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Law's Regulatory Relevance?

Property, Power and Market Economies

Mark Findlay

Law’s Regulatory Relevance? theorises how the law should reposition itself in order to help rather than hinder new pathways of market power, by confronting the dominant neo-liberal economic model that values property through scarcity. With in-depth analysis of empirical case studies, the author explores how law is returning to its communal utility in strengthening social ties, which will in turn restore property as social relations rather than market commodities. In a world of contested narratives about property, valuing law needs to ground its inherent regulatory relevance in the ordering of social change.
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Index

Property, Power and Market Economies

Mark Findlay

boundaries of permission 128–31

capitalism 25, 115–16, 124, 127, 134, 138, 146, 150, 162, 164–6, 168, 184, 200, 213, 224–5, 229, 235, 242–3, 261

collective conscience 2–3, 11–12, 19, 21, 33–8, 64, 71, 76, 78, 84, 87–90, 103, 106–108, 110, 122, 191–2, 196, 201–203, 206, 211, 217–19, 221, 225–7, 234, 236, 241, 258

competing 28–31, 86, 201

contested 11, 15–16, 18, 27–8, 39–41, 45, 56–8, 68, 77, 111, 114, 151, 180–81, 190, 193–5, 200–201, 209, 220, 230, 232, 250, 253–4, 257, 262, 264–6

commodification 9, 10–12, 21–2, 24, 51–2, 56, 59, 71, 73, 75, 79–80, 84, 96, 205, 238

by law 12, 15–17, 28, 32–3, 40, 44–5, 48, 55, 60, 72, 81–2, 85, 88, 90–91, 97, 101–103, 111–12, 190–91, 195–7, 202, 206, 216–20, 225–7, 229, 239, 251–2, 256–7

market 2–3, 8, 25, 29–30, 54, 72, 86–7, 90, 91–3, 104, 109, 153, 192, 202, 204–205, 208, 210–11, 235–6, 248, 250, 261–2

commodity 5, 7, 9, 28–9, 42, 49, 56, 60, 62–3, 69, 72, 82, 84–5, 101, 107–109, 153, 164, 167, 198, 200, 208–209, 218, 226, 231, 236, 238, 253, 255, 263, 265

fictitious 4, 91, 95–6, 210–11, 235

community

of belief 249, 252–7

capacity building 142–4

communitarian 11, 27–8, 31, 33–5, 40–41, 70–72, 113, 116–17, 120, 122–5, 132–3, 139–41, 144–7, 150–51, 153, 160, 188, 208–209, 216, 223, 234, 245, 247, 252, 258, 264, 266

dissent within 121–4

internet 82, 83–6, 88, 90, 94, 98, 104, 205, 231, 252, 256–7

knowledge 70–72

of resistance 30, 33, 82, 84, 126, 136, 141–3, 199–200

sub-systems 30, 34–7, 124, 138, 140–42, 145

continuity/discontinuity 108, 146, 200–202, 204–206, 209, 233

corruption

as business 176–8

concealing 176–8

cultures of 177

giving and receiving advantage 166–8, 170, 172–3, 175, 177

market control of 173–4, 175, 177–9

marketing of 166–71

morality 70–72, 172, 239

relationships of power 167, 172, 174–5

social bonding 171–4

South World vulnerabilities 176–8

transparency 178–80

Cotterrell, R. 1, 2, 22, 24, 28, 34, 38, 40, 88, 101, 104–105, 111, 117, 142, 190, 212–15, 232–4, 242–3, 249, 253–4, 256–9, 266–7

crime

control 133, 137

normal 18, 32, 65

dissent

legitimate 114–15, 119, 120, 125, 142, 145

motivations 113, 122–3, 124–8

pathways of 114, 127, 142, 145, 147

downloading 11, 32–3, 46, 48–9, 53, 61–9, 76, 89, 209, 218, 226, 239

Durkheim, E. 2, 16–19, 22, 27–9, 31–2, 34, 60, 64–5, 70, 72, 89–90, 98, 104, 122, 201, 225, 240, 258, 266

