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Comparative Law as Critique

Günter Frankenberg

This book presents a critique of conventional ways to do comparative law. The author argues that, for comparative law to qualify as a discipline, comparatists must reflect on how and why they compare. The author discusses not only methods and theories, but also the ethical implications and the politics of comparative law.
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Index

Günter Frankenberg

Abu-Lughod, Lila 155, 160

Abu-Odeh, Lama 141

access to justice 205–24

alienation effect 221–2

belief in justice and a fair world 208–9

conflict displacement and deferral 218–19, 221–2

constitutional reform measures 214–15

gatekeepers 206–7, 223, 224

injustice management 211–15

institutional reforms 214, 223–4

justice servers 207

law-rule interpretive function 210–11, 214, 218

legal aid 214, 223–4

legal due process 206, 215, 219, 222

legal narratives of justification 212–14, 219

legal relevance selection 219–20

legal side-effects 220–21

and legal vocabulary 218–19, 220–21

normalization narrative 217–22, 223

normative discourse 210, 212, 216–17, 223

philosophical and jurisprudential narratives 216–17, 219

public interest groups 207–8, 223–4

reformist approach 223–4

right to day in court 223–4

romantic narrative of injustice 11, 209–10, 216

‘should work’ and ‘does work’ comparisons 214–15, 216

strategic option reduction 220–21

technical-legal reforms 214–15

threshold fears, lowering 215

voluntarist approach 223

activist functionalists, Law and Development movement 91

Adelman, Howard 115, 116, 121, 138, 156, 161, 226

Adorno, Theodor 28–9, 30, 54, 78

Ahmed, Leila 136, 139, 142, 144

Ainsworth, Janet 42, 76

Al-Jabri, Mohammed Abed 23

Al-Saji, Alia 116, 126, 134, 136, 140, 144, 147, 156, 159, 160

Alibhai-Brown, Yasmin 155

alienation practices

and access to justice 221–2

and critique and comparison 29, 32

human rights, effects of 179–82

Muslim veiling controversy see Muslim veiling controversy

Alston, Philip 190

amatour-comparatists 104–7

see also mainstream and non-mainstream comparisons

amnesia, universalism and over-generalization concerns 99–100

Amstutz, Marc 27

Ancel, Marc 103

Anghie, Antony 26–7, 189

Appleby, R. Scott 198

Arendt, Hannah 180, 192, 202, 216, 219

Arminjon, Pierre 49

association, critical by 28–31

see also critique and comparison

asylum cases and ethics 180–82, 183

authorship and narrative 203–4

see also human rights and narratives of justification

Badinter, Élisabeth 145, 146, 148, 149

Baer, Susanne 111, 227

Baier, Annette 194

Baker, Keith 175

Balaghi, Shiva 144

Ballard, Roger 111

Bannister, Robert 78

Bareto, José-Manuel 88

Bartkowski, John 115, 136, 142, 144, 155

Barton, John 86, 100, 106, 107

Bauman, Zygmunt 110

Baxi, Upendra 18, 92, 102, 108, 112

Beck, Lois 146

Bedford, Sybille 105

Bell, David 161

Benhabib, Seyla 116, 180, 216

Benjamin, Walter 29

Berman, Harold 41, 74, 90, 108

Berman, Nathaniel 100, 152, 172

Bernard, H. Russell 105

Boltanski, Luc 172, 213

Borges, Jorge 50

Bowen, John 121, 143

Brennan, Teresa 153

Brierley, John 4, 39, 87, 88, 89, 92, 93, 100

Brooks, Peter 169, 170

Brown, Wendy 26, 162, 188

Brüggemeier, Gert 66

Brysk, Alison 188

Buchanan, Allan 192, 216

Burgess, John 13

Burnyeat, Myles 155

Bussani, Mauro 10, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64–5, 68, 69, 78, 92, 94, 95

Butler, Judith 32, 33, 70

Callaway, Barbara 142

Campbell, Tom 203

Canada, R. v. NS121, 132

Cappelletti, Mauro 87, 89, 92, 206, 211

Carbonnier, Jean 41

Carrington, Paul 27

Chakrabarty, Dipesh 37

Charlesworth, Hilary 170

Chatterjee, Partha 150

Cheah, Pheng 181

Chimni, B.S. 27

China, Constitution justification narratives 200–201

Chomsky, Noam 188

Chrisafis, Angelique 144

Cinderella complex 4, 11, 20–21, 40–41, 49

Clark, David 87, 92

Classical Critical Theory 32

classification

and cognitive control 90, 91–2

focus, post-war 48–50

Japanese law 51–2

Coene, Gily 143

cognitive control

and Common Core Project 94–6

ethics of similarity-pragmatism and foreign legal systems 88–90

and information interpretation 85–96

method 86–8, 91–2

politics of 90–96

unification projects 92–5

see also mainstream and non-mainstream comparisons

Colombi Ciacchi, Aurelia 66

colonialism 18–19, 45, 102

see also Western tradition

colonizers’ attitude see Muslim veiling controversy, colonizers’ attitude

commitment

detachment/commitment in grid 80–81, 83, 84, 104–12, 114, 117, 150–51, 152, 225–7, 229

