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Criminal Reconciliation in Contemporary China An Empirical and Analytical Enquiry

Jue Jiang

Criminal reconciliation, a special procedure stipulated in PRC’s 2013 Criminal Procedure Law, allows the alleged perpetrators and victims of certain crimes to resolve criminal cases through reconciliation or mediation. Based on empirical studies on pilot practices of this mechanism in three cities in China, this book argues that criminal reconciliation enables abuses of power and infringement of the parties’ access to justice. This programme further throws light on certain fundamental problems with the wider criminal justice system.
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Bibliography

Jue Jiang

LAWS AND REGULATIONS

Laws

Law of the People’s Republic of China on Guarding State Secrets [中华人民共和国保守国家秘密法] (2010)

Law of the People’s Republic of China on Public Security Administration Punishments [中华人民共和国行政处罚法] (1996)

Law of the People’s Republic of China on Road Traffic Safety [中华人民共和国道路交通安全法] (2003)

The Civil Servant Law of the People’s Republic of China [中华人民共和国公务员法] (2005)

The General Principle of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China [中华人民共和国民法通则] (1986)

The Organic Law of the People’s Courts of the People’s Republic of China [中华人民共和国法院组织法] (2006)

The Organic Law of the People’s Procuratorates of the People’s Republic of China [中华人民共和国检察院组织法] (1983)

The Organic Law of the Urban Residents Committees of the People’s Republic of China [中华人民共和国城市居民委员组织法] (1989)

The Organic Law of the Villagers’ Committees of the People’s Republic of China [中华人民共和国村民委员会组织法] (2010)

The PRC Constitution [中华人民共和国宪法] (2004)

The PRC Criminal Law [中华人民共和国刑法] (1997)

The PRC Criminal Procedure Law [中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法] (1996) and the newly revised 2012 version

The PRC Judges Law [中华人民共和国法官法] (2001)

The PRC Lawyer Law [中华人民共和国律师法] (2007)

The PRC Prison Law [中华人民共和国监狱法] (1994)

The PRC Prosecutors Law [中华人民共和国检察官法] (2001)

Administrative Legislation

Decision of the State Council on Re-education Through Labor [国务院关于劳动教养问题的决定] (1957)

The Ministry of Public Security’s Trial Methods for Implementing Re-education Through Labor [国务院关于转发公安部制定的劳动教养试行办法的通知] (1982)

The Organic Regulation of the Sub-district Office [城市街道办事处组织条例] (1954)

The PRC Detention House Regulation [拘留所条例] (2012)

The Regulation on Foundation Administration [基金会管理条例] (2004)

The Regulations on Registration and Administration of Social Organizations [社会团体登记管理条例] (1998)

The Temporary Regulations on Registration and Administration of Non-profit Non-government Organizations [民办非企业单位登记管理暂行条例] (1998)

Department Rules

Opinions on Improving the Establishment of Urban Community issued by the Ministry of Civil Affairs [民政部关于在全国推进城市社区建设的意见] (2000)

Provisions on the Handling Procedures for Road Traffic Accidents [道路交通事故处理程序规定] (2008)

Provisions on the Procedure of Handling Traffic Accidents [交通事故处理程序规定] (2009)

Judicial Interpretations

Opinions of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate on the Handling of Minor Criminal Cases when the Parties Have Reached Reconciliation [最高人民检察院关于办理当事人达成和解的轻微刑事案件的若干意见] (2010)

Opinions on Fully Implementing the Criminal Policy of Combining Severity with Leniency in Procuratorial Work issued by the Supreme People’s Procuratorate [最高人民检察院关于在检察工作中贯彻宽严相济刑事司法政策的若干意见] (2006)

Opinions on Further Implementing the Working Principle of ‘Giving Priority to Mediation and Combining Mediation with Judgment’ [最高人民法院关于进一步贯彻‘调解优先、调判结合’工作原则的若干意见] (2010)

Opinions on Implementing the Criminal Policy of Combining Severity with Leniency [关于贯彻宽严相济刑事政策的若干意见] (2010)

Opinions on Reforming and Improving the Judicial Committee of the People’s Court issued by the Supreme People’s Court [最高人民法院关于改革和完善人民法院审判委员会制度的实施意见] (2010)

Opinions on Reforming and Improving the Judicial Committee System of the People’s Court [关于改革和完善人民法院审判委员会制度的实施意见] (2010)

Opinions on Several Issues concerning the Regulation of Sentencing Recommendation (Trial Implementation) [关于规范量刑程序若干问题的意见(试行)] (2010)

Provisions on Several Issues Concerning the Civil Mediation Work of the People’s Court [关于人民法院民事调解工作若干问题的规定] (2004)

Several Opinions of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate on Handling Petty Criminal Cases Where the Parties Have Reached Reconciliation issued by the Supreme People’s Procuratorate [最高人民检察院关于办理当事人达成和解的轻微刑事案件的若干意见] (2011)

The Criminal Procedural Regulation of the People’s Procuratorates [人民检察院刑事诉讼规则] (1999)

The Judicial Interpretation on CPL issued by the Supreme People’s Court [最高人民法院关于执行《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》若干问题的解释] (1998)

The Organic Regulation of the Procuratorial Committee of the People’s Procuratorate [人民检察院检察委员会组织条例] (2008)

The Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of Justice: Opinions on the Nationwide Trial Implementation of Community Correction [最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部关于在全国试行社区矫正工作的意见] (2009)

Documents of the Chinese Communist Party

Constitution of Communist Party of China [中国共产党章程] (2007)