economy

growth and degrowth 23–4, 149, 155, 199, 203, 254–5

new imperialism 150

embedding

disembedding 1–2, 10, 14–17, 21–3, 29–31, 39–40, 45, 79, 84–7, 91, 93–7, 121, 127, 129–30, 154, 161, 164, 167, 171–4, 179–80, 182, 188, 191–3, 195–6, 198–9, 201, 203, 206, 210, 224–5, 233, 235–6, 243, 249, 262, 264–7

forces for/against 2, 14, 39, 85, 95–7, 163, 171, 179–80, 188, 196, 201, 233, 264, 266–7

market 2, 167, 179, 188, 216, 233

push/pull factors 15, 192

social not economic 232–4

foreign direct investment (FDI) 27, 31, 45, 148–9, 156–8, 160–61, 163–5, 168, 174, 176, 178, 180–82, 184–6, 215, 257

gentle transformation 264–7

global city 12–13, 17, 128–31

social exclusion 30, 45, 113, 115, 120, 124, 126–7, 130–32, 141, 144–5, 190, 265

and terror 26, 30, 32, 115–21, 125–9, 131–2, 141, 145–7

globalisation

collapsing time and space 88, 92–3, 152, 195

current epoch 148, 205

and the market/social 162–4

new empire 152–4

North/South divide 30–31, 149, 155–6, 161, 165, 213, 215

of space 124–8

of trade 30–31

governance 6, 9, 15, 20, 23, 24, 27, 115–20, 129–30, 132–8, 141, 145–7, 153–4, 156–8, 162–3, 165–6, 168–70, 172, 176–7, 179, 182, 185, 187–8, 215, 260–61

Habermas, J. 116, 121–2, 145

individual

humanity 8, 93, 106, 261, 266

liberty 4–5, 20, 21, 119, 129, 149, 224, 245–6

intellectual property 3, 9–10, 17–18, 41–2, 46–7, 49–50, 61, 67, 75–6, 78, 85–8, 92, 98, 102, 107–108, 168, 255–6

copyright 6, 19, 45, 64–5, 70, 73–4, 79–81, 83, 96–7, 108, 211, 217, 236, 238–9

patent 10, 17, 27, 31, 35, 45, 59, 68, 79, 83–4, 149, 185, 211, 236, 237, 238, 239, 251

paths to the social 237–40

protection 7, 42, 152, 185, 195–6, 199

rights 42, 54, 59, 88, 97, 211

trademark 10, 27, 45, 59, 97, 236, 238, 239, 251

internet 5–6, 9–11, 29–30, 33, 39–41, 46, 48–9, 57–63, 65, 67, 69–73, 75, 78–9, 82–6, 88–90, 92–4, 98, 102, 104–105, 190, 197, 202–205, 209, 212, 217–18, 226, 231, 245, 252, 254, 256–7, 265

judicial

mediation 59, 218–19, 221–2, 255

reasoning 35–6, 50, 78, 81, 83, 159, 181

law

as change agent 2, 16, 23, 31–2, 78, 84, 103, 190–91, 202–203, 208, 216–17, 263

cognitive openness 36

as commodity 12, 15–17, 28, 32–3, 40, 44–5, 48, 55, 60, 72, 81–2, 85, 88, 90–91, 97, 101–103, 111–12, 190–91, 195–7, 202, 206, 216–20, 225–7, 229, 239, 251–2, 256–7

as community resource 3, 18, 28, 38, 44, 79, 206, 211–12, 218–19

dynamic 9, 12, 36, 37, 40, 64, 214, 249, 250, 258–9

enforcement 4–5, 9–10, 15–16, 23, 37, 39, 52, 54, 56–7, 59–62, 66, 69, 84, 89, 108, 149, 158, 199, 208, 218, 250, 256–8

