yellow River 23

yin 32

Yingzheng 25

Yuan Dynasty 27, 210

Yuan Shikai 30–31, 77, 99, 195

zeitgeist 173

Zeng Guofan 29

Zhang Qian 25

Zhenbao Island 106

Zheng He 28, 74

Zhengzhou 187

Zhenjiang 165

Zhou Dynasty 24, 38, 42, 48, 51, 58, 210

Zhou Enlai 103, 109

Zhou Gong 24, 42, 68

Zhu De 80

Zhu Xi 38

Zhu Yuanzhang 27

Zhuangzi 31

Zhuhai 126

12368 litigation service hotline 184, 187