Opinions on Deeply Promoting the Resolution of Social Conflicts, the Innovation of Social Management, and the Fairness and Integrity of Law Enforcement issued by the CCP Central Political and Judicial Committee and the CCP Central Leading Group of Stability Maintaining Work [中央政法委、中央维护稳定工作领导小组关于深入推进社会矛盾化解、社会管理制度、公正廉洁执法的意见] (2010)

BOOKS

Bakken, Børge The Exemplary Society: Human Improvement, Social Control and the Dangers of Modernity in China New York, Oxford University Press 2000

Berlin, Isaiah Four Essays on Liberty Oxford, Oxford University Press 1969

Bian, Jianlin [卞建林] Wang, Li [王立] (eds) Criminal Reconciliation and an Alternative Procedure [刑事和解与程序分流] Beijing, The Chinese People’s Public Security University Press [中国人民公安大学出版社] 2010

Braithwaite, John Crime, Shame and Reintegration Cambridge, Cambridge University Press 1989

Cai, Guoqin [蔡国芹] Research on Criminal Mediation System [刑事调解制度研究] Beijing, The Chinese People’s Public Security University Press [中国人民公安大学出版社] 2010

Chen, Ruihua [陈瑞华] Criminal Proceedings: The Chinese Model [刑事诉讼的中国模式] Beijing, Law Press [法律出版社] 2008

Chen, Ruihua [陈瑞华] Justice Can Be Seen [看得见的正义] Beijing, China Law Press [中国法制出版社] 2000

Chen, Ruihua [陈瑞华] Leading Issues in Criminal Proceedings [刑事诉讼的前沿问题] Beijing, China Renmin University Press [中国人民大学出版社] 2005

Chen, Shihe [陈世和] The Embarrassment of Law [法律的尴尬] Beijing, Law Press [法律出版社] 2011

Cohen, Jerome A. The Criminal Process in the People’s Republic of China 1949–1963: An Introduction Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press 1968

Di, Xiaohua [狄小华] Liu, Zhiwei [刘志伟] (eds) The Theory and Practice of Restorative Justice in Juvenile Cases [恢复性少年司法理论与实践] Beijing, People Publishing [群众出版社] 2007

Elrod, Preston, Ryder, R. Scott Juvenile Justice: A Social, Historical, and Legal Perspective Sudbury, Massachusetts, Jones and Bartlett Publishers 2005

Etzioni, Amitai A Comparative Analysis of Complex Organizations: On Power, Involvement, and Their Correlates New York, Free Press 1975

Fan, Yu [范愉] Research on Alternative Dispute Resolution [非诉讼纠纷解决机制研究] Beijing, Renmin University of China Publishing [中国人民大学出版社] 2000

Fan, Yu [范愉] The Theory and Practice of Dispute Resolution [纠纷解决的理论与实践] Beijing, Tsinghua University Press [清华大学出版社] 2007

Gao, Qicai [高其才] Zuo, Ju [左炬] Huang, Yuning [黄宇宁] Political Judiciary: The People’s Court of Hua County in 1949–1961 [政治司法: 1949–1961年的华县人民法院] Beijing, Law Press [法律出版社] 2009

Ge, Lin [葛琳] On Criminal Reconciliation [刑事和解研究] Beijing, The Chinese People’s Public Security University Press [中国人民公安大学出版社] 2008

Jiang, Shigong [强世功] Punishment and the Rule of Law: The Emergence of the Modern Rule of Law (1976–1981) [惩罚与法治: 当代法治的兴起 (1976–1981)] Beijing, Law Press [法律出版社] 2009

Leng, Shao-chuan, Chiu, Hungdah Criminal Justice in Post-Mao China: Analysis and Documents Albany, State University of New York Press 1985

Li, Jianshu [李剑书] ‘Three Bottle-necks in the Establishment of the Criminal Reconciliation System in China [中国刑事和解制度构建的三重瓶颈]’ in Bian Jianlin [卞建林] and Wang Li [王立] (eds) Criminal Reconciliation and an Alternative Procedure [刑事和解与程序分流] Beijing, The Chinese People’s Public Security University Press [中国人民公安大学出版社] 2010

Liebmann, Marian Restorative Justice: How it Works London and Philadelphia, Jessica Kingsley Publishers 2007

Lubman, Stanley B. Bird in a Cage: Legal Reform in China after Mao Stanford, Stanford University Press 1999

Ma, Mingliang [马明亮] Negotiated Justice: A New Procedural Idea [协商性司法:一种新程序主义理念] Beijing, Law Press [法律出版社] 2007

Marshall, Tony F. Restorative Justice: An Overview Minnesota, Centre for Restorative Justice & Mediation 1998

McConville, Mike et al Criminal Justice in China: An Empirical Inquiry Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA, Edward Elgar Publishing 2011

Peerenboom, Randall China’s Long March Toward Rule of Law Cambridge, Cambridge University Press 2002

Sharp, Susan Restorative Justice: A Vision for Healing and Change Alberta, Edmonton Victim Offender Mediation Society 1998

Song, Yinghui [宋英辉] Empirical Research on Criminal Reconciliation [刑事和解实证研究] Beijing, Peking University Press [北京大学出版社] 2010

Song, Yinghui [宋英辉] Yuan, Jinbiao [袁金彪] (eds) The Theory and Practice of Criminal Reconciliation in China [我国刑事和解的理论与实践] Beijing, Peking University Press [北京大学出版社] 2009

