Show Less
You do not have access to this content

A Political Economy of African Regionalisms

An Overview of Asymmetrical Development

Wil Hout and M. A.M. Salih

This book analyses the main factors influencing the political economy of Africa’s asymmetrical regionalism, focusing on regional and sub-regional trade, investment, movement of people, goods and services. It pays particular attention to the way in which regional and sub-regional dynamics are impacted by extra-regional relations, such with the EU, US, China and India. Because African regionalism is influenced not only by economic processes, peace and security are also analysed as important factors shaping both regional and sub-regional relations and dynamics.
Show Summary Details
This content is available to you

Index

Wil Hout and M. A.M. Salih

Abdenur, A.E. 120
Abegunrin, O. 37
Abuja Treaty 1, 53, 146
African Common Market 103
African Regional Integration Index 912
changes 46
decolonization 42
economic, social and political development 41
intra-African trade 9
Acharya, A. 18, 20, 23
Action Plan for Boosting Intra-African Trade 103
actors in regionalism
domestic actors 3033
individual action 334
states 2930
Addison, T. 4
Adebajo, A. 28
Adedeji, A. 28
AfCFTA agreement see African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) agreement
Africa
aid relations 13641
average financial flows 140
external trade patterns 1219
foreign investment 12935
and South–South relations 11621
and West 11315
see also regionalism
Africa, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group 114
African Alternative Framework to Structural Adjustment Programmes for Socio-economic Recovery and Transformation 43
African Capacity Building Foundation 27
African Century 1, 10
African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance 146
African Commission on Human and People’s Rights 54
African Common Market 46, 103
African Common Position 7
African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) agreement 1, 1035, 146, 147, 150
African Export–Import Bank 105
between AU, RECs and member states 10711
extraordinary summit on 108
fast-tracking of 103
intra-African trade 101
Negotiating Forum (N-F) 110
objectives of 104, 111
African Court of Justice and Human Rights 51, 54
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (AfCHPR) 51, 54
African Defence Fund 85
African defence policy 48
African Development Bank (AfDB) 27, 43, 61
African Economic Community (AEC) 1, 416, 146
Treaty 1024
African Export–Import Bank 105, 108
African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) 115, 142
African-led International Support Mission to Mali (AFISMA) 85
African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) 49, 845, 88, 95, 145, 146
African Peace and Security Council 94
African Peace Facility (APF) 856
African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) 51, 54
African Regional Integration Index (ARII) 91
African Standby Force (ASF) 847, 95
African Talents Programme in 2007 119
African Training Centres 95
African Union (AU) 7
AfCFTA agreement 10711
Charter, 1963 41
Constitutive Act see Constitutive Act
Panel of the Wise 95, 96
peace and democracy 8991
Peace Fund 95
RECs’ peace ranking and scores 978
responses to conflict 849
Special Fund for Peace and Security 50
African Union Commission 101, 103
African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) 85
African Union Peace and Security Council (APSC) 86
Africa Peace Facility (APF) 95
Africa Regional Integration Index 149
Africa Rising 1, 35, 10, 61
Africa We Want, The 103
Agenda 2063 1, 53, 1035, 119
Agreement for Establishing the Continental Free Trade Area 1034
agriculture 5, 57, 59, 61, 62
AidData project 139
aid relations 13641
Alden, C. 120
amalgamation 19, 20
American Enterprise Institute 134
Amin, Samir 4
Anglophone 38
anti-destabilization plan 44
