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Gambling Regulation and Vulnerability

Malgorzata A. Carran

Since the UK Gambling Act of 2005 was introduced, gambling has stopped being seen, politically and legally as an inherent vice and is now viewed as a legitimate form of entertainment. Gambling Regulation and Vulnerability explores the laws around gambling that aim to protect society and individuals, examining the differences between regulatory rhetoric and the impact of legislative and regulatory measures. Malgorzata Carran finds that although the Gambling Act introduced many positive changes to gambling regulation, it has created an environment in which protection of vulnerable individuals becomes difficult. Carran challenges the existing legislative premise that regulation alone is able to balance the effect of liberalisation for those who are vulnerable.
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Index

Malgorzata A. Carran

Abramovitch, S 109, 111

Abt, V 251

Acar, A 208

access

entry into premises for inspections 80–82

entry into prohibited premises by minors 155–7

restricted, and online gambling 155–6

Adams, J 167

Adams, P 2

addictive properties 34–5, 44, 262

advertising

and incentives 73

and marketing 80, 158–9

and minors see minors and gambling advertising

regulatory responses 52, 53

vulnerability concept, online gambling participation 41

age

Category D gaming machines 118–19, 129, 140, 143–4, 157, 278–9

age, and cognitive abilities, correlation between 205–8

age verification see prevention of underage gambling, age verification

Aitken, P 219

Ali, M 207

Amey, B 219

An, S 208

Andronikidis, I 218

Anil, S 111

anti-social behaviour risks 24, 26–7

app games, free to play 215

Ariyabuddhiphongs, V 131

Ashworth, A 87

Ashworth, J 131–2

Atkinson, G 54

audience indexing, watershed and zoning restrictions 213–14, 216

audio-visual stimuli effects, gambling advertising 221–3, 228–9, 230–31

Auer, M 70, 71, 72

Australia

Foroughi v Star City Pty Ltd16

gambling apps and real-money gambling 253

gambling machines and minors 119

minors’ gambling behaviour 130

minors’ understanding of gambling 139

online gambling rules 38–9

Police v Jones39

preponderance test and definition of chance 99–100

social responsibility measurement 174–5

‘automatic face recognition’ robots 175

Baldwin, D 209–10

Baldwin, R 76, 79, 86, 88

Barnes, G 29

Barnett, J 89

Bartle, R 250

Basham, P 1

BCAP Code (Code of Broadcast Advertising) 203, 225–6, 227

behavioural control tools and responsible gambling 69–72

Belgium, penny auctions 105

Berg, B 86

Besharat, A 208

betting, definitions see definitions and categorisations, betting

betting shops 31, 40

Bijvank, M 196, 221

Binde, P 1, 73, 194

bingo 9, 40, 102–3, 104, 114–15, 132, 133, 151, 152

biometrics, online age verification 181–2

Black, J 50, 77

Blair, V 218

Blaszczynski, A 2, 10, 11, 25, 26, 27, 29, 122, 148

Blatt, J 206

Bogart, W 2, 48, 50

Bonello, M 70, 82

Bottoms, A 89

Boutin, C 71

Braun, V 256

Breen, R 118

Bristol, T 209

Bruce, M 75

Brucks, M 205, 209

Brunelle, N 30

Buckner, K 207

Buczkiewicz, M 103, 138–9

Burch, M 88

Caballero, J 113

Cai, Y 53

Campbell, C 79

Canada

Adolescent Gambling Inventory 20

minors’ gambling behaviour 130–31

Problem Gambling Index 133

R v Wholesale Travel Group174

Ross, Banks and Dyson v R102

scratchcards 132–3

CAP (Committee of Advertising Practice) 201–2, 225–6, 227

Carlton, A 218

Carter, O 206

Casey, E 127

casinos 31, 39, 40–42, 45–6, 57, 97, 102–3, 106–7, 112, 228–9, 237

and advertising 199–200, 215, 218

exclusion from 64–9, 151–2, 155, 157, 161, 169

and prizes 137–8, 239, 250

and social gambling 242, 246

social responsibility principles 174–5

video games in 247, 264

see also poker; roulette

celebrity endorsement 222

Chambers, C 189

chance

definition 100–101, 115

distinction between game of chance and game of skill 99–103

and randomness 10

Charif, M 108

charitable giving, and lotteries 125, 127

Chen, M 222

children see minors

civil measures 82, 179

Clark, L 36

Clarke, V 256

Clelland, D 87, 88

Codagnone, C 166

cognitive abilities, and minors’ age, correlation between 205–8

cognitive measurement, screening tests 21

cognitive misconceptions, minors and social gaming 269–70

Cohen, P 53

collectability aspect, virtual goods/currency 111–12, 113–14

Collins, R 219

comic characters, and gambling advertising 228–9

communication with other players, and online gambling 42

companies that are ‘too big to fail’ 92–3

competitions and prizes 124

compliance assessment, regulatory responses 53, 57, 61, 64, 75, 80, 82, 87–90, 93–4