detachment/commitment, Muslim veiling controversy 117, 118, 130–31, 135, 150, 155

see also grid analysis

Common Core Project 59–70, 94–6

see also convergence process, EU; legal unification

comparative law as discipline 3–16

codifications and legislation comparisons 15

comparative law as science 9–10

constitutional law, dialogical method and cross-fertilization 99

contextual analysis shift 11–12

disciplinarity and knowledge production 7–9, 10

discipline methodology 8

foundations and traditions 42–3

‘golden era’ 13

identity problem and semantics 11

and interdisciplinarity 12–13

legislation and legal solutions to social problems comparison 5

mainstream comparative law and legal validity 6–7, 11, 15

mainstream as orthodoxy 13–16

modernist phase and functionalism 15

Paris Congress 5, 42, 43

permeability of disciplinary boundaries, testing 12

positivism debate see positivism

universal jurisprudence 5, 15

and Western tradition see Western tradition

see also critique and comparison; mainstream and non-mainstream comparisons

conflict

displacement and deferral, and access to justice 218–19, 221–2

management, human rights and narratives of justification 173

Conquergood, Dwight 79–80, 82, 83, 106, 107, 226

Constantinesco, Leontin-Jean 103

constitution

comparative constitutional law, dialogical method and cross-fertilization 99

constitutional mythology, human rights and narratives of justification 196–7

reform measures and access to justice 214–15

control argument and threat perception see Muslim veiling controversy, control argument and threat perception

convergence process, EU 4–5, 56, 95, 96

see also Common Core Project

Cotterell, Roger 88

Cover, Robert 41

Crane, William 13

Crapanzano, Vincent 42, 71

Creevey, Lucy 142

Critical Legal Studies movement (CLS) 24–6, 27, 31

critical perspectives

legal narratives and human rights 169–71

skepticism between critique and relativism in Muslim veiling controversy 154–61

critique and comparison 17–34

and alienation practices 29, 32

classical critical theory 32

critical approaches 17–22

critical by association 28–31

critical by self-definition 24–8

critique modalities 22–4

critique of rights 26–7

descriptive or prescriptive approaches 23, 32

ethical dimension 21

Frankfurt School 27–9, 30, 32

internal and external critiques, distinguishing between 23

legal dimension 30–31

mainstream reaction 20–21

Marxist thought 29, 30, 32

negative judgment concerns 22–3

non-traditional in comparative law 32

post-modern critiques 17–18

scientific method 32–3, 77–9, 81, 85–6, 101

social dimension 29, 30, 32

traditional theory characteristics 29

Utah Symposium, ‘New Approaches to Comparative Law’ 18

and Western tradition see Western tradition

see also comparative law as discipline

cultural oppression claims, Muslim veiling controversy 135–7, 138–9, 143–4

Damaška, Mirjan 57

Daniels, Ron 96, 217

Danielsen, Dan 26

Dannemann, Gerhard 19, 47

David, René 4, 10, 39, 44, 46, 49, 50–51, 52, 87, 88, 89, 92, 93, 100

De Cruz, Peter 38, 39

deferral and displacement of human rights claims 177, 179–80

Del Vecchio, Giorgio 46, 52, 98

Delphy, Christine 140

Denzin, Norman 226

Derrida, Jacques 41, 81, 180, 205, 208, 212, 218, 220, 224, 231

descriptive/prescriptive approaches 23, 32, 63, 64, 68–9, 111

detachment

detachment/commitment in grid 80–81, 83, 84, 104–12, 114, 117, 150–51, 152, 225–7, 229

detachment/commitment, Muslim veiling controversy 117, 118, 130–31, 135, 150, 155

see also grid analysis

Dezalay, Yves 95

differencing as method 71–6, 82–3, 84, 85, 104–12

management of differences, concerns over 64–5

similarity/difference intersect 82–3, 84, 85, 88–90, 117, 118, 130–31, 135, 150, 155, 225–7

see also grid analysis

disparate events, structural connection 195–7

see also human rights and narratives of justification

distancing as method 70–71, 75–6, 80, 81, 83, 85

Donnelly, Jack 194

doubt

method, and skepticism between critique and relativism 155–9

self-reflection and doubt requirements 81, 83

Douglas, Mary 79, 91, 111

Douzinas, Costas 179, 185, 188

due process, and access to justice 206, 215, 219, 222

Dufourmantelle, Anne 180

Duits, Linda 164

Dupré, Cathérine 102, 192

Durham, W. Cole 131

Dworkin, Ronald 26–7, 179, 181, 192, 221

Eaves, Elizabeth 185

Ehrmann, Henry 48, 73

El Guindi, Fatwa 156

El Habti, Raja 141

Ellingson, Ter 151

Engle, Karen 26, 190

entitlement and responsibility provision 167, 171–2, 175, 176, 191, 193, 195, 197, 199