Appadurai, A. 18, 20
Apuuli, K.P. 28
Arab Maghreb Union (UMA) 10, 4041, 43, 147
Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) 78
armed conflict-related fatalities 78, 79
armed forces 49, 86
Armed Forces Revolutionary Council/Revolutionary United Front (AFRC/RUF) 78
Arthur, P. 6
Asante, S.K.B. 2, 4, 23
ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) 22
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 22
Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) 22
asymmetries
in African regionalism 1489
continental 58
of democracy 77
intra-African trade 101
political 142
power 5, 1478
RECs 63
regional 7, 52, 57, 61, 76, 77, 111
regionalism 38
of regional peace 77
sub-regional 58
systemic 35
authoritarian regimes 77
auto-centred development 4
Axline, W.A. 30, 31
Bach, Daniel 3, 16, 25, 34
Balassa, B. 19, 21
Baldwin, R.E. 148
Beck, R.B. 38
behind-the-border barriers 6, 21
Beijing Action Plan 20072009 117
Beijing Declaration 11819
Belt and Road Initiative 118, 119
Berlin Conference of 18841885 113
Bhattacharya, S.B. 120
Blair, Tony 115
Bond, Patrick 22
boom–bust cycles 122
Boosting Intra-African Trade (BIAT) 103, 105
Börzel, T.A. 17, 29, 145
Brazzaville Treaty in 1964 40
BRICS countries
Africa and 11213
external trade patterns 1219
state capitalism 11617
Burges, S.W. 120
Busch, M.L. 31
Buzdugan, S.R. 28
Cadot, O. 7
capacity-building programme 86
Carmody, Pádraig 22
Carnation Revolution in 1975 114
casualties, and displacement 7881
Charter’s Preamble 38
Cherlet, J. 136
China
commodity exports 124
destinations for exports 122
economic powers 129
economy, liberalization of 143
emerging powers 33
financial flows from 13941
Forum on China–Africa Cooperation 112, 117
imports from Africa 127
infrastructure and industrial development 119
investments flow 10
material drivers 22
one-China principle 118
policymakers 118
soft power approach 119
win–win model 149
China–ASEAN Free Trade Agreement 22
China Global Investment Tracker 134
Chinese Follow-up Committee 117
civil liberties, 2018 99100
Clapham, C. 26, 33
colonialism 38, 113
Committee on Monetary and Financial Affairs 102
commodity trade 122
common external tariffs 39, 458
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) 6, 46, 54
Committee of Elders 87, 95
common markets 458
Common Monetary Area (CMA) 37
Commonwealth of Nations 113
Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD) 10
comparative regionalism 2
geographical perspective 19
Hurrell’s classical treatment 1516
literature on 3, 1516, 35
scholarship on 15
conflict 7881
AU’s and RECs’ responses to 849
and regional integration 914
conflict-ridden countries 137
conscious policy 16
Constitutive Act 458
Article 4(j) of 49
Article 5 of 53
governance and democracy 5052
peace and security 4850
Constitutive Treaty 40
continental asymmetries 58
Continental Early Warning System (CEWS) 49, 86, 87, 95
Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA) 111
Negotiating Forum 110
co-operative hegemon 7
Cotonou Agreement 7, 27, 37, 114, 142
Cox, R.W. 32
cross-border disparities 26
Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (UDEAC) 40
da Silva, Lula 120
decolonization 24, 35, 45, 113, 145
de facto process 34
deindustrialization
cause of 4
premature 4
de jure process 34
democracy
asymmetries of 77
country data on 97100
governance and 5052
peace and 8991
democratic regimes 77
Deutsch, K.W. 19, 20
developmental regionalism 4, 103
development assistance 113, 114, 1368
Development Assistance Committee (DAC) 138
Diez, T. 35
displacement, casualties and 7881
Dixon, C. 22
Dolcetti-Marcolini, M. 17
Draper, P. 23, 27
Dreher, A. 139, 143
drivers
external 269
ideational 23
material 213, 35
political 246
Du Bois W.E.B. 37
Dupuy, K. 80
Durban Summit, in 2002 53
EAC see East African Community (EAC)
East African Common Services Organization 36
East African Community (EAC) 36