compulsive gambling, hiding 42

concept of vulnerability see vulnerability concept, individual

control phenomenon, social gaming 248–9

corporate policies and ‘on the ground’ practices 174–5

Cote, D 36

Cotte, J 27, 154

credit cards

access to adult 154, 155

and online age verification 184–5

credit search agencies, online age verification 186

criminal convictions 56, 57

criminal offences and mala prohibita category 174

criminal sanctions 88–90

cross-border enforcement 90–92

Crown, G 200

Cummings, D 109

currencies

fictional 243

virtual see definitions and categorisations, social gaming, and virtual goods/currency

customer interaction, and self-exclusion 58–69

Darbyshire, P 23

data collection, screening tests 22

database add-ons, online age verification 187, 188–9

Davidson, D 198

De Fuentes, L 133–4

Deans, E 41

DeDonno, D 100

definitions and categorisations 96–145

categorisation divisions 97–8

generic understanding 140–42

minors’ knowledge of gambling 139–40

minors’ understanding of gambling 138–42

risking money, and stake size 141–2

definitions and categorisations, betting 123–5, 132, 135–6

competitions and prizes 124

Gambling Act definition 123–4

as ‘hard core’ gambling 123

minors and adult proxy offences 151–2

pool betting 125, 162–3

sports betting 119–20

definitions and categorisations, exempt gambling 135–8

domestic gaming 135–6

equal chance gaming 137

and fun fairs 136–8

gaming facilities without a licence 135

private gaming 135, 136

prize gaming 136–7

definitions and categorisations, gaming 98–114

chance element, and critical repetition frequency measurement method 100–103

‘demo’ gambling games 107

financial products exclusion 99

‘gambling-like’ activities 108–9

game of chance and game of skill, distinction between 99–103

‘game’ definition uncertainties 103–4

gaming facilities without a licence 135

hybrid video games 107

and judicial review process 98–9

participant involvement assessment 104, 106–7

penny auctions 104–6

preponderance test 99–100, 102

prize as money or money’s worth’ 107, 108, 109

sport participation exclusion 99

definitions and categorisations, gaming machines 114–23

chance component 115

classification 116–19, 155, 157–8, 161

exceptions 114–15

Gambling Act definition 114

government’s refusal to review policy 122–3

as ‘hard’ forms of gambling 117–18

income level effects 120

and minors, risks to 118–23, 131–2

operating licence or permit 117

penny pushers and toy grabbers 122

prize-winning element 115, 116–17, 119–20

and problem gambling onset 118–19, 120–21, 122

‘skill with prize machine’ 115–16, 121

see also gaming machines

definitions and categorisations, lotteries 125–34

and charitable giving 125, 127

commercial and non-commercial boundaries 126–7

exempt 126

long-term impact 129–30

as ‘medium’ form of gambling 127–8

and minors 128–32, 134, 140, 160, 162–3

novelty bias in assessing harm 128, 132

operating licence 126

prize-winning element 125

and problem gambling 128–32, 133–4

raffle tickets 127

as safe form of gambling 127

scratchcards 130–34

see also lotteries; National Lottery

definitions and categorisations, social gaming, and virtual goods/currency 107–14