Sun, Qin [孙勤] An Analysis of the Values of Victim–Offender Reconciliation [刑事和解价值分析] Beijing, The Chinese People’s Public Security University Press [中国人民公安大学出版社] 2009

The Central Commission of Comprehensive Governing [中央社会治安综合治理委员会办公室] (ed) Strategies for the Long-term Peace and Stability [长治久安之策] Beijing, Chang’an Press [中国长安出版社] 2009

Trevaskes, Susan Courts and Criminal Justice in Contemporary China U.K., Lexington Books 2007

Van Ness, Daniel W., Morris, Allison, Maxwell, Gabrielle ‘Introducing Restorative Justice’ in Morris, Allison, Maxwell, Gabrielle (eds) Restorative Justice for Juveniles Oxford, Hart Publishing 2003

Wang, James C.F. Contemporary Chinese Politics New Jersey, Prentice Hall 1995

Wang, Yijun [王一俊] Criminal Reconciliation [刑事和解] Beijing, China University of Politics and Law Publishing [中国政法大学出版社] 2010

Wu, Hongyu [武红羽] The Process of Judicial Mediation: From the Perspective of the Relationship Between Judicial Mediation and Judicial Realm [司法调解的生产过程: 以司法调解与司法场域的关系为视角] Beijing, Law Press [法律出版社] 2010

Wu, Xiaofeng [武小凤] Conflict and Compromise: On Criminal Reconciliation [冲突与对接: 刑事和解刑法制度研究] Beijing, The Chinese People’s Public Security University Press [中国人民公安大学出版社] 2008

Wu, Zhiming [吴志明] Lin, Huabin [林化宾] Wu, Junying [吴军营] (eds) The General Mediation System: The Eastern Experience of Responding to Social Conflicts [大调解: 应对社会矛盾凸显的东方经验] Beijing Law Press [法律出版社] 2010

Ye, Jinghuan [野静环] A Rewarding Trip: Report on Life in the Beijing Transferring Institution of Reeducation Through Labor [不虚此行: 北京劳教调遣处纪实] (unpublished draft on file with author)

Yi, Yanyou [易延友] Chinese Criminal Procedure and Chinese Society [中国刑诉与中国社会] Beijing, Peking University Press [北京大学出版社] 2010

Zehr, Howard Changing Lenses Ontario, Herald Press, 1990

BOOK CHAPTERS

Braithwaite, John, Mugford, Stephen ‘Conditions of Successful Reintegration Ceremonies: Dealing with Juvenile Offenders’ in Declan Roche (ed) Restorative Justice England, Dartmouth Publishing Company 2004

Brown, Jennifer Gerarda ‘The Use of Mediation to Resolve Criminal Cases: A Procedural Critique’ in Declan Roche (ed) Restorative Justice London, Ashgate Publishing 2004

Chen, Guoqing [陈国庆], Chen, Ruihua [陈瑞华], Wang, Jiangcheng [汪建成], Zhang, Zhiming [张志铭] et al ‘Theoretical Basis of Criminal Reconciliation [刑事和解的理论基础]’ in Song Yinghui [宋英辉] Yuan Jinbiao [袁金彪] (eds) The Theory and Practice of Criminal Reconciliation in China [我国刑事和解的理论与实践] Beijing, Peking University Press [北京大学出版社] 2009

Chen, Qi [陈颀] ‘The Incentive Mechanism of “Reducing Punishment with Money” [“赔钱减刑”的激励机制]’ in Su Li [苏力] (ed) Law and Social Sciences [法律和社会科学] Beijing, Law Press [法律出版社] 2009

Chen, Ruihua [陈瑞华] ‘Theoretical Reflection on Detention [未决羁押的理论反思]’ in Chen Ruihua [陈瑞华] (ed) An Empirical Study of the Detention System [未决羁押制度的实证研究] Beijing, Peking University Press [北京大学出版社] 2004

Cho, Li-Fung ‘The Emergence of China’s Watchdog Reporting’ in David Bandurski, Martin Hala (eds) Investigative Journalism in China Hong Kong, Hong Kong University Press 2010

Clarke, Donald C. ‘The Execution of Civil Judgments in China’ in Stanley Lubman (ed) China’s Legal Reforms Oxford, Oxford University Press 1996

Clarke, Donald C., Feinerman, James V. ‘Antagonistic Contradictions: Criminal Law and Human Rights in China’ in Stanley Lubman (ed) China’s Legal Reforms Oxford, Oxford University Press 1996

Di, Xiaohua [狄小华] ‘Restorative Justice and Criminal Mediation [复合正义和刑事调解]’ in Wang Ping [王平] (ed) Forum on Restorative Justice [恢复性司法论坛] Vol. 2005 Beijing, Qunzhong Publishing [群众出版社] 2005

Fu, Hualing ‘Challenging Authoritarianism Through Law’ in Jean-Philippe Béja, Fu Hualing, Eva Pils (eds) Liu Xiaobo, Charter 08 and the Challenges of Political Reform in China Hong Kong, Hong Kong University Press 2012

Fu, Hualing, Gullen, Richard ‘From Mediatory to Adjudicatory Justice: The Limits of Civil Justice Reform in China’ in Margaret Y.K. Woo and Mary E. Gallagher (eds) Chinese Justice: Civil Dispute Revolution in China Cambridge, Cambridge University Press 2011

Hao, Yinzhong [郝银钟] ‘On the First Instance Trial [第一审程序论]’ in Zhang Jun [张军] Hao Yinzhong [郝银钟] (eds) 刑事诉讼庭审专题研究 [Research on the Criminal Trial] Beijing, Renmin University of China Press [中国人民大学出版社] 2005