see also human rights and narratives of justification

Escarra, Jean 10, 105

Esposito, John 146

Esposito, Roberto 198

Esquirol, Jorge 18, 49, 80

ethics dimension

amatour-comparatists 106–7

asylum cases and human rights 180–82, 183

cognitive control, similarity-pragmatism and foreign legal systems 88–90

common concepts, search for, and exclusion of ethics and politics 78–9

critique and comparison 21

rescue ethics, Muslim veiling controversy 140–44

skepticism 110–11

and thicker comparison 231–3

travelers’ perception, Muslim veiling controversy 152–3

universalism 99–100

visual control and Muslim veiling controversy 118, 127–30

zero tolerance and Muslim veiling controversy 147–8

see also politics dimension

EU

Common Core Project 59–70, 94–6

convergence process 4–5, 56, 95, 96

legal unification attempts 59–60, 61–2

Personality Rights in European Tort Law 66–7

UNIDROIT principles 44, 59, 100

European Court of Human Rights

Ahmad v. United Kingdom125

Alekseyev v. Russia189

Caroline case 66–7

Dahlab v. Switzerland123, 133, 134, 138

Dogru v. France132, 157

and French ‘Burqa Ban’ 125–30, 132–3, 134, 135, 136, 137, 158–9

Kalaç v. Turkey125

Karaduman v. Turkey133, 158

Kervanci v. France132, 157

Refah Partisi v. Turkey131

on religious symbols in schools 123

Şahin v. Turkey125, 133, 139, 157

S.A.S. v. France120, 126, 127, 129, 130, 132–3, 144, 157

Evans-Pritchard, Edward viii

Ewald, William 97, 98

Eyerman, Ron 187

factualism

analysis of ‘legal formants’, and combination of functionalism and factualism 60–61, 63–9

facticity and objectivity 67–70

mainstream techniques 60–70

see also functionalism; Western tradition

Fadel, Mohammad 131

Fanon, Frantz 139, 149, 150, 151

Fauvarque-Cosson, Bénédicte 44, 49

feminist criticism, Muslim veiling controversy 135, 137, 138, 140–42, 143–4, 148

Ferrari, Alessandro 116, 143

Feuerbach, Anselm von 43

Fikentscher, Wolfgang 6

Fischer-Lescano, Andreas 27

Fitzsimmons, Michael 196

Fletcher, George 3

foreign laws

cognitive control and ethics of similarity-pragmatism 88–90

differences, and functionalist approach 57–8, 70–71

formalism 6, 11, 73–4, 85, 169, 228–9

see also positivism

Forst, Rainer 128, 192

Foster, Nicholas 12

Foucault, Michel 7, 8, 32–3, 34, 41, 50, 91

France

Burqa Ban’ 125–30, 132–3, 134, 135, 136, 137, 158–9

French school of comparative law 44, 45, 49–51, 96

public order concept 120–21

Revolution and mythical narratives 196–7, 200

Frank, Jerome 67

Frankfurt School 27–9, 30, 32

Freud, Anna 172

Frug, Mary Joe 26

Frye, Northrop 191, 195

functionalism

activist functionalists, Law and Development movement 91

and cognitive control 90, 91, 92, 94

disadvantages 58–9

foreign law differences, and functionalist approach 57–8, 70–71

history 15

‘legal formants’, and combination of functionalism and factualism 60–61, 63–9

mainstream techniques 48–9, 50, 52–70

as method 56–7

and rationalism 74–5

and search for common concepts 59–70

see also factualism; Western tradition

Gans, Eduard 45, 96, 100, 101

Garth, Bryant 95

gatekeepers, access to justice 206–7, 223, 224

Gauchet, Marcel 196

Geertz, Clifford 12, 59, 65, 67, 68, 70, 71, 75, 79, 83, 105, 168, 176, 181, 201, 218, 225, 227, 228, 229, 230, 232, 233

gender equality, Muslim veiling controversy 137–42, 143–4

generalization, over-generalization and amnesia concerns 99–100

Ger, Güliz 115, 136, 154

Gérin, André 149

Germany

asylum as basic right 180–82, 183

Caroline66–7

Crucifix122–3

German world-historical development 44, 45, 48, 96

Ludin122, 123–4, 131, 132, 133, 134, 157

public order concept 120

Gewirth, Alan 191

Gewirtz, Paul 169

Ghazal Read, Jen’nan 115, 130, 136, 142, 144, 155

Giddens, Anthony 78

Gieryn, Thomas 23

Glanert, Simone 54, 81

Glendon, Mary Ann 51, 73, 74, 79, 86

Glenn, H. Patrick 47, 51, 52, 97, 103, 106

Goodman, Nelson 228, 229

Gordley, James 3, 61, 95

Graziadei, Michele 52

Gregory, Derek 48, 77

grid analysis

detachment/commitment 80–81, 83, 104–7, 114, 117, 150–51, 152, 225–7, 229

grid construction 79–83

mainstream and non-mainstream comparisons 84–112

Muslim veiling controversy 114–15, 117–18, 130–31, 135, 150, 155, 161–2

similarity/difference 82–3, 84, 85, 88–90, 117, 118, 130–31, 135, 150, 155, 225–7