collectability aspect 111–12, 113–14

End-User Licence Agreements 111

Gambling Commission on 108–9, 110–11

and minors 108, 110, 112–13, 114

online auction sales 111

tradeable in-game goods as ‘money or money’s worth’ 109–11

see also currencies, fictional

Delahunty, A 150

Delfabbro, P 16, 28, 119, 129–30, 249, 255

demand test, Gambling Act 48–9

dementia in elderly 9

demo games 107, 208–9

and social gaming 236–7, 239, 240–44, 252–4, 258–9, 267, 268

Derevensky, J 74, 133, 154, 211, 216, 243, 249, 283

Desai, R 9

Detterman, D 100

digital age verification solutions 185–9

digital natives, minors as 112–13

Dixon, M 36

Dombrink, J 75

domestic gaming, and exempt gambling 135–6

domestic violence, and gambling problems 23

Donohue, T 206

Doughney, J 21

Dowling, N 117–18

Downes, D 89

DSM screening test 14–15, 16–17, 19–21, 64, 127–8, 132–3

see also screening tests

due diligence defence, mens rea offences 159–60

Duff, R 204, 222

Dworkin, G 54

e-sport and professional games 247–8

economic harms and social harms, distinction between 22–3

educational campaigns 74, 281

Electoral Register, online age verification 186–7

employment offences 157–8

End-User Licence Agreements 111

entertainment and hybrid games see hybrid games

entrapment issues 35, 245–6

entry see access

equal chance gaming 137

EU

Audiovisual Media Service Directive 211–12

Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime 91–2

online gambling rules 40

Unfair Commercial Practices Directive 200

European Arrest Warrant (EAW) 91

European Court of Human Rights

Jacubowski v Germany194

Markt-Intern Verlag and Klaus Beerman v Germany193

European Court of Justice

Bwin v Santa Casa da Misericordia de Lisboa40

Pfleger88

Zeturf v Premier Minister40

exempt gambling see definitions and categorisations, exempt gambling

face-to-face identification shortcomings 175–6

Fairfield, J 109

family influences 10, 23–4, 27–8, 43, 45, 61, 154, 215, 263, 265

see also ‘minors’ headings; peer pressure effects

FarmVille 245–6

Felsher, J 130–31, 219

Fiedler, I 100

Fielder, A 214

financial products, gambling on 99

financial resources, Gambling Commission regulatory powers 70, 90

fines for incentives and free bonuses 224–5

Fiorito, B 118

Fisher, S 131

Floros, G 253, 255, 271, 283

football pools 97, 140, 157, 202, 256, 279

foreign operators and licence applications 90

Forrest, D 26, 29, 209, 253

Fowler, F 87

France, online gambling rules 40

free bonuses, fines for 224–5

free to play app games 215

‘freemium’ entertainment models 250

frustration effect, and ‘near misses’ 36–7

fun fairs 136–8

fun gambling impact 266–9

Gainsbury, S 199, 243, 252, 271, 273, 283

Galligan, D 7, 76

Gamble Aware website 203

Gamblers Anonymous’s 20 questions 16

Gambling Act see UK, Gambling Act

Gambling Commission see UK, Gambling Commission

Gambling Expectancy Questionnaire 20

‘gambling-like’ activities, definition 108–9

‘game’ definition uncertainties 103–4

gaming, definitions see definitions and categorisations, gaming

gaming machines 14, 36, 40, 46, 83

definition see definitions and categorisations, gaming machines

generic risk factors 29–30, 140–42

Giacopassi, D 168

Goodie, A 128

Griffiths, M 27, 34, 35, 36, 42, 70, 71, 72, 82, 105, 106, 117, 119, 120, 121, 127, 131, 132, 168, 189, 210, 235–75, 282

Grimes, S 209

Grun, L 128

Grusser, S 128

Gunningham, N 52

Gunter, B 198, 205, 226

Habbo Hotel social networking game 108, 112, 264, 265

hacking and online scams 46

Hagan, H 55, 56

Hampton, P 76, 77, 78

Hancock, L 174–5

Hansen, M 49, 276

Hanss, D 73

‘hard core’ gambling 117–18, 123

harm prevention

Gambling Commission enforcement 87–9

lotteries, novelty bias in assessing harm 128, 132

minors and social gaming 237–8, 276–7

and vulnerability concept 14–24

Hastings, G 144, 218, 220–21

Health Surveys 1, 17, 18–19, 133, 190–91

Hellstrom, C 249

Heubeck, S 100

Heymann, P 220

Hillyard, P 281

Hing, N 11, 199

homelessness, and vulnerability concept 31–2

Hornle, J 40

Huang, E 110, 112

Hume, M 26, 139, 249, 276

hybrid games

definition 107

and entertainment 244–6, 250, 253–4, 254–5

see also video games

identification

face-to-face 175–6

identity cards, electronic 182–3

identity documents, age verification 161, 163

screening tests see screening tests

incentives 42–3, 72–3, 224–5

income level effects 10, 120

individual vulnerability see vulnerability concept, individual

inspections and entering premises 80–82

see also access

intention category, mens rea offences 158–60

Jackson, J 89

Jansz, J 237

Jarrod, J 38

Jarvis, P 92

Jessen, P 199

judicial review process, and gaming 98–9

Karlsen, F 244

Kausch, R 30

Kerney, M 9

Kessler, R 31

Kiernan, P 75, 77

Kim, H 209, 238, 253–4, 283

King, D 16, 237, 241, 246, 248, 253, 255

King, N 199

Kleist, V 181

Kruger, R 257

Kwari online game 247–8

La Plante, D 21

Lafrenière, M 251

Lakey, C 128

Lang, A 27

Lange, M 127

Langer, E 248

Langford, S 175

Latour, K 27, 154

legal framework, minors and gambling advertising 200–211

legal paternalism issues 54

legitimate leisure activity 2–3, 4, 6

Lesieur, H 31

Lessig, L 95

liberalisation effects 6–7, 13, 17, 22, 48–50, 53, 193–4

Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice (LCCP)