conflict-related fatalities 79
foreign direct investment 132
GDP in 63, 65
HDI value in 69, 70
land mass 57
manufactured exports 106
natural resources 59
objectives 40
peace ranking index 90
population and 56
poverty data 74
primary export concentration 1245, 127, 128
refugees 82
Treaty 52
East African Court of Justice 51
Easterly, W. 42, 136
ECCAS see Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS)
Economic and Social Commission (ECOSOC) 46
Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) 40
GDP in 63, 65, 67, 149
HDI value in 69, 70
industrial sector growth 62
internally displaced persons in 84
land mass 57
manufactured exports 106
natural resources 59
peace ranking index 90
political violence fatalities 80
population and 56, 57
poverty data 74
primary export concentration 125, 127, 128
resource-rich countries of 130
social sectors 139
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 28, 367, 40
Common External Tariff 46, 54
Community Court of Justice 52
Council of Delegates 95
foreign direct investment 132
Freedom House scale 9091
GDP in 63, 65, 149
HDI value in 6970
industrial sector growth 62
intervention force 789
land mass 57
manufactured exports 106
natural resources 59
peace ranking index 89, 90
population and 56
poverty data 74
primary export concentration 1258
Revised Treaty of 52
supplementary protocol 51
Treaty 53
Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) 789
economic crisis 42, 1456
economic development
asymmetrical 62
primary goods for 129
socio-economic development 37, 44, 45, 52, 55, 56, 101
structural transformation and 4
economic diversification 5, 126
economic growth 55, 617
economic integration 19, 31, 48
Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) 6, 7, 27, 28, 114, 142
monitoring 8
economic regionalism 32
economic sectors 40, 60, 61
economic wealth 70, 75
Economist (2019) 149
ECOWAS see Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
emerging economies 5, 116, 129, 142
emerging powers 33, 121
Emmanuel, A. 121
Eritrean–Ethiopian war 80, 934
EU–Africa Dialogue 29
eurocentrism 2
European Commission 28
European Development Fund 28, 114
European Economic Community (EEC) 114
European integration 26, 2931
Everything But Arms arrangement of 2001 114
external drivers 269
external trade patterns 1219
Fajana, F. 109, 110
Fanta, E. 24, 25
Farrell, M. 35
Fast Tracking the Establishment of the African Continental Free Trade Area 103
Fawcett, Louise 20
FDI see foreign direct investment (FDI)
Final Act of Lagos of April 1980 102
Fioramonti, L. 7, 27
fishing 61
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 59
foreign aid 13641
foreign direct investment (FDI) 45, 12935
average annual inflows of 12930
inflows by sector 131, 133, 135
stock of inward 132
forestry 61
Forum on China–Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) 112, 117, 118, 143
Franco-African Summit 36
Francophone 38
Freedom House 90, 96
freedom status, 2018 90, 99100
French West African colonies 36
Friends of the Panel 88
functionalism 19, 20
Gaddafi, M. 86
Gamble, A. 16
GDP see gross domestic product (GDP)
geo-governance 22
Gibb, R. 25
Global Investment Tracker 134
globalization 4, 17, 20, 30, 44
Global Peace Index 8992, 96
governance, and democracy 5052
government–business–media complex 22
Grand Inga Dam Project 111
Grieco, J.M. 30
Grimm, S. 118
gross domestic product (GDP) 5, 47, 55
average annual growth 64
foreign direct investment 130, 131
industrial sector growth 62
natural resources 59, 61
per capita 66
RECs’ 617
steep decline in 76
total 65
gross national income (GNI) 7073, 1367
Group of Twenty (G20) 121
Haas, E. 30
Hancock, K.J. 7
Hanushek, E.A. 136
Hartmann, C. 24
hegemony 5, 6
Gramscian notion of 32
regional 7, 1478
reluctant 7
Herbst, J. 12
Hettne, B. 17, 18, 148
High Commission Territories (HCTs) 39
Hoffmann, Ribeiro 29