Griffin, James 192

Groβfeld, Bernhard 103, 104, 109

Grosswald Curran, Vivian x, 10, 61, 71, 110, 111, 227, 230

Günther, Klaus 191, 203

Gusy, Christoph 120

Gutteridge, Harold 3, 38, 54, 101

Habermas, Jürgen 29, 54, 164, 192, 194, 216

Halley, Janet 26, 34

Haraway, Donna 85

Harding, Andrew 3, 103

harmonization see Common Core Project

Hathaway, Oona 203

Hegel, Georg 43, 45, 226

Hirschl, Ran 12, 13

Hirschman, Nancy 141, 163, 164

Horkheimer, Max 28–9, 30

Horwitz, Morton 26

human rights, and gender equality, Muslim veiling controversy 137–42, 143–4

human rights and narratives of justification 167–204

alienation effects of human rights 179–82

asylum cases and ethics 180–82, 183

authority and promise 201

authorship and narrative 203–4

challenges, justification as response to 172–3

conflict management 173

constitutional mythology 196–7

deferral and displacement of human rights claims 177, 179–80

development and sources 201

developmental scheme and positive ideology 187–8

entitlement and responsibility provision 167, 171–2, 175, 176, 191, 193, 195, 197, 199

fundamentals of human rights 192–3

human rights law method 177

human rights as positive ideology 186–9

information selectivity effects 178–9

justification mechanism 171–5

language and modality 202–3

law-rule, submitting reality to language and routines of 176–7

legal narratives 168–71

legal narratives, critical perspective 169–71

legal narratives from claims to validity 197–9

legal narratives, as legislative commentary 171–2

military action in terms of justice and human rights 175–6

narratives as modern mythology 195–201

normalization as depoliticization 183–6

normalization narratives and law-rule as order 176–86

normative narratives 173, 179, 183, 189–90, 191–2, 193–4, 198–9

political agenda links 187–9

political-educational agenda of legal narratives 199–201

poverty issues 182–3

romantic narrative of human rights 191, 193–4, 202–4

secret government practices, justifying 174–5

strategic options and imaginative space reduction 182–3

structural connection of disparate events 195–7

torture cases, semantics and national security 184–6, 203–4

universal nature 189–94

unjust actions, dealing with 173–5, 177

validity claims and superior knowledge derivation 198–9

humanitarian rhetoric 44–7

see also mainstream techniques

information

interpretation and cognitive control 85–96

interpretation concerns 68–70, 82

knowledge and information focus 54–5, 60–63

questionnaires and fact-finding 65–7

selectivity effects and human rights 178–9

see also knowledge; language

injustice management 211–15

see also access to justice

innocence, professional 41–2

innocent spirit

and humanitarian rhetoric 44–7

and legal unification 73–4

interpretation

and cognitive control 85–96

concerns 68–70, 82

see also knowledge; language

Islamophobia concerns 142, 148, 149

see also Muslim veiling controversy

Jackson, Vicki 97

Jaeggi, Rahel 32, 179, 180

Jameson, Frederic 79, 87, 91, 99, 107

Jamin, Christophe 96, 100

Japanese law comparison with Western legal system 51–2

see also Western tradition

Jost, John 187

Jouannet, Emmanuelle 199

Juergensmeyer, Mark 148

justice see access to justice

Kadelbach, Stefan 170

Kafka, Franz 205, 206–7, 208, 210, 212, 217, 218, 220, 222, 223, 224

Kahn, Robert 122, 124, 131

Kahn-Freund, Otto 38

Kairys, David 25

Kaplan, David 233

Kapur, Ratna 115, 116, 144, 149, 160, 164

Kaufmann, Walter 226

Keaton, Trica 116, 136

Keddi, Nikki 146

Kelman, Mark 25

Kennedy, David 18, 19, 26, 27, 108, 109, 169–70, 172, 175, 182, 190, 199, 203, 221

Kennedy, Duncan 19, 26, 27, 121

Kerameus, Konstantinos 47, 103

Kirchheimer, Otto 30

Kischel, Uwe 20

Kitagawa, Zentaro 51, 55

Klausen, Jytte 161

Klein, Peter 155

Knop, Karen 190

knowledge

human rights validity claims and superior knowledge derivation 198–9

and information focus 54–5, 60–63

see also information

Kocourek, Albert 46

Kohler, Josef 45, 46, 100, 101

Konstantinos, Kerameus 47

Koskenniemi, Martti 25, 26, 137, 187, 189, 193, 196

Kötz, Hein 10, 19, 20, 38, 40, 44, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 74, 78–9, 87–8, 90, 91, 92, 97, 103