prevention of underage gambling 151, 160–65 passim, 169–70, 185, 188, 192, 224

regulatory responses 57–9, 70, 72, 73, 80, 82, 151, 160, 161

licensing 4–5, 55–8, 117

foreign operators and licence applications 90

gaming facilities without licence 135

holders’ returns requirements 57

lotteries’ operating licence 126

online gambling participation 38

remote licensees, and self-exclusion 60

Light, R 48, 121, 123

Lindsay, S 210, 222

Livingstone, S 112, 113, 196, 214, 215, 233

lobbying groups 50

local authorities involvement 50–51

Lodge, M 53, 54, 79

lotteries 87, 104, 114, 119–20, 157, 256, 263, 279

advertising 202–3

definitions see definitions and categorisations, lotteries

National Lottery see National Lottery

online lottery sellers and self-verification 169–70

Lovato, C 218, 220

low-risk gambling to problem gambling trigger points 16, 17

Lowless, J 158

loyalty or reward schemes 73

Luik, J 1

Macklin, M 206

Macrory, R 76

McComb, J 23

McCormack, A 42

McHale, I 26, 29, 209, 253

McMullan, J 210, 217, 220

mail order companies’ lists, online age verification 187

Majone, G 75

Mangione, T 87

Mangleburg, T 209

Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) 247

May-Chahal, C 125, 132

mens rea offences see prevention of underage gambling, mens rea offences

mental illness, gambling as 14–15, 17

Mentzoni, R 26

Messerlian, C 25, 138, 244, 273, 282

Metsch, S 236

Meyer, G 100

Mian, A 175

Miers, D 50, 143

Miller, C 16

Miller, D 210

Miller, M 193

minors 5–6, 12, 46

and adult proxy offences 151–2

children’s games, comparable to real-money gambling 251–2

classification in Gambling Act 25–6

family influences 10, 23–4, 27–8, 43, 45, 61, 154, 215, 263, 265

gambling engagement in late adolescence 28–9

and gaming machines 118–23, 131–2

gaming, and virtual goods/currency 108, 110, 112–13, 114

knowledge of gambling 139–40

and lotteries 128–32, 134, 140, 160, 162–3

peer pressure effects 209–10, 260–61, 263

and penny auctions 105–6

prevention of underage gambling see prevention of underage gambling

protection 73–4, 83–4, 85, 237–8, 276–7

screening tests 19–21, 132–3

tobacco, alcohol and drug use relationship 29–31

understanding of gambling 138–42

vulnerability concept see vulnerability concept, individual, and minors

minors and gambling advertising 193–234, 281–2

adolescent appeal 220–23

advertisements appealing to children 197, 202–3, 210, 213, 220, 221–4, 227, 228–9, 230–31

advertisements featuring children 202, 224, 227

advertising enforcement 223–32

advertising exposure impact 194–7, 204–6, 215–19

Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) 201, 204, 211, 213, 224, 225–6

Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) adjudications 226–32

audio-visual stimuli effects 221–3, 228–9, 230–31

Audiovisual Media Service Directive 211–12

and celebrity endorsement 222

children’s age and cognitive abilities, correlation between 205–8

cigarette advertising comparison 220–21

Code of Broadcast Advertising (BCAP Code) 203, 225–6, 227

comic characters, use of 228–9

Committee of Advertising Practice (CAP) 201–2, 225–6, 227

and Communication Act 212, 213

fines for incentives and free bonuses 224–5

free demo games 208–9

free to play app games 215

freedom of speech interpretation 193–4

freedom to advertise arguments 195

Gamble Aware website 203

and Gambling Act 200, 201, 212, 224

gambling product placements 199, 208–9

Industry Code for Socially Responsible Advertising 197

legal framework 200–211

liberalisation of gambling industry, effects of 193–4

lottery advertising 202–3

meaning of advertising 199–200

misleading advertising, recognising 200, 223, 228

Ofcom 201, 204, 216, 224

online advergames 207–9

online advertising, prevalence of 214–15, 216

and parental supervision 215

peer pressure, family and culture effects 209–10

sceptical attitudes 209–11

and social media 199–200, 214, 216, 227, 229

social responsibility 202, 203–4, 212

sport sponsorship 199, 204

television context 206–7, 208, 216–17

Unfair Commercial Practices Directive 200

watershed and zoning restrictions see watershed and zoning restrictions

minors and social gaming 235–75, 282–4

addictive properties of games 262

cognitive misconceptions 269–70

control phenomenon 248–9

‘demo’ games 236–7, 239, 240–44, 252–4, 258–9, 267, 268

e-sport and professional games 247–8

enjoyment and entertainment factors 263–4

entertainment and hybrid games 244–6, 250, 253–4, 254–5

entrapment aspect 245–6

experiencing activities impossible to do in real life 262

family influences on gambling tendencies 263, 265

and fictional currencies 243

‘freemium’ entertainment models 250

harm prevention 237–8, 276–7

Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) 247

monetary awards, lack of 242–3, 250

odds and probabilities, understanding of 249

origins of online games 235–6

Pan European Game Information (PEGI) system 237

peer pressure effects 260–61, 263

players’ motivations, analysis of 249–50

preponderance test 247

psychosocial characteristics 248–51

repetitive aspect 244–5, 246

social interaction opportunities 249–50, 260–61

social media 239–40, 242, 243, 253, 260–61

social responsibility measures 248

terminology issues 238–9

third-person effect 273

minors and social gaming, real-money gambling

children’s games, comparable to real-money gambling 251–2

impact of fun gambling on 266–9

and misrepresentation of odds 243–4

overlap 235–40

possible links to 240–55, 259–64, 266–73

minors and social gaming, video games

with gambling-like elements 236–7, 240–41, 242–4, 257–9

motivations for playing 259–64

recognition of gambling-like activities in 264–6

and skill development 269

subdivisions 239

and subscriptions 258

misleading advertising, recognising 200, 223, 228

Monaghan, S 70, 196, 216, 222, 283

Moodie, C 144

Moon, C 102

Moore, E 205

Moore, S 113, 120, 129

Moran, E 35

Mort, G 139, 249

Moses, L 209–10

motivations for playing 249–50, 259–64

multi-operator, self-exclusion scheme (MOSES) 60

multiple account holders 70

Nairn, A 208, 214

Nash, V 147, 164, 166, 180, 182, 185, 188, 189, 280

National Lottery 36, 38, 50, 125, 126, 128

prevention of underage gambling see prevention of underage gambling, National Lottery

see also lotteries

‘near misses’ issues 35–7

Nekich, M 11

Netherlands, scratchcards 133–4

New Zealand

advertising effects 219

Gambling Act 14

Nikken, P 237

Nixon, G 31

‘no underage gambling’ sign 151

normalisation of gambling 27

Norris, J 133

novelty bias in assessing harm, and lotteries 128, 132

Nower, L 25

odds and probabilities 243–4, 249

Ofcom, and gambling advertising 201, 204, 216, 224

offline betting on sport events 35

offline gambling venues 175–9

casinos see casinos

entry into premises for inspections 80–82

entry into prohibited premises by minors 155–7

prevention of underage gambling 161–3

Ohtsuka, K 11, 113, 120, 129

on-demand services 212–13

online advergames 207–9

online age verification see prevention of underage gambling, age verification methods, online age verification

online auction sales, and virtual goods/currency 111

online gambling

in-game betting and scratchcards 35

participation see vulnerability concept, gambling environment, online gambling participation

prevention of underage gambling 154, 155–7, 169–70

tracking tools 71–2

virtual goods/currency see definitions and categorisations, gaming, and virtual goods/currency

Orford, J 194, 195

Pan European Game Information (PEGI) system 237

Papoff, K 133

Parke, J 117, 239–40

participation assessment 104, 106–7, 149, 158

pathological gambling and traumatic event prior to onset 30–31

pay-out intervals and rapid event frequencies of games 34–5

peer pressure effects 209–10, 260–61, 263

see also family influences; ‘minors’ headings

Peller, A 70

Pelletier, A 21

Pennock, P 221

penny auctions 104–6

penny pushers and toy grabbers 122

permits see licensing

Peterson, V 77, 87

Petry, N 30

Philo, D 120

photo gambling cards suggestion 179

Planzer, S 13, 14, 22, 34, 47, 49, 156, 276, 284

poker 39, 42, 45, 100, 101–3

see also casinos

police involvement, regulatory responses 50–51

policy review, government’s refusal 122–3

pool betting 125, 162–3

Portugal, online gambling rules 40

positive aspects of gambling, minors on 44–5

pre-paid cards, and online age verification 185, 190

preponderance test 99–100, 102, 247

preventative measures, individual vulnerability 13–14, 15–22, 33, 41

prevention of underage gambling 146–92

advertising and marketing sent to a minor 158–9

credit card, access to adult 154, 155

employment offences 157–8

entry into prohibited premises 155–7

Gambling Act, age verification offences 148–58

gambling participation rates 149

intentional advertising directed at minors 150

invitation offences 149–55

Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice (LCCP) 151, 160, 161, 163, 164, 165, 169–70, 185, 188, 192, 224