Hout, W. 5
Hughes, C. 116
human development, and multidimensional poverty 6775
Human Development Index (HDI) 6773, 76
humanitarian aid 139, 141
Hurrell, A. 1516
ideational drivers 23
IGAD see Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
India
African exports 122
destinations for exports 122
economic powers 129
emerging powers 33, 35, 121
FDI inflows from 135
trade relationship with RECs 128
in the UN Security Council 120
Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation 120
Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) 119
individual action 334
industrial sector growth 62
inequality
social 70
in trade of commodities 121
Institute for Economics and Peace 77, 89, 90
institutional approach 31
Interbellum 53
Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
aid category for 139
conflict-related fatalities 79
Eritrean–Ethiopian war 934
foreign direct investment 132
Freedom House scale 91
GDP in 61, 63, 65
HDI value in 69, 70
industrial sector growth 62
internally displaced persons in 84
land mass 57
manufactured exports 106
Mediation Contact Group 87, 96
natural resources 59
peace and democracy 89
population and 56, 57
poverty data 74
primary export concentration 125, 127, 128
refugees 81, 82
violence-related fatalities in 80
intergovernmental political organization 47
internally displaced people 814
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) 489
international community 49, 87
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 44, 59
International Organization for Migration (IOM) 82
international political economy 32
interregionalism 29
interventionist paradigm 136
intra-African trade
AfCFTA 10711
aspirations 1025
asymmetries 101
exports 101
imports 101
realities 1057
Jackson, R.H. 24
Kampala Summit, 1991 42
Kenfack, J. 25
Keohane, R.O. 30
Kigali Declaration 12, 108
Kigali Summit 147, 150
Kiir, S. 76
Kinshasa Declaration 102
Krasner, S.D. 30
Lagos Plan of Action 102
land mass 579
Laursen, F. 35
Lenz, T. 28
Leysens, A. 22, 33
liberal intergovernmentalist approach 31
Libreville Declaration 102
lingua franca 38
loan-debt contractuality 149
loans 149
Lomé Convention 37, 114
Lomé Summit, in 2000 53
London Declaration in 1949 113
‘loss of momentum’ 120
Lusaka Summit, in 2001 53
Machar, Riak 76
Make Poverty History 115
Makonnen, R. 37
Malnight, J. 25, 32
manufactured exports 105, 106
manufacturing sector 5, 59, 108, 122
Maputo Development Corridor 34
Marrakesh Summit 40
Marshall Plan 136
Mason, R. 5
material drivers 213, 35
Mattheis, F. 7, 27
Mattli, W. 21, 31
Mawdsley, E. 119, 120
McCann, G. 119, 120
McCarthy C.L. 39
Mediation and Security Council (MSC) 50
Mediation Unit, establishment of 87
Mercosur policy requirements 120, 143
Migdal, J.S. 24
Millennium Development Goals 115, 136, 141
Milner, H. 31
Ministerial Conference 117
Mkandawire, T. 23, 25
monetary unions 458
Moore, M. 122
Moravcsik, A. 31
Morvaridi, B. 116
Mugabe, R. 117
multidimensional poverty 6775
Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 76
Naidu, S. 119, 120
National Economic Development and Labour Council (NEDLAC) 109
natural resources, population and 5561
negative peace 96
Nel, P. 117
neo-colonialism 37
neo-functionalism 19, 30
neo-liberal arguments 32
neo-liberal institutionalism 30, 31
neo-liberal regionalist project 33
neo-Marxism 22
neo-patrimonialist 25
neo-realist approaches 30
New Economic Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) 22, 54
New International Economic Order (NIEO) 116
New Partnership for Africa’s Development 57
new regionalism 15, 17, 21
Ngai-Ling Sum 119
Nkrumah, K. 37
nominal regionalism 25
Non-Aligned Movement in 1961 116
non-state actors 17, 25, 26, 29, 32
‘non-state foreign policy’ 120
North African Standby Brigade 84
OAU see Organization of African Unity (OAU)
ODA see official development assistance (ODA)