Kuhn, Thomas 7, 14

Kunze, Rolf 48

Laborde, Cécile 145

Lambert, Édouard 43, 45, 46, 53, 100, 101, 101–2

language

comparative law, identity problem and semantics 11

law-rule, submitting reality to language and routines 176–7

legal vocabulary and access to justice 218–19, 220–21

and modality 202–3

see also information; interpretation

Lasser, Mitchel 19, 54, 108, 109, 111

Latour, Bruno 65

Lave, Jean 89, 91, 94

Law and Development movement, activist functionalists 91

law-rule

interpretive function and access to justice 210–11, 214, 218

normalization narratives and human rights 176–86

programs 95–6

submitting reality to language and routines 176–7

Lazreg, Marnia 186

legal aid, and access to justice 214, 223–4

legal dimension, critique and comparison 30–31

legal due process, and access to justice 206, 215, 219, 222

legal formalism 6, 11, 73–4, 85, 169, 228–9

see also positivism

legal formants analysis 60–61, 63–9

see also mainstream techniques

legal justification, visual control method and Muslim veiling controversy 120–27

legal narratives

and access to justice 212–14, 219

critical perspective and human rights 169–71

human rights, from claims to validity 197–9

human rights and narratives of justification 168–71

as legislative commentary in human rights 171–2

political-educational agenda 199–201

legal positivism see positivism

legal realism 31

legal relevance selection and access to justice 219–20

legal side-effects and access to justice 220–21

legal unification and innocent spirit 73–4

see also Common Core Project; mainstream techniques

legal validity, and mainstream comparative law 6–7, 11, 15

legocentrism 11–12, 14, 79

see also positivism

Legrand, Pierre x, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 57, 72, 82, 84, 104, 105, 106, 108, 110, 111, 231

Leiter, Brian 26

Lepaulle, Pierre 4, 55, 101, 105

Levinson, Sanford 184

Lévy, Bernard 143, 145, 147, 148

Leyland, Peter 103

Liddell, Henry 22

Liebesny, Herbert 85

Liggett, Bradley 131

Lincoln, Yvonna 226

Longman, Chia 143, 144

Lopez, Gerald 169

Luhmann, Niklas 28, 179, 180, 220, 229

Macdonald, Myra 144, 148, 149

Machura, Stefan 180

Madelin, Alain 142

Mahmood, Saba 116, 121, 136, 160, 161, 162, 163

mainstream comparative law and legal validity 6–7, 11, 15

mainstream and non-mainstream comparisons 77–112

activist functionalists 91

amatour-comparatists 104–7

amatour-comparatists, ethics 106–7

amatour-comparatists, politics of 107

classification methods and cognitive control 91–2

cognitive control see cognitive control

commitment see under grid analysis

common concepts, search for, and exclusion of ethics and politics 78–9

Common Core Project see Common Core Project

comparative constitutional law, dialogical method and cross-fertilization 99

comparative law styles as discrete tracks 80

detachment see under grid analysis

differencing see differencing as method

distancing 80, 81, 83, 85

formalism 6, 11, 73–4, 85, 169, 228–9

functionalism see functionalism

grid analysis see grid analysis

information interpretation 85–96

interpretation dilemma 82

mainstream scientific method 77–9, 81, 85–6, 101

methodological concerns 77–9

normative discourse and universalism 102, 103

objectivity 81

politics see politics dimension

positivism see positivism

preconceptions and stereotypes, dealing with 83

self-reflection and doubt requirements 81, 83

similarity see under grid analysis

skepticism 107–12

skepticism, ethics 110–11

skepticism method 109–10

skepticism, politics of 111–12

universalism see universalism

Western tradition see Western tradition

see also comparative law as discipline

mainstream techniques 37–76

analysis of ‘legal formants’, and combination of functionalism and factualism 60–61, 63–9