Horwitz, Allan V. ‘Diversion in the Juvenile Justice System’ in Günter Albrecht, Wolfgang Ludwig-Mayerhofer (eds) Diversion and Informal Social Control Berlin, Walter de Gruyter 1995

Hoyle, Carolyn, Young, Richard ‘Restorative Justice: Assessing the Prospects and Pitfalls’ in Mike McConville and Geoffrey Wilson (eds) The Handbook of the Criminal Justice Process Oxford, Oxford University Press 2002

Kang, Huaiyu [康怀宇] ‘The Current Situation and the Future: An Investigation on People’s Mediation from the Microscopic Perspective [现状与前瞻: 人民调解的微观考察]’ in Zuo Weimin [左卫民] (ed) Dispute Resolution in the Age of Transformation [变革时代的纠纷解决] Beijing, 北京大学出版社 [Peking University Press] 2007

Li, Site [李斯特] ‘The Context of the People’s Judiciary and the Mass Line [人民司法群众路线的谱系]’ in Su Li [苏力] (ed) Law and Social Science [法律和社会科学] Vol. 1 Beijing, Law Press [法律出版社] 2006

Liu, Guangan [刘广安] Li, Cunpeng [李存捧] ‘People’s Mediation and Rights Protection [民间调解与权利保护]’ in Xia, Yong [夏勇] (ed) Towards an Age of Rights [走向权利的时代] Beijing, China University of Political Science and Law Press [中国政法大学出版社] 1995

McCold, Paul ‘Primary Restorative Justice Practice’ in Allison Morris, Gabrielle Maxwell (eds) Restorative Justice for Juveniles Oxford, Hart Publishing 2003

Palmer, Michael ‘The Revival of Mediation in the People’s Republic of China: (1) Extra-judicial Mediation’ in W.E. Butler (ed) Yearbook on Socialist Legal Systems New York, Transnational Publishers 1987

Pils, Eva ‘The Dislocation of the Chinese Human Rights Movement’ in Stacy Mosher, Patrick Poon (eds) A Sword and a Shield: China’s Human Rights Lawyers Hong Kong, China Human Rights Lawyers Concern Group 2009

Research Group of ‘Empirical Study of Restorative Justice and the Reform of the PRC Criminal Procedure Law’ [‘恢复性司法与中国刑事诉讼法改革实证研究’课题组] ‘An Overview of the Current Implementation of Criminal Reconciliation in China [我国刑事和解适用现状之概览]’ in Song Yinghui [宋英辉] Yuan Jinbiao [袁金彪] (eds) The Theory and Practice of Criminal Reconciliation in China [我国刑事和解的理论与实践] Beijing, Peking University Press [北京大学出版社] 2009

Song, Yinghui [宋英辉] ‘Empirical Report on the Implementation of Criminal Reconciliation by the People’s Procuratorates in Four Provisions [四省检察机关适用刑事和解调查报告]’ in Song Yinghui [宋英辉] (ed) Empirical Research on Criminal Reconciliation [刑事和解实证研究] Beijing, Peking University Press [北京大学出版社] 2010

The People’s Procuratorate of Wuxi City in Jiangsu Province [江苏省无锡市人民检察院] ‘A Summary of Restorative Justice Work in The People’s Procuratorates of Wuxi City [无锡市检察机关恢复性司法工作总结]’ in Song Yinghui [宋英辉] Yuan Jinbiao [袁金彪] (eds) The Theory and Practice of Criminal Reconciliation in China [我国刑事和解的理论与实践] Beijing, Peking University Press [北京大学出版社] 2009

The Research Office of the People’s Procuratorate in Jiangsu Province [江苏省检察院研究室] The Research Office of Wuxi City People’s Procuratorate [无锡市检察院研究室] ‘Innovating Judicial Ideas and Exploring Criminal Reconciliation [创新司法理念探索刑事和解]’ in Bian Jianlin [卞建林] Wang Li [王立] (eds) Criminal Reconciliation and an Alternative Procedure [刑事和解与程序分流] Beijing, The Chinese People’s Public Security University Press [中国人民公安大学出版社] 2010

Walgrave, Lode ‘Imposing Restoration Instead of Inflicting Pain: Reflection on the Judicial Reaction to Crime’ in Andrew von Hirsch, Julian Roberts, Anthony E. Bottoms, Kent Roach, Mara Schiff (eds), Restorative Justice & Criminal Justice: Competing or Reconcilable Paradigms? Oxford, Hart Publishing 2003

Walgrave, Lode ‘On Restoration and Punishment: Favorable Similarities and Fortunate Differences’ in A. Morris and G. Maxwell (eds), Restorative Justice for Juveniles Oxford, Hart Publishing 2001

Wu, Jianxin [吴建新] ‘Confusions and Thoughts during the Transplant of Restorative Justice in China [恢复性司法中国化中的困惑与思考]’ in Wang Ping [王平] (ed) Forum on Restorative Justice [恢复性司法论坛] Vol. 2007 Beijing, China Procuratorial Press [中国检察出版社] 2007

Zehr, Howard, Mika, Harry ‘Fundamental Concepts of Restorative Justice’ in Declan Roche (ed) Restorative Justice England, Dartmouth Publishing Company 2004

Zhang, Zhaoxia [张朝霞] Xie, Caineng [谢财能] ‘Criminal Reconciliation: Misunderstanding and Clarification [刑事和解: 误读与澄清]’ in Bian Jianlin [卞建林] Wang Li [王立] (eds) Criminal Reconciliation and an Alternative Procedure [刑事和解与程序分流] Beijing, The Chinese People’s Public Security University Press [中国人民公安大学出版社] 2010