lag time 60–63

new 1–2, 3–9, 19–24, 26, 28–30, 32, 34–8, 40, 147, 151, 181, 188–9, 203–206, 208–23, 232–4, 236, 241, 248, 250, 253–6, 263–4, 266–7

normative closure 36

reach 20, 21, 92, 103, 252

regressive 87, 93, 206, 251

regulatory essence 22

as social fact 16–18, 29, 34–5, 79, 89, 104, 111, 121, 257–9, 264, 266–7

as social relations 11–12, 34, 214, 225, 234, 241–3, 245, 247, 258

threat of 78, 84–5, 96, 133, 206–209, 249, 251–2

transformed 1–2, 3–9, 19–24, 26, 28–30, 32, 34–8, 40, 147, 151, 181, 188–9, 203–206, 208–23, 232, 233–4, 236, 241, 248, 250, 253–6, 263–4, 266–7

legal

agency 31, 36, 72, 78, 80–87, 96–8, 103–4, 106–8, 110, 112, 121, 161–2, 181, 196, 204–205, 209, 218, 229–31, 246–9, 251–3, 255–6, 262–3

courtroom 83–5, 88, 92–3, 97–8, 205

institutions 37, 84, 92, 98, 104, 108, 110, 156–7, 193, 201–202, 206–10, 216, 218–21, 256

lawyering 196, 207–209, 216, 220–23, 256

litigation 35, 37–8, 78, 80–81, 84–5, 92, 97–8, 121, 181, 196, 217, 245, 251–2

orientalism 165–6

process 3, 29–30, 143, 196, 217, 221–2, 256

profession 196, 207–209, 216, 220–23, 256

legitimation crisis 30, 115–19, 122, 134, 145

Luxemburg, R 107, 207, 209, 221

market

barriers 89, 91, 107–108, 148, 158–9, 184, 237

conditions 5, 8–11, 13, 15, 17, 24–8, 60–61, 91, 149, 164, 173, 178, 200, 207, 210, 216, 261, 263

economies 4, 8, 12–15, 19–20, 22–3, 26, 31, 34–5, 38–9, 44, 79, 91, 93–4, 96–7, 99–101, 108, 127–8, 148, 150, 153, 155–6, 163, 168, 171, 177, 188, 191, 195, 207, 212–13, 219–21, 229–31, 235, 254, 264–5

exchange 21, 78, 89, 91, 101, 109, 114, 149, 189, 191, 195, 204, 207, 219–20, 224, 239–40, 249, 255, 264

free 5, 27, 128, 134, 146, 150, 153, 168, 177, 199–200, 229, 239, 249

players 11, 22, 25, 62, 75, 87, 91, 173, 179–80, 188

self-regulating 13, 29, 40, 106, 157, 179–80, 189, 193, 195, 199–200, 204, 210, 226, 229, 233, 235–6, 261, 264–5

stakeholders 5, 21, 24, 29–30, 69, 85, 106, 110–11, 114, 149, 154, 162, 167, 169, 180, 193–4, 206, 218, 225, 263

sustainability 16, 26, 39, 61, 92, 95, 99, 156–7, 161, 179–80, 185, 193–5, 199–200, 203, 205, 207, 209, 229, 231, 240, 243, 253, 255, 261

Marx, K. 51, 209, 211, 213, 225

neoliberalism 22, 107, 225, 229, 259–60, 262

global economic model 9, 25, 92, 155, 176, 195, 205, 259, 261

globalisation see globalisation

noose 259–62

populism 33, 36, 264

Polanyi, K. 6, 8, 13–15, 21–2, 28, 39–40, 50, 71–2, 79, 87, 91–6, 99–101, 103, 107, 109, 121, 189, 200, 206, 210–11, 228, 235, 249, 258, 261

countermovement 2, 25–6, 29, 100, 106, 163, 171, 225, 236, 264–6

double movement 2, 10, 29, 50, 79, 99–100, 106, 145, 161, 193, 204, 224, 230, 236, 266