classification focus, post-war 48–50

comparative law foundations and traditions 42–3

comparative law as method as science debate 37–42

descriptive/prescriptive approaches 23, 32, 63, 64, 68–9, 111

differencing as method see differencing as method

distancing as method 70–71, 75–6, 80, 81, 83, 85

facticity and objectivity 67–70

factualism 60–70

foreign law differences, and functionalist approach 57–8, 70–71

French school of comparative law 44, 45, 49–51, 96

functionalism see functionalism

German world-historical development 44, 45, 48, 96

innocent spirit and humanitarian rhetoric 44–7

innocent spirit and legal unification or harmonization projects 73–4

interpretation concerns 68–70

Japanese law comparison with Western legal system 51–2

knowledge and information focus 54–5, 60–63

management of differences, concerns over 64–5

méthode Montesquieu14, 43–4, 57, 96–7, 104, 105

positivism see positivism

professional innocence 41–2

questionnaires and fact-finding 65–7

social problems, functionalist focus on 56, 58

taxonomy and mapping laws of the world 47–52

universal jurisprudence 42–7, 54

value neutrality of functionalist analyses 56

Western tradition see Western tradition

Mamdani, Mahmood 102

Marcuse, Herbert 28–9

Markesinis, Basil 3

Marks, Susan 171

Marxist thought 29, 30, 32

Mattei, Ugo 10, 17–18, 19, 20, 60, 61, 63, 64–5, 68, 69, 78, 92, 94, 95, 108

Mayer, Jane 186

McCrudden, Christopher 99

McGoldrick, Dominic 116, 135

McQuoid-Mason, David 215

Medic, Veit 153–4

Mégret, Fred 20, 190, 202

Menger, Carl 78

Menski, Werner 12, 88, 92, 94, 111

Merino Acuňa, Roger 18

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice 162

Merryman, John 38, 87, 91, 92, 105, 108

Messer-Davidow, Ellen 7, 8, 17

Mészáros, István 179

methods

cognitive control 86–8, 91–2

comparative law as method as science debate 37–42

dialogical, and cross-fertilization 99

differencing see differencing as method

distancing as 70–71, 75–6, 80, 81, 83, 85

doubt and Muslim veiling controversy 155–9

functionalism as 56–7

human rights law 177

legal reasoning and Muslim veiling controversy 118

méthode Montesquieu14, 43–4, 57, 96–7, 104, 105

methodological concerns 77–9

militancy, and Muslim veiling controversy 146–7

orientalizing, and Muslim veiling controversy 151–2

scientific 32–3, 77–9, 81, 85–6, 101

skepticism 109–10

universalism 98–9

visual control and Muslim veiling controversy 120–27

Michaels, Ralf 5, 46, 52, 55, 56, 58, 59, 63, 86

Michaelson, Christopher 121

militancy method and Muslim veiling controversy 146–7

military action in terms of justice and human rights 175–6

see also human rights and narratives of justification

Mitchell, William 117

Monateri, Pier 10, 18, 55, 108

Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat 14, 43–4, 57, 96–7, 104, 105

Moore, Kathleen 124–5, 131, 144, 154

Moore, Sally 168, 233

Moors, Annelies 142

Moran, Joe 12

Moses, Bernard 13

Motoc, Iulia 199

Müge Coçek, Fatma 144

Muir Watt, Horatia 19, 52, 104, 108

Munday, Roderick 17

Murphy, Walter 86, 104

Muslim veiling controversy 113–64

changing reasons for wearing headscarves and need to be heard 136, 140–41

comparative law relation 113–14

conspicuousness of Islamic dress 118, 126, 128

conspicuousness of Islamic dress, public order and management of religious plurality 131–2

cultural oppression claims 135–7, 138–9, 143–4

ethics dimension and visible co-existence of covered woman 118

feminist criticism 135, 137, 138, 140–42, 143–4, 148

grid use 114–15, 117–18, 130–31, 135, 150, 155, 161–2

Islamophobia concerns 142, 148, 149

method as legal reasoning 118

normative matrix of dress 161–4

politics dimension 118, 122

public order threat 120–21

religious freedom and self-expression rights balance 121–7, 132

similarity/difference 117, 118, 130–31, 135, 150, 155

skepticism between critique and relativism 154–61

skepticism between critique and relativism, ethics and politics 159–61

skepticism between critique and relativism, method of doubt 155–9

travelers’ perception 150–54, 164

travelers’ perception, ethics 152–3

travelers’ perception, orientalizing method 151–2

travelers’ perception, politics of 153–4

veiling, emotions evoked by 115–16

veiling styles 114–15

visual impact 116, 117, 124, 130, 134

Western secular comparison 114–15, 117–18, 119, 121–2, 132, 134, 142, 143, 145, 146, 147, 148–9

Western and Sharia law comparison 153–4

Muslim veiling controversy, colonizers’ attitude

human rights issues and gender equality 137–42, 143–4

method and universality 137–40, 143, 149

political attitude 143–4

radicalized pessimism and apocalyptic crusaders 145–50, 164

radicalized pessimism and apocalyptic crusaders, ethics of zero tolerance 147–8

radicalized pessimism and apocalyptic crusaders, free will denial 146

radicalized pessimism and apocalyptic crusaders, militancy method 146–7

radicalized pessimism and apocalyptic crusaders, politics of 148–50

rescue ethics 140–44

rescue mission 135–44

Muslim veiling controversy, control argument and threat perception 119–35, 164

judicial review of Islamic dress code 132

public safety and security 131

situational tolerance 129

visual control ethics 127–30

visual control method and legal justification 120–27

visual control politics 130–35

Mutua, Makau Wa 187, 188

mythology, narratives as modern mythology 195–201

see also human rights and narratives of justification

Nader, Laura 79, 84, 102

Nagel, Thomas 72, 82

NAIL (New Approaches to International Law) 26–7

narratives

of justification, and human rights see human rights and narratives of justification