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Belkin, Ira ‘China’s Tortuous Path Toward Ending Torture in Criminal Investigations’ (2011) Vol. 24 No. 2 Columbia Journal of Asian Law

Cai, Guoshan [蔡国山] ‘Who to Supervise the People’s Procuratorate? On the Improvement of the People’s Supervision System [谁来监督检察院?: 兼论人民监督员制度之完善]’ (2011) 4 Law and Economy [法制与经济]

Chen, Ruihua [陈瑞华] ‘An Initial Research on the Malfunction of Criminal Procedure [刑事程序失灵问题的初步研究]’ (2007) 6 China Legal Science [中国法学]

Chen, Ruihua [陈瑞华] ‘Private Cooperation in Criminal Proceedings: The Emergence of Criminal Reconciliation in China [刑事诉讼的私力合作模式: 刑事和解在中国的兴起]’ (2006) 5 China Legal Science [中国法学]

Chen, Weidong [陈卫东] ‘Several Opinions on Criminal Reconciliation [关于刑事和解的几点看法]’ (2009) 3 Chinese Laws [中国法律]

Chen, Yufan [陈玉范] Qu, Guangchen [屈广臣], ‘Thoughts on “Private Resolution” [“私了”问题的法律思考]’ (1995) 1 Modern Legal Science [当代法学]

Choukroune, Leïla, Garapon, Antoine ‘The Norms of Chinese Harmony’ (2007) 3 China Perspectives

Clarke, Donald C. ‘Dispute Resolution in China’ (1991) Vol. 5 No. 2 Journal of Chinese Law

Ding, Guofeng [丁国锋] Ma, Chao [马超] ‘Suzhou Closed 1,342 Criminal Reconciliation Cases [苏州办结刑事和解案一千三百四十二起]’ at http://js.legaldaily.com.cn/content/2014-07/15/content_5668159.htm?node=34636 (last accessed on 18 March 2015)

Du, Yu [杜宇] ‘“Criminal Conciliation”: Critics and Preliminary Response [“刑事和解”: 批评意见与初步回应]’ (2009) 8 Chinese Criminal Science [中国刑事法杂志]

Feeley, Malcolm M. ‘Two Models of the Criminal Justice System: An Organizational Perspective' (1973) Vol. 7 No. 3 Law & Society Review

Fu, Hualing ‘Criminal Defence in China: The Possible Impact of the 1996 Criminal Procedural Law Reform’ (Mar. 1998) No. 153 The China Quarterly

Fu, Hualing ‘Re-education Through Labour in Historical Perspective’ (Dec. 2005) No. 184 The China Quarterly

Fu, Hualing ‘The Politics of Mediation in a Chinese County: The Case Study of Luo Lianxi’ (2003) Vol. 5 No. 2 Australian Journal of Asian Law

Fu, Hualing ‘Zhou Yongkang and the Recent Police Reform in China’ (2005) Vol. 38 No. 2 The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology

Ge, Lin [葛琳] ‘An Analysis of the Practical Predicament of Criminal Reconciliation [刑事和解的现实困境解析]’ (2010) 5 Justice of China [中国司法]

He, Weifang ‘The Police and the Rule of Law: Commentary on “Principles and Secret Agents”’ (Sep. 2007) The China Quarterly

He, Weifang [贺卫方] ‘The Reform of the Chinese Court and Judicial Independence: Observation and Reflection of a Participant [中国法院的改革与司法独立: 一个参与者的观察与反思]’ (2003) 3 Zhejiang Social Sciences [浙江社会科学]

He, Yongjun [何永军] ‘On Legitimacy and Legalization of Criminal Reconciliation [论刑事和解的合法性与合法化]’ (2009) 3 Journal of Kunming University of Science and Technology (Social Science) [昆明理工大学学报(社会科学版)]

Hong, Dayong [洪大用] ‘An Initial Research on the Poverty Relief Work by Chinese Non-governmental Organizations [中国民间组织扶贫工作的初步研究]’ (2002) 2 Jianghai Academic Journal [江海学刊]

Hudson, Barbara ‘Restorative Justice and Gendered Violence: Diversion or Effective Justice? (2002) Vol. 42 No. 3 The British Journal of Criminology

Lewis, Margaret K. ‘Controlling Abuse to Maintain Control: The Exclusionary Rule in China’ (2011) Vol. 43 International Law and Politics

Li, Buyun [李步云] Liu, Zhiwei [柳志伟] ‘Several Issues Relating to Judicial Independence [司法独立的几个问题]’ (2002) 3 Legal Research [法学研究]

Li, Changsheng [李昌盛] ‘The Chinese Pattern of Criminal Trial: Bildung Trial [刑事庭审的中国模式: 教化型庭审]’ (2011) 1 Science of Law (Journal of Northwest University of Political Science and Law) [法律科学(西北政法大学学报)]

Li, Hong [李宏] ‘On Judicial Justice and Independent Trial [论司法公正与审判独立]’ (2010) 5 Legal System and Society [法制与社会]

Li, Hongjiang [李洪江] ‘The Implementation of Criminal Reconciliation Should be Slowed Down’ [刑事和解应缓行] (2006) 5 Chinese Prosecutors [中国检察官]