‘no underage gambling’ sign 151

online gambling and family involvement 154

online gambling and restricted access 155–6

online gambling sites, attraction of 156–7

participation offences 158

proxy offences and general public 150–55, 192

third parties’ facilitation of gambling 153

prevention of underage gambling, age verification

harm minimisation effects 147–8

identity documents 161, 163

procedures 146–8, 160, 161–2, 163–4

‘Think 21’ policy 162, 175

time restrictions 165–6

prevention of underage gambling, age verification methods 175–91

‘automatic face recognition’ robots 175

civil measures for non-compliance 179

face-to-face identification shortcomings 175–6

Gambling Commission’s mystery shopping test purchases 176–8

mandate to identify each and every customer, suggestion for 179

offline gambling venues 175–9

photo gambling cards suggestion 179

social responsibility measures 178–9

prevention of underage gambling, age verification methods, online age verification 179–91

credit and debit card reliance 184–5

and credit search agencies 186

database add-ons 187

databases and ‘digital footprint’ 188–9

digital age verification solutions 185–9

effectiveness 189–91

and Electoral Register 186–7

electronic identity cards 182–3

and pre-paid cards 185, 190

real time and batch methods 188

self-certification 180–81

semantic analysis and biometrics 181–2

telephone directories and mail order companies’ lists 187

traditional offline identification for online purposes 183

prevention of underage gambling, mens rea offences 158–70

due diligence defence 159–60

intention category 158–60

land-based venues 161–3

National Lottery 172–3, 174

online lottery sellers and self-verification 169–70

strict liability classification 158, 165, 172, 173, 174

prevention of underage gambling, mens rea offences, remote providers 163–9

age verification time restrictions 165–8

age verification time restrictions and use of more than one provider 168

age verification time restrictions and withdrawal of winnings 167–9

registration requirements 166–9

third-party verifier 164–5

prevention of underage gambling, National Lottery 170–75

corporate policies and ‘on the ground’ practices 174–5

criminal offences and mala prohibita category 174

mens rea offences 172–3, 174

offenders and onus of proof 171–2

and persons ‘party to the sale’ 172–3

refusal rates in selling lottery tickets to minors 176

social responsibility practices 174–5

statutory provisions tests 173

see also National Lottery

private gaming, exempt gambling 135, 136

prize as money or money’s worth’ 107, 108, 109

prize-winning element 107, 115, 116–17, 119–20, 124, 125, 136–8, 239, 250

problem gambling 1–2, 10, 11–13, 26–7, 43

gaming machines 118–19, 120–21, 122

‘hard core’ gambling 117–18, 123

lotteries 128–32, 133–4

pathological gambling and traumatic event prior to onset 30–31

Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) 17, 133

product placements 199, 208–9

professional games and e-sport 247–8

professional sport persons 32–3

prohibited premises, entry into 155–7

see also access

proxy offences 150–55, 192

psychosocial characteristics 34–7, 248–51

public opinion effects 86–7

publicly traded companies 111

Purewal, J 108, 109

raffle tickets 127

Rahman, A 26

Raisamo, S 24

randomisation and player skill, gaming machines 116

real life, experiencing activities impossible to do in 262

real-money gambling, and minors see minors and social gaming, real-money gambling

Reed, A 173

Reed, C 48, 147

Rees, T 171

refusal rates in selling lottery tickets to minors 176

registration requirements, remote providers 166–9

regulatory responses 48–95

advertising 52, 53

anti-smoking legislation comparison 49–50

compliance assessment 53, 57, 61, 64, 75, 80, 82, 87–90, 93–4

legal paternalism issues 54

liberalisation timing and effects 49–50, 53

lobbying groups 50

local authorities and police involvement 50–51

moral responsibility responses 53

pre-approval process and checks 54

regulation definition 51–2

regulatory containment to market-led expansion shift 48

regulatory framework 48–51

regulatory principles and rationale 51–4

self-regulatory measures 52–3

social adaptation principles 49

traditional justification for imposition of regulation 53–4

UK, Gambling Act see UK, Gambling Act

UK, Gambling Commission see UK, Gambling Commission

Reid, R 35

Reilly, C 14, 15

remote providers

mens rea offences see prevention of underage gambling, mens rea offences, remote providers