great transformation 40, 71, 90, 100, 131, 155, 191, 233, 264–6

possession

disentangling from property 9–13

what is ours? 58–60

postcapitalism, information economy 6, 8, 9–13, 15, 17, 21, 23–7, 29, 41–2, 44–5, 48, 57, 203–204, 208, 225, 235, 245, 254, 262

power

analysis 93, 130–31

antimonies 215

dispersal 1–2, 5, 11–15, 17, 34–5, 78, 100, 106, 110–11, 118–19, 130–32, 147, 151, 162–3, 180–81, 185–6, 195, 211, 223, 225, 231, 248–51, 255, 259, 266

hegemony 100, 106, 137–8, 140, 151–2, 176–7, 225, 262

inequality 6, 21, 96, 131–2, 146, 154–7, 163, 184, 219, 262

North/South divide 30–31, 149, 155–6, 161, 165, 213, 215

property

access to 9, 12, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27–9, 31, 37, 44, 48, 51, 55–6, 71, 75, 78, 86–7, 103, 105, 107, 109, 113, 147, 197, 201–206, 218–19, 223, 226–7, 229–30, 252, 263–4

communal 45, 62, 208, 237

dynamic 9, 11–12, 27, 40, 49, 61, 207–9, 224–6, 252

exclusionist 3, 11, 16, 20, 24, 42–3, 45, 51–2, 56, 63, 77, 82, 84, 89–90, 93, 106, 112, 181, 190, 192–3, 195–6, 201, 205, 208, 214, 216, 218, 230, 258

liberating 78–112

original 190–227

parable 242–52

paradox 46, 69, 148–9, 209–11, 225–7, 238–9

pricing 36–8, 44–5, 60–61, 84, 90–91, 96–7, 104, 198, 209, 237–40, 243, 248–9, 255

private 1, 5, 11, 14, 16–17, 19–20, 23, 47, 49–50, 53, 55, 78, 86–9, 92, 98, 102–103, 107–108, 163, 206–208, 214, 258

radically rethinking law’s relations with 32–8

and regulation 249–52

settlement 81, 85, 98–9, 251–2

as the social 92, 228–67

as theft 38, 45, 47, 49–58, 63–6, 69, 92, 99, 195–6, 249

Proudhon, P. 2, 4–9, 20, 27, 42, 45, 50–52, 54, 63, 91, 99, 108, 110, 202, 224

resistance

act of 125

healthy social 150–51

localism 150–51, 154, 180–87, 212

movements 31, 120, 183, 186

mundane 87, 104, 127, 195

occupy 99, 188, 195

utility 84, 120, 134–5, 144–5

rights

bundle 74, 244

communal 90–91

rule of law 137, 154, 157–8, 162–3, 165–6, 169, 170, 187–8

discourse 149, 161–2, 166, 180

masking function 132, 149

mythology 146, 153, 182, 199, 213

scarcity 20–21, 29, 33, 39, 45–6, 86, 98–9, 191, 196, 248

artificial 96, 198, 207, 219, 235–6, 239

pricing 84, 89–90, 96–7, 104, 109, 197–8, 206, 208–209, 221–3, 230, 237, 243, 249, 251, 255, 263–4

servicing 85, 90–93, 207, 221

similarity/difference 38–43

social

alienation 33, 41, 51, 87, 91, 101, 124, 127, 141–3, 187, 196, 198, 202, 206, 238, 243, 246

bonding 2, 5, 9, 13–14, 22, 41, 57, 87, 94, 113, 115, 117, 119, 121, 171–5, 188–9, 195, 201–202, 214, 220, 225, 252–9

demographics 5, 25, 187

equality 7, 8, 37–8, 51–2, 111, 132, 149, 154–5, 163–4, 224, 239, 248, 254–5

exclusion 6, 17, 27, 30, 45, 113, 115, 118, 121, 125, 127, 132, 138–40, 188, 190, 202–205, 209, 221