Li, Lianfeng [李连峰] Shang, Shumin [尚淑敏] ‘On the Construction of Criminal Reconciliation System: On the Basis of “Private Resolution” among the People [论我国刑事和解制度的构建: 以民间“私了”传统为基础的构建模式]’ (2009) 12 Academic Exchange [学术交流]

Liang, Genlin [梁根林] ‘Ten Falsification in Using Criminal Reconciliation in Death Penalty Cases [死刑案件被刑事和解的十大证伪]’ (2010) 4 Legal Science [法学]

Liang, Ping [梁平] ‘The Establishment of a Diverse Dispute Resolution System [多元化纠纷解决机制的制度构建]’ (2011) 3 Contemporary Law Review [当代法学]

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Minzner, Carl F. ‘Xinfang: An Alternative to Formal Chinese Legal Institutions’ (2006) Vol. 42 Stanford Journal of International Law

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Ouyang, Fang [欧阳芳] ‘The Police of Ji’an City in Jiangxi Province Experimentally Conducted Criminal Reconciliation to Promote Social Harmony [江西吉安公安局试行刑事和解制度,促社会和谐]’ http://www.chinapeace.org.cn/zhzl/2009-08/24/content_82878.htm (last accessed on 27 July 2010)

Peerenboom, Randall, He, Xin ‘Dispute Resolution in China: Patterns, Causes, and Prognosis’ http://www.fljs.org/uploads/documents/Peerenboom_He%20Xin%231%23.pdf (last accessed on 16 July 2012)

Pejan, Ramin ‘Laogai: “Reform Through Labor” in China’ http://www.wcl.american.edu/hrbrief/07/2laogai.cfm (last accessed on 2 July 2011)

Rosenzweig, Joshua, Sapio, Flora,Jiang, Jue, Teng, Biao and Pils, Eva ‘The 2012 Revision of the Chinese Criminal Procedure Law: (Mostly) Old Wine in New Bottles’ http://www.law.cuhk.edu.hk/research/crj/papers.php (last accessed on 7 January 2013)

San Xiang Municipal Newspaper [三湘都市报] ‘Hunan Tried Criminal Reconciliation: Minor Criminal Cases Can Be Reconciled Privately [湖南试行刑事和解制: 轻微刑事案件可私下和解]’ http://www1.china.com.cn/policy/txt/2006-11/22/content_7393033.htm (last accessed on 11 February 2011)

Shan, Shibing [单士兵] ‘The “Illusion of Harmony” behind Criminal Reconciliation [刑事和解背后的 “和谐幻觉”]’ http://gb.cri.cn/9083/2006/11/23/2165@1317252.htm (last accessed on 24 February 2012)

Smith, Jennifer and Gompers, Michael ‘Realizing Justice: The Development of Fair Trial Rights in China’ http://www.law.upenn.edu/journals/ealr/articles/volume2/issue2/SmithGompers2ChineseL.&Pol%E2%80%99yRev.108(2007).pdf (accessed on 10 January 2010)

Song, Yinghui [宋英辉] ‘Empirical Analysis on Criminal Reconciliation in Public Prosecution [公诉案件刑事和解的实证分析]’ http://www.sqxb.cn/blog/blog.aspx?id=309&zuozeid=83 (last accessed on 27 July 2010)

Southern Weekend [南方周末] ‘A Shooting Case Resulting in Three Judges’ Death in Yongzhou, Hunan Province: The Murder Has an Incurable Disease [湖南永州致三法官死枪击案: 凶手身患绝症]’ http://www.infzm.com/content/45861 (last accessed on 15 November 2010)

Southern Weekend [南方周末] ‘The Fourth “Strike Hard” Campaign: The More We Gain, the More Horrible It Is [第四次全国“严打”成果越大越可怕]’ http://news.qq.com/a/20100702/000470.htm (last accessed on 21 March 2012)

Southern Weekend [南方周末] ‘The Fourth Strike Hard: Can It Be Like the Previous Ones? [第四次严打: 能像过去一样打吗?]’ http://nf.nfdaily.cn/epaper/nfzm/content/20100701/ArticelB10005FM.htm (last accessed on 29 November 2010)

Strang, Heather ‘Restorative Justice Programs in Australia: A Report to the Criminology Research Council’ http://www.criminologyresearchcouncil.gov.au/reports/strang/qld.html (last accessed on 7 April 2015)

Su, Li [苏力] ‘Deliberative Justice and the Big Mediation System [关于能动司法与大调解]’ http://article.chinalawinfo.com/Article_Detail.asp?ArticleId=53760 (last accessed on 9 March 2012)

Sun, Ming [孙明] ‘My Views on the Judge’s Private Meeting with the Parties and Their Lawyers [法官私自会见当事人及委托律师之我见]’ http://www.dffy.com/sifashijian/sw/200601/20060104221654.htm (last accessed on 9 April 2011)

Sun, Yu [孙瑜] Chen, Lei [陈磊] ‘Solving Criminal Cases Privately: Moving on in Debates [刑事案件私了: 在争议中前行]’ http://news.sina.com.cn/c/l/2007-03-21/160612576540.shtml (last accessed on 26 August 2008)

‘The Appeal Lodged by 69 Chinese Scholars to the National People’s Congress about Initiating Unconstitutional Review on the System of Reeducation through Labor’ at http://review.jcrb.com/ljzd/index.htm (last accessed on 2 July 2011)

The Economist ‘China’s Security State: Guarding the Guardians’ http://www.economist.com/node/21557760 (last accessed on 23 July 2012)