legal narratives of justification and access to justice 212–14, 219

romantic see romantic narratives

thick legal comparison 227–9, 231–3

negative judgment concerns 22–3

Nelken, David 10, 11, 99, 103, 108

Netherlands, niqāb ban 142

Neumann, Franz 30, 193

Nickel, James 192

Niewöhner, Jörg 83, 168, 227, 228, 232

Nigro, Raffaella 127, 158

non-traditional practice in comparative law 26, 32

Noonan, Harold 82

Noonan, John 67

normalization narratives

access to justice 217–22, 223

law-rule as order, and human rights 176–86

normative discourse

access to justice 210, 212, 216–17, 223

normative matrix of dress and Muslim veiling controversy 161–4

normative narratives and human rights 173, 179, 183, 189–90, 191–2, 193–4, 198–9

and universalism, mainstream and non-mainstream comparisons 102, 103

objectivity 67–70, 81

Orford, Anne 172, 185, 190

Örücü, Esin 3, 4–5, 10, 33, 99

Palmer, Vernon 6, 9, 10, 14, 20, 38, 41, 59, 60, 62, 71, 72

Panikkar, Raimon 98, 231

Pape, Robert 198

Paris Congress 5, 42, 43

Parry, John 18

Pastorelli, Sabrina 116, 143

Pedwell, Carolyn 163

Peek, Lori Ann 154

Peerenboom, Randall 96

Peters, Anne 18, 20, 27, 86

Peters, Edward 184

philosophical narratives and access to justice 216–17, 219

Pogge, Thomas 192

politics dimension

amatour-comparatists 107

cognitive control 90–96

common concepts, search for, and exclusion of ethics and politics 78–9

human rights, normalization as depoliticization 183–6

human rights and political agenda links 174–5, 187–9, 199–201

Muslim veiling controversy 118, 122, 130–35, 143–4, 148–50, 153–4

skepticism 111–12

and thicker comparison 231–3

universalism 100–104

see also ethics dimension

positivism

debate 12, 14

dispute 78, 101

legal positivism 50, 63–9, 93–4

legocentric 11–12, 14, 79

mainstream techniques 50, 63–9

structuralist 63–4

see also formalism

Pound, Roscoe 87

poverty issues and human rights 182–3

preconceptions and stereotypes, dealing with 83

prescriptive/descriptive approaches 23, 32, 63, 64, 68–9, 111

Priest, Dana 185

public interest groups, and access to justice 207–8, 223–4

public order, and Muslim veiling controversy 120–21, 131–2

Pufendorf, Samuel 43

questionnaires and fact-finding 65–7

see also information

Rabel, Ernst 44, 46, 48, 53, 54, 55, 88, 92, 101

radicalized pessimism and apocalyptic crusaders see under Muslim veiling controversy, colonizers’ attitude

Rawls, John 192, 208, 216

reductionism problems 67, 227, 229–30

Reece, Debra 144, 163

reflexive comparison 229–31

reformist approach

access to justice 223–4

and universalism 101–2

Reimann, Anna 153–4

Reimann, Mathias 9, 10, 18, 19, 40, 52, 53

Reitz, John 55

relativism, skepticism and Muslim veiling controversy 154–61

religious freedom and self-expression rights balance, Muslim veiling controversy 121–7, 132

Rhode, Deborah 206

Riles, Annelise 18, 27, 40, 41, 44, 46, 65, 104, 106

Riley, Patrick 43

Rittich, Kerry 34

Roberts, Paul 47, 103

romantic narrative

and access to justice 11, 209–10, 216

and human rights 191, 193–4, 202–4

see also narratives

Rorty, Richard x, 23, 194

Rosaldo, Renato 70

Rosen, Lawrence 72

Rosett, Arthur 93

rule of law see law-rule

Ruskola, Teemu 19

Sacco, Rodolfo 5, 56, 58, 60–62, 63–4, 68–9, 94, 109

Sacksofsky, Ute 122, 159

Said, Edward 77, 100, 111, 139, 146, 152, 163, 226–7

Sajó, András 119

Salecl, Renata 193

Saleilles, Raymond 98, 100, 101

Samuel, Geoffrey 65

Sandikci, Özlem 115, 136, 154

Sands, Philippe 184, 185, 186

Santos, Alvaro 91, 95

Sawer, Geoffrey 74

Scanlon, Thomas 192, 216

Schacht, Richard 179, 221

Scheffer, Thomas 83, 168, 227, 228, 232

Schlesinger, Rudolf 38, 55, 60–61, 78, 86

Schröder, Jan 46

Schwarz-Liebermann von Wahlendorf, Hans-Albrecht 88

Schwarzer, Alice 145, 147, 148

Schwenke, Heiner 18, 20, 27, 86

Schwenzer, Ingeborg 44, 48

scientific method 32–3, 77–9, 81, 85–6, 101

Scollon, Ron 97

Scott, Joan 130

Scott, Robert 22

secret government practices, justifying 174–5

see also human rights and narratives of justification

self-definition, critical by 24–8

self-expression, Muslim veiling controversy and self-expression rights balance 121–7, 132