and self-exclusion 60

‘time-out’ facility 70

repetitive aspect, effects of 100–101, 244–5, 246

Resnik, A 233

‘responsible gambling’, reference to 10–11

restricted access, online gambling and minors 155–6

reward schemes 73

Richardson, G 86, 174

risk assessment

anti-social behaviour 24, 26–7

lessons in understanding risk 10

low-risk gambling to problem gambling trigger points 16, 17

rating 24–34

regulatory 77–9

risking money, and stake size 141–2

see also vulnerability concept, individual

Roberts, D 205

Rock, I 100

Rock, P 89

Rodgers, S 221

Rogers, P 35

Rohsler, C 3

roulette 35, 36, 66–7, 102–3, 119–20

see also casinos

Rowan-Robinson, J 90

Rozendaal, E 206

Russell, B 187

safe form of gambling, lotteries as 127

Sala, X 113

sanctions, Gambling Commission enforcement 82, 83–5

Sanders, T 88

Sarantakos, S 257

Saucer, F 166

Sauer, R 142

scams, online 46

sceptical attitudes, minors and gambling advertising 209–11

scientific evidence on problem gambling, need for robust 11–12

scratchcards 36, 37, 97, 119–20, 130–34, 202, 256, 263, 279

screening tests 14–21

DSM screening test 14–15, 16–17, 19–21, 64, 127–8, 132–3

and licensing 56

vulnerability concept and minors 19–21, 132–3

see also ‘identity’ headings

Seasbury, C 123

self-certification

and online age verification 180–81

online lottery sellers 169–70

self-exclusion, regulatory responses see regulatory responses, Gambling Commission’s regulatory powers, self-exclusion

self-regulatory measures for providers 52–3

Selznick, P 51–2

semantic analysis, online age verification 181–2

Sevigny, S 242

Sharman, S 32

Shaw, M 23

Shead, W 26

Shepherd, R 127–8

Shover, N 87, 88

Simester, A 158, 172

Singapore, Casino Control Act 61

skill levels and development 99–103, 115–16, 121, 269

skin conductance response to ‘near misses’ 37

Skolnick, J 75

slot machines 35, 36–7

Slutske, W 26

Smith, J 251

Smith, N 14, 15

Smith, S 3, 50, 98, 104, 144

social adaptation principles, regulatory responses 49

social and economic harms, distinction between 22–3

social gaming, and minors see minors and social gaming

social interaction opportunities, and social gaming 249–50, 260–61

social media

minors and gambling advertising 199–200, 214, 216, 227, 229

minors and social gaming 239–40, 242, 243, 253, 260–61

social networking games 108, 112, 264, 265

social networks and loneliness avoidance 9

social responsibility

age verification methods 178–9

breaches 83, 84–7, 90

e-sport and professional games 248

minors and gambling advertising 202, 203–4, 212

National Lottery 174–5

regulatory responses 3–4, 58–74, 94–5

social security benefits, and problem gambling 10

Soothill, K 88

Sorkin, A 92

sports betting 119–20

sports events, in-game betting 39

sports participation exclusion 99

sports persons, professional 32–3

sports sponsorship 199, 204

St-Pierre, R 176

Stange, M 37

statutory provisions tests, National Lottery 173

Steinberg, K 30

stimulations and targeted incentives, online gambling 42

Stitt, B 10

stress relief 10

strict liability classification, mens rea offences 158, 165, 172, 173, 174

structural and psychosocial characteristics of gambling 34–7

Subramanian, M 129

subscriptions, and video games 258

substance addiction comparison 15

Suissa, A 25

Suler, J 42

supervisory powers, Gambling Commission 56–7

Sussman, S 29, 30

Taiwan, Criminal Code and virtual objects as property 109

Taylor, L 281

Taylor, S 32, 33

telephone directories, and online age verification 187

television, and gambling advertising 206–7, 208, 216–17

Tepperman, L 27

terminology issues

minors and social gaming 238–9

problem gambling 12–13

‘Think 21’ policy 162, 175

third parties

facilitation of gambling 153

verifier, mens rea offences, remote providers 164–5

third-person effect, minors and social gaming 273

Thorpe, A 16

time restrictions

age verification and remote providers 165–9

remote gambling ‘time-out’ facility 70

tobacco

advertising comparison 220–21

anti-smoking legislation 49–50

‘too big to fail’ companies 92–3

toy grabbers 122

tradeable in-game goods as ‘money or money’s worth’ 109–11

traditional justification for imposition of regulation 53–4

traditional lotteries 35

traditional offline identification for online purposes 183

traumatic event prior to onset of disorder, links between 30–31

trigger points, low-risk gambling to problem gambling 16, 17

Turner, N 33

UK

Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) 201, 204, 211, 213, 224, 225–32