The Justice Bureau of Haishu District [海曙区司法局] ‘Haishu District Has Reached Perfect Collaboration Between Criminal Reconciliation and the People’s Mediation [海曙区实现刑事和解与人民调解工作无缝对接]’ http://www.zjsft.gov.cn/art/2011/8/8/art_61_31321.html (last accessed on 25 October 2011)

The People’s Court Daily [人民法院报] ‘From Controversy to Harmony: The Transplant of Restorative Justice to China [从对抗走向和谐: 恢复性司法的本土移植]’ http://news.xinhuanet.com/legal/2007-05/10/content_6080026.htm (last accessed on 2 March 2012)

The People’s Procuratorate of Wuhua District in Kunming City [昆明市五华区检察院] ‘“Cooperation Among Departments and Between the People’s Procuratorate and the People’s Court” Promotes Criminal Reconciliation in Our Court [我院“部门联动检调对接”积极促进刑事和解]’ http://www.kmwh.gov.cn/kmwh/web/jwb/j5/jcy/showdoc.jsp;jsessionid=Ot51m9BDkebtjnp8RzU7mU9Qmv9bnuDjlMTimcwXMvfFgfOVXroz!742181009?docid=D105138&fieldid=F3792 (last accessed on 25 October 2011)

Wang, Chengduo [王成铎] ‘Yantai: On the Way of “Peaceful Judiciary” [烟台: 走在“平和司法”的大道上]’ http://www.jcrb.com/n1/jcrb904/ca477942.htm (last accessed on 24 October 2011)

Wang, Dong [王栋], Zhao, Bin [赵斌], ‘Main Problems Facing Criminal Reconciliation and Strategies [刑事和解面临的主要问题与对策]’ http://www.hongfan.org.cn/projects.php?optionid=377&auto_id=29 (last accessed on 7 August 2015)

Wang, Feiling [王飞凌] ‘The Transformation of China’s Hukou System [中国户口制度的转型]’ http://www.chinaelections.org/newsinfo.asp?newsid=185108 (last accessed on 6 December 2010)

Wang, Xiaoxian [王效贤] ‘On Open Trial [论公开审判]’ http://article.chinalawinfo.com/Article_Detail.asp?ArticleId=41580 (last accessed on 11 May 2012)

Wang, Xuetang [王学堂] ‘Popular Identification on Criminal Reconciliation: An Empirical Analysis Based on Three News Reporting [刑事和解的民众认同: 基于三起新闻事件的实证分析]’ http://www.dffy.com/faxuejieti/ss/201101/20110110150022.htm (last accessed on 19 December 2011)

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Wu, Aiying [吴爱英] ‘Sparing No Effort to Make Judicial Organs Maintain Social Stability [全力做好司法行政机关维护社会稳定工作]’ http://www.gov.cn/gzdt/2012-10/23/content_2249495.htm (last accessed on 9 July 2015)

Wu, Yingzi [吴英姿] ‘“Mediation First”: Reform Pattern and Legal Interpretation [“调解优先”:改革范式与法律解读]’ http://article.chinalawinfo.com/ArticleHtml/Article_78723.shtml (last accessed on 20 June 2015)

Xia, Jianzhong [夏建中] ‘The Concept of Community and the Establishment of Community in Urban China [社区概念与我国城市社区建设]’ http://www.ccpg.org.cn/Article/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=272 (last accessed on 8 December 2010)

Xiao, Zhiyun [肖之云] ‘Huangmei: “Two Fast One Trial” Criminal Reconciliation Are Effective [黄梅: ‘两快一审’刑事和解显成效]’ http://www.hbjc.gov.cn/ssjd/201509/t20150907_714579.shtml (last accessed on 1 November 2015)

Xinhua Net [新华网] ‘Is “Reform Through Labour” the Same with “Reeducation Through Labour”? [‘劳动教养’就是‘劳动改造’吗?]’ http://news.xinhuanet.com/banyt/2004-05/12/content_1464763.htm (last accessed on 4 January 2011)

Xinhua Net [新华网] ‘Interpret Decisions of the Sixth Plenary Session: Implement Criminal Justice Policy of Combining Severity with Leniency [解读六中全会决定:实施宽严相济的刑事司法政策]’ http://news.xinhuanet.com/legal/2006-12/09/content_5459413.htm (last accessed on 7 April 2011)

Xinhua Net [新华网] ‘The Supreme People’s Court Raised Idea of “Harmonious Judiciary” for the First Time [最高法院首次提出“司法和谐”理念]’ http://news.163.com/07/0107/11/347SD32N000122EH.html (last accessed on 9 March 2012)

Xinhua News Agency [新华社] ‘Mediate When It Can, Adjudicate When It Should, Fuse Trials and Mediation, Bring Closure [能调则调,当判则判,调判结合,案结事了]’ http://www.gov.cn/2007lh/content_549985.htm (last accessed on 3 November 2011)

Xu, Aiqiong [许爱琼] ‘The Detention House in Putian City Is the First in the Province to Establish a Drug Control Propaganda and Education Centre [莆田市拘留所将建禁毒宣传教育基地全省首创]’ http://news.66163.com/2012-04-10/622023.shtml (last accessed on 10 May 2012)

Xu, Bin [许斌] ‘Laws and Regulations Should Be the Products of Open Game [法律法规应该是公开博弈的产物]’ http://www.china.com.cn/news/comment/2010-07/30/content_20607709.htm (last accessed on 6 March 2012)

Xu, Chi [许驰] Liu, Xiaohan [刘晓晗] ‘Ming Guangchao: Lighting Up the Light in Juvenile Delinquent’s Heart [明广超: 点亮失足少年心中的灯]’ http://js.jcrb.com/rwgs/201010/t20101014_454600.shtml (last accessed on 19 March 2012)