OECD see Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
official development assistance (ODA) 137, 143
allocation to Sub-Saharan Africa 139
average allocations of 138
old regionalism 19
Oliver-Smith, A. 85
‘one-China’ principle 118
ontology, of regions 1820
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 49, 59
Creditor Reporting System 137
Development Assistance Committee (DAC) 141
development policies and practices 139
Organisation internationale de la Francophonie 113
Organization of African Unity (OAU) 1, 3741, 43, 46
Charter 45
intra-African trade 102
political principles 145
Padmore, G. 37
pan-Africanism 23, 27, 35, 37, 53, 146
Pan-African Network of the Wise (PanWise) 889
Pan-African Parliament (PAP) 46
Pan African Vision 1, 104
‘pan-southern turn’ 120
Payne, A. 16
peace
country data on 97100
and democracy 8991
and security 4850
Peace and Security Council (PSC) 49, 54
peacefulness index 92
peace-keeping force 867
peace ranking index 8990
Pereira, G. 6
Piccolino, G. 28, 29
political asymmetries 3, 142
political drivers 246
political economy 110, 22, 32
political rights, 2018 99100
political violence 78, 80, 92, 93
population, and natural resources 5561
positive peace 90, 96
post-colonial refugees 81
post-Cotonou relationship 7, 114
post-election violence 64
poverty
data by REC 745
multidimensional 6775
power asymmetries 5, 1478
power differences, and regional hegemony 1478
Preferential Trade Area of Eastern and Southern Africa (PTA) 54
premature deindustrialization 4
private sector dynamism 4
Protocol on the Free Movement of Persons, 2018 150
Protocol on Trade in Goods 110
quasi-states 24
Ravenhill, J. 25, 32
RECs see Regional Economic Communities (RECs)
refugees 814
regional asymmetries 7, 52, 57, 61, 76, 77, 111
regional awareness and identity 16
regional civil society 33
regional cohesion 16
regional community 18
regional complex 18
Regional Economic Communities (RECs) 23, 10, 11, 44
AfCFTA agreement 10711
agriculture 61
armed conflict-related fatalities by 79
asymmetries 63
average regional integration score 93
average value added in economic sectors 60
bargaining in 6
European regionalist framework by 28
foreign direct investment 45, 130
formation of 44
Freedom House scale 9091
free trade areas 109
gross domestic product 617
HDI value 69
ideational drivers 23
importance of 44
industrial sector growth 62
institutionalizing 102
internally displaced persons in 83
intra-African trade 102
inward-looking regional integration policies 36
land mass 57
land use data by 58
largest economies 62
long-term growth patterns of 63
manufactured goods from 107
member states 7, 12
monetary unions 458
natural resource rents 62
natural resources 59
overlapping memberships 50
peace and democracy 8991
peace and security architectures 77
peace ranking and scores 978
population 568
post-colonial 1445
poverty data by 745
refugees 812
responses to conflict 849
regional hegemony 7, 1478
regional institutions 8, 17, 19, 25, 36, 144, 146
regional integration
conflicts and 914
and peacefulness scores and ranks 92
state-promoted 16
regionalism
African Economic Community 415
asymmetries in 38, 1489
comparative 2
contemporary 2
definitions of 16
developmental 4, 103
domestic actors 3033
domestic coalitions in 32
drivers of 2029
economic 32
governance and democracy 5052
historical legacies of 1446
individual action 334
inter 29
manifestations of 20
Neo-Marxist analyses of 33
new 15, 17, 21
old 19
omnipresence of 27
ontology of 1820
Organization of African Unity 3741
peace and security 4850
power differences and regional hegemony 1478
scholarship on 2
shadow 25
states 2930
sub-category 17
trans 29
urgency of studying 13
virtual 24
waves of 3
in West Africa 29
regionalist frameworks 2022
regionalization 16, 17
regional peace, asymmetries of 77
regional society 18, 148
regional socio-economic asymmetries