self-reflection and doubt requirements 81, 83

Sharia law comparison 153–4

see also Western tradition

Shilliam, Robert 76, 226

Siem, Mathias 33

Siim, Birte 143

similarity/difference intersect 82–3, 84, 85, 88–90, 117, 118, 130–31, 135, 150, 155, 225–7

see also differencing as method; grid analysis

skepticism 107–12

Muslim veiling controversy 154–61

Skjeie, Hege 143

Smith, Joseph 90

Smith, R. Jeffrey 185

social dimension 5, 29, 30, 32, 56, 58

human rights see human rights and narratives of justification

Stephens, Thomas 153

stereotypes and preconceptions, dealing with 83

Stiglitz, Joseph 188

strategic comparison, Western concept of law 90–96

strategic option

human rights and imaginative space reduction 182–3

reduction, and access to justice 220–21

structural connection of disparate events 195–7

see also human rights and narratives of justification

structuralist positivism 63–4

see also positivism

Talpade Mohanty, Chandra 144–5

Tanenhaus, Joseph 86

taxonomy and mapping laws of the world 47–52

Taylor, Charles 100

Teitel, Ruti 99

Tennant, Chris 26

Thevenot, Laurent 172, 213

Thomas, John 43

Thompson Klein, Julie 12, 13

threat perception see Muslim veiling controversy, control argument and threat perception

Tomberlin, James 83

Tomuschat, Christian 170

torture cases and human rights 184–6, 203–4

traditional theory characteristics 29

travelers’ perception, Muslim veiling controversy 150–54, 164

Trebilcock, Michael 96, 217

Trubek, David 91, 95

Tunc, André 50, 87

TWAIL (Third World Approaches to International Law) 26–7

Twining, William 18, 40, 49, 85, 87, 88, 105, 108, 225

UK

Begum v. Denbigh High School133, 155, 157–8, 162

The Queen v. D (R)125, 129, 132, 152, 155, 156–7

Unger, Roberto 25

unification projects 73–4, 92–5

Common Core Project 59–70, 94–6

universalism 42–7, 54

colonizers’ method and universality, Muslim veiling controversy 137–40, 143, 149

debate 83, 96–104

ethics 99–100

human rights and narratives of justification 189–94

over-generalization and amnesia concerns 99–100

politics 100–104

reformist approach 101–2

unjust actions, dealing with 173–5, 177

see also human rights and narratives of justification

US

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka218

Critical Legal Studies movement (CLS) 24–6, 27

Declaration of Independence validity claim 198, 200

Freeman v. Florida124–5, 128, 130, 131, 149

Planned Parenthood v. Casey170, 171

Restatement projects 59

torture and human rights violations, dealing with 186

Utah Symposium, ‘New Approaches to Comparative Law’ 18

Vakulenko, Anastasia 133, 135, 137, 139, 140, 157

validity

claims and human rights 198–9

legal validity and mainstream comparative law 6–7, 11, 15

Van Zoonen, Liesbet 164

veiling controversy see Muslim veiling controversy

visual control and Muslim veiling controversy

control argument and threat perception 127–30

legal justification 120–27

politics 130–35

visual impact, Muslim veiling controversy 116, 117, 124, 130, 134

Vogenauer, Stefan 53, 57, 100, 101

voluntarist approach and access to justice 223

Von Bar, Christian 93, 95

Von Mangoldt, Herrmann 132

Wadud, Amina 163

Wallerstein, Immanuel 189

Walzer, Michael 175

Watson, Alan 3, 39, 40, 93, 97

Watt, Gary 93

Weisberg, Richard 169

Weisstub, David 90

Wellmer, Albrecht 78

Wesche, Thilo 32

Western tradition

and comparative law as discipline 6, 15

concept of law as framework for comparison 85–6, 87–9, 90–98, 100–102

distinguishing features, and differencing 73–5

Japanese law comparison 51–2

legacy 18–19

secular comparison, and Muslim veiling controversy 114–15, 117–18, 119, 121–2, 132, 134, 142, 143, 145, 146, 147, 148–9

Sharia law comparison 153–4

see also colonialism; factualism; functionalism

White, Hayden 169, 191

Whitman, James 89

Wiethölter, Rudolf 30–31

Wigmore, John 11, 39, 46, 105–6, 107

Williams, Patricia 26, 169

Williams, Raymond 22

Winter, Bronwyn 145

Wong, David 75

Wong Scollon, Suzanne 97

Yeğenoğlu, Meyda 148

Yengoyan, Aram 168, 232

Young, Iris 110

Young, Robert 102

Yu, Guanghua 18

Zhang Yimon 222

Zimmermann, Reinhard 10, 40, 60

Zumbansen, Peer 27

Zweigert, Konrad 10, 19, 20, 38, 40, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 74, 78–9, 87–8, 90, 91, 92, 97, 99, 103