Yan, Jun [严峻] ‘The Debates Triggered by “Avoiding Punishment with Money” [“赔钱减刑”引发的是非争议]’ http://www.zj.xinhuanet.com/magazine/2007-05/08/content_9972222.htm (last accessed on 4 March 2011)

Yan, Xiaoguang [闫晓光] ‘Criminal Reconciliation Conducted by the People’s Court of Foshan City of Guangdong Province Triggered Debates: It Was Criticized as “Avoiding Punishment with Money” [广东佛山法院刑事和解引争议: 被指“‘以钱买刑”]’ http://news.163.com/10/0730/00/6CQ5UU5R0001124J.html (last accessed on 23 July 2010)

Yang, Mengchen [杨孟辰] Zhang, Shuyang [张舒阳] ‘北京朝阳检察院十年刑事和解工作当事人满意率 100% [Beijing Chaoyang Procuratorate Implemented Criminal Reconciliation for Ten Years 100 Percent of Parties Satisfied]’ http://legal.people.com.cn/n/2012/0926/c42510-19110709.html (last accessed on 1 November 2015)

Yazhou, Zhoukan [亚洲周刊] ‘Competitive Election Adopted in the Party Committee of Guangdong Province: Head of the Political-legal Committee Is No Longer a Member Which Implies Its Decreasing Status [廣東省委換屆推差額選舉 政法委不是常委地位下降]’ http://www.yzzk.com/cfm/Content_Archive.cfm?Channel=bc&Path=2447308872/21bcc.cfm (last accessed on 23 July 2012)

Ye, Doudou [叶逗逗] Wang, Heyan [王和岩] ‘Major Revisions to the Criminal Procedure Law: The Advance and Retreat of Public Powers [刑诉法大修: 公权力进退]’ http://china.caixin.com/2012-03-12/100367126.html (last accessed on 23 May 2012)

Yu, Jianrong [于建嵘] ‘What Has Stability Overwhelmed? [稳定压倒了什么?]’ at http://www.gscn.com.cn/pub/critique/sdgc/2011/11/02/1320226193705.html (last accessed on 26 April 2012)

Zhang, Guochen [张国臣] ‘The People’s Courts in Our City Implemented Criminal Reconciliation Actively to Resolve Social Conflicts [市法院充分运用刑事和解: 积极化解社会矛盾]’ http://www.alt.gov.cn/Article/ShowArticle.aspx?ArticleID=44190 (last accessed on 27 October 2011)

Zhang, Hui [张辉] ‘The Obstacles of Judicial Independence in China: On the System of Political-legal Committee’s Harmfulness to Judicial Independence and Violations of Human Rights [中国司法独立的障碍: 兼论政法委体制对司法独立的侵害及其对人权的侵犯]’ http://boxun.com/news/gb/china/2011/01/201101240023.shtml (last accessed on 26 April 2012)

Zhang, Huihua [张辉华] Wang, Yuan [王媛] ‘On the Introduction and Implementation of Criminal Reconciliation in China from the Perspective of Restorative Justice [从恢复性司法看刑事和解在我国的引入和应用]’ http://www.chinacourt.org/html/article/200411/02/137288.shtml (last accessed on 22 July 2008)

Zhang, Jie [张洁] ‘“Restorative Justice, Criminal Reconciliation, Community Correction”: Three Crucial Systems in Juvenile Justice System [‘恢复性司法、刑事和解、社区矫正’:少年司法中的三项重要制度]’ http://www.yffz.org/E_ReadNews.asp?NewsId=1249&page=2 (last accessed on 13 February 2011)

Zhang, Xingchuan [张星川] ‘An Initial Analysis of the Problems and Strategies for the Current Criminal Reconciliation Work [浅议当前刑事和解工作中存在的问题及对策]’ http://www.jcrb.com/jcpd/jcll/201008/t20100803_394537.html (last accessed on 12 December 2011)

Zhang, Yinghong [张英红] ‘The Commission of Politics and Law Impedes Judicial Independence [政法委妨碍司法独立]’ http://www.chinaelections.org/NewsInfo.asp?NewsID=26678 (last accessed on 22 April 2011)

Zhao, Jiayue [赵佳月] ‘The Revision of the Criminal Procedure Law: A Game Between Power and Rights [刑诉法修改: 权力与权利的博弈]’ http://nf.nfdaily.cn/nfrwzk/content/2011-09/13/content_29780011.htm (last accessed on 6 May 2012)

GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

Almanac of Xinbei District, Changzhou City 2003–2005 http://www.cznd.gov.cn/nj2005/zfrw/4.htm (last accessed on 15 November 2010)

Almanac of Xinbei District, Changzhou City 2006–2008 http://www.cznd.gov.cn/nj2008/Templates/zhengfa/html5-6.html (last accessed on 15 November 2010)

Statistical Bulletin of the National Economic and Social Development of Dadukou District of Chongqing in 2007 http://www.ddktj.gov.cn/wwweb/sjck/tjgb/20091223/1950.html (last accessed on 7 February 2011)

Statistical Bulletin of the National Economic and Social Development of Dadukou District of Chongqing in 2008 http://www.ddktj.gov.cn/wwweb/sjck/tjgb/20091223/1951.html (last accessed on 7 February 2011)

The Community Correction Office of Jiangsu Province http://www.jssf.gov.cn/xxgk/jgsz/nsjg/200810/t20081028_18928.html (last accessed on 6 December 2010)