human development and multidimensional poverty 6775
population and natural resources 5561
RECs’ gross domestic product 617
regional space 18, 148
Regional Standby Brigades 845
Regional Standby Forces 86
regional state–business partnerships 223
Regional Worlds Project 1819
regionness 1718, 148
regions, ontology of 1820
region-state 18
reluctant hegemony 7
Reusse, E. 136
Revised Treaty of ECOWAS 52
Right to Residence and Right to Establishment 150
Risse, T. 17, 27, 28, 145
Rodrik, D. 4
Rolland, N. 118
Rosenstein-Rodan, P.N. 136
Rustad, S.A. 80
SADC see Southern African Development Community (SADC)
SADCC see Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC)
Sangmpam, S.N. 136
Saunders, C. 37
scepticism 1
Schoeman, M. 120
security community 1920
Security Council Resolution 1907 96
self-monitoring mechanism 51
Senghor, L.S. 37
sense of community 19
shadow regionalism 25
Shaw, T.M. 120
Shen, X. 85
Sirte Summit, 1999 53
Situation Room 86
Six-Month Conakry Peace Plan 78
socio-economic development 37, 44, 45, 52, 55, 56, 101
socio-economic issues 45
sociological institutionalism 29
Söderbaum, F. 2, 17, 18, 24, 26, 34, 148
Solemn Declaration 40
Solingen, E. 32
Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Agreement 37, 39
Southern African Development Community (SADC) 37, 39
external drivers 28
Freedom House scale 9091
GDP in 61, 63, 65, 149
HDI value in 69, 70
industrial sector growth 62
land mass 57
manufactured exports 106
material drivers 28, 37, 39
natural resources 59
Panel of Elders 87, 95
peace ranking index 89, 90
political violence fatalities 80
population and 56
poverty data 74
primary export concentration 1268
social sectors 139
Treaty 52
Tribunal 52
Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) 37, 39
GDP of 53
institutionalization 53
South–South cooperation 11621
South Sudan
conflict fatalities 89
food-deficient 80
GDP 63
oil pipeline in 119
violence-related fatalities 80
spatial unbundling 21
Specialized Committees 46
spurred emulation 28
stress test 7
Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) 424, 62, 146
sub-imperialism 22
sub-regional asymmetries 58
Sub-Saharan Africa
foreign aid 136, 137
foreign direct investment 12934
geo-governance in 22
humanitarian aid 141
largest economies in 623
manufactured exports in 105
ODA allocation to 139
peace and democracy 89, 90
primary export concentration 1234
Sum, N.-L. 149
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 70, 76, 136
systemic asymmetries 35
Tang, V.T. 4, 7
Tavares, R. 7
Taylor, I. 5, 34, 117, 143
‘Third Worldism’ 116
Thornycroft, P. 117
trade
creation 7, 19, 21
external trade patterns 1219
free 6, 7, 19, 35, 45, 1045, 150
see also intra-African trade
trade–investment–services nexus 21
transregionalism 29
trans-state networks 26
trans-state regionalization 25
Treaty for East African Cooperation Act 40
Tripartite Free Trade Area (TFTA) 47
two-level games approach 31
UNCTAD 4, 106, 107, 12232
unequal exchange 121
Union of South Africa 39
United Nations–African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) 85
United Nations Charter 38
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 67
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) 28, 43, 77
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 38, 96
Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) 78, 95
urbanization 59
van der Merwe, Justin 22, 33
Van Langenhove, L. 2
Viner, J. 19, 21
violence-related fatalities 80
virtual regionalism 24
Vivares, E. 17
Warleigh-Lack, A. 2
Warmerdam, W. 5
weblike societies 24
West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA)-CET 54
Wiener, A. 35
Williamson, J. 136
win–win model 149
World Bank 44, 59
world order approach 323
World Summit, 2005 49
world-systems theory 22
World Trade Organization (WTO) 114
Yaoundé Convention 114
Zajontz, T. 22, 33
zero-tolerance 51