harm 47, 65, 68–9, 77, 137

inclusion 26, 33, 36–7, 54, 71, 86–7, 92, 101–102, 111, 114, 118, 120, 124, 126–7, 130, 140–43, 167–8, 186, 202–205, 209, 218, 221, 231

inequality 21, 96, 131–2, 146, 154–6, 163, 184, 219, 240, 262

norms, and criminalisation gap 70–72

ordering 17–18, 74, 153, 156–7, 219, 234, 246

sustainability 112, 155, 157, 191

solidarity 16, 72, 100, 106, 108, 146, 236, 240–42, 247, 259

space

new and old 38, 88, 92–3, 99–100, 105, 205–206, 209, 259

time and 34, 53–5, 92, 126, 142, 152, 205

specialist professions 196, 207, 208, 222, 256

state, re-embedding 103–106

suspension

the actual 193–201

belief/disbelief 3, 21, 82, 84–5, 87, 89, 145, 149, 151, 180, 192–6, 199–200, 203–204, 216, 249

social imagination 3, 21–3, 82, 98, 151, 180, 192–4, 196, 240

terrorism 32, 115–31, 133–6, 138–9

engaging with 128–9

extremism 45, 141–2, 189

innocence 30, 125, 133–6

morality 135

prosecution 124, 139

radicalisation/deradicalisation 139–42

risk 33, 117–20, 125–6, 128, 132–3, 135, 137–8, 142–3, 146

understanding 116–18, 125, 128–31, 133, 136

victimisation 135, 137–9, 143, 146

violence 115–31, 133–8, 140–44, 146–7, 169

violent justice response 139, 143

war discourse 137–9

theft 4, 8, 9, 18–19, 19, 38, 45–58, 60–62, 64–5, 66–7, 68, 69–70, 92, 99, 108, 195–6, 244, 249

criminalisation 45–55, 62–4, 69, 74–7, 89

parable 63–70

trade

discriminatory inversion 158–62

fragile markets 148–9, 157–8, 162, 188

free 26–7, 30–32, 45, 88–9, 148–50, 152–3, 155, 158–62, 164, 168, 176, 180–81, 183–4, 188, 190, 200, 211, 215, 241, 257, 262, 265

imperialism 13, 17, 93, 119, 148, 150–51, 162–3, 166, 187–8

liberalism see neoliberalism

protectionism 149, 152, 164, 168, 185, 188, 211

TRIPS 88–9

WTO 158–61, 240

transition 10, 26, 28–9, 58, 73–4, 86–8, 93–4, 123, 129, 145, 156, 167, 202, 218–20, 241, 243, 257, 260

forces for/against 2–3, 6, 8, 163, 171, 178–9, 192, 201, 208–209, 218–19, 233, 250–52, 264, 266

interdependency 143, 152, 178, 208

property arrangements 3, 6, 12, 15, 18–20, 23–4, 31, 60, 88, 93, 106, 109–11, 163, 190, 201, 205–206, 215, 218, 223–5, 226, 228, 230

transformation 3, 6, 12, 15, 23–4, 34, 74, 106, 109–11, 122, 155, 179, 190, 192, 201, 212, 215, 218, 225, 226, 230–31, 256, 264–7

trust, relationships of 38–9, 41, 60–61, 79, 109, 110–12, 117, 122, 142–3, 168–9, 173, 175, 187, 198, 217–19, 234, 241, 245, 247, 253–4, 262

wealth creation 4–5, 8, 10–11, 18, 20, 23–4, 26, 32, 37, 41, 44–5, 51, 54, 64, 77, 112, 155, 171, 182, 190, 198, 203, 225, 254–5, 265

yoga 78–89, 203, 205, 209

ancient traditions 79, 81

Bikram 78–89, 92, 94–8, 101–103, 108–10, 243, 251–2

breathing 80–83, 108

commodification 78–89, 92, 94–7, 101–104, 108–10, 251–2

poses 78–84, 87, 94–6, 101–103, 251

practice 79, 82, 83

for sale 79–86

social media 82