Better Regulation Delivery Office 75

Betting, Gaming and Lotteries Act 99

British Gambling Prevalence Surveys 18

Categories of Gaming Machine Regulations 116

Children and Young Persons Act 151, 153

Communication Act 212, 213

Computer Misuse Act 110

Consumer Credit Act 184

Data Protection Act 72

Enterprise and Deregulation Unit 76

Gambling (Licensing and Advertising) Act 38, 90, 168

Gambling Prevalence Study 37

Gaming Act 115

Gaming Board 50

Gaming Houses Act 99, 102

Health Surveys 1, 17, 18–19, 133, 190–91

Joint Committee on the Draft Gambling Bill 5, 22, 118–19, 121

Legislative and Regulatory Reform Act 76

Regulatory Sanctions and Enforcement Act 88

Sale of Goods Act 105–6

Serious Crime Act 153

Welsh Problem Gambling Prevalence Survey 18, 43, 133

Young People Omnibus 20–21, 29, 129, 133, 149, 155, 216, 252

UK, cases

Armstrong v Director of Public Prosecutions104

Aspinalls Club v Revenue and Customs Commissioners107

Barnett v Chelsea & Kensington Hospital64

Bracchi Brothers v Rees99

Calvert v William Hill Credit61–4, 66, 68

Croydon London Borough Council v Pinch A Pound160

Customs and Excise Commissioners v Barclays Bank62

Director of Public Prosecutions v Regional Pool Promotions104

Fielding v Turner115

Fowler v Padget173

Gibraltar Betting & Gaming Association v The Secretary of State for Culture, Media & Sport90

Gideons International Services Mark107

Harrow London Borough Council v Shah173

London Borough Council v Shah173

Mousell Bros v London and North Western Railway173

Office of Fair Trading v Purely Creative200

Pessers, Moody, Wraith & Gurr v Catt115

Proform Sports Management v Proactive Sports Management106

R (British American Tobacco) v Secretary of State for Health194

R (Camelot UK Lotteries) v Gambling Commission126

R v Ashley110

R v Burrell110

R v Burt & Adams107, 120

R v Kelly101, 102

Reg v Tolson173

Revenue and Customs Commissioners v IFX Investment103, 104

Rex v Tompson101–2

Rich (Marc) v Bishop Rock Marine, The Nicholas H.62

Ritz Hotel Casino v Al Geabury66–9

Ritz Hotel Casino v Noora Al Daher65–6

Spreadex v Cochrane152–3

UK, Gambling Act 3–4, 12, 37, 50, 78, 99, 102, 106, 109

age verification offences 148–58

betting definition 123–4

demand test 48–9

and demand test 48–9

gaming machines definition 114

minors’ classification in 25–6

minors and gambling advertising 200, 201, 212, 224

prosecution for any offence under 82

see also regulatory responses

UK, Gambling Commission 5, 12, 17, 21–2, 37–8, 50–51, 52

gaming, and virtual goods/currency 108–9, 110–11

mystery shopping test purchases 176–8

National Lottery regulation 126

pre-approval process and checks 54

see also regulatory responses

UK, Gambling Commission enforcement powers 50–51, 79–93

civil sanctions 82

companies that are ‘too big to fail’ 92–3

criminal sanctions as disproportionate 88–9

criminal sanctions as inappropriate 89–90

cross-border enforcement 90–92

enforcement actions 82–6

enforcement constraints 86–93

financial resources 90

foreign operators and licence applications 90

harm-prevention approach 87–9

high profile prosecutions 85–6

inspections and entering premises 80–82

minors’ protection 83–4, 85

prosecution for any offence under Gambling Act 82

public opinion effects 86–7

sanctions 83–5

social responsibility breaches 83, 84–7, 90

UK, Gambling Commission’s regulatory powers 55–79

behavioural control tools and responsible gambling 69–72

Better Regulation Delivery Office 75

criminal convictions, dealing with 56, 57

dialogue and co-operation between regulator and industry members 56–7

financial and time limits 70

Hampton Review 76, 77, 78

incentives and advertising 73

and inducement to gambling, undue 72–3

and Legislative and Regulatory Reform (Regulatory Functions) Order 76

Licence Conditions and Codes of Practice (LCCP) 57–9, 70, 72, 73, 80, 82, 151, 160, 161

licence holders’ returns requirements 57

licensing regime 55–8

licensing types 55

loyalty or reward schemes 73

multi-operator, self-exclusion scheme (MOSES) 60

multiple account holders 70

personalised feedback and online behavioural tracking tools 71–2

regulatory constraints 74–9

regulatory risk assessment 77–9

remote gambling ‘time-out’ facility 70

school-based educational campaigns 74, 281

screening of prospective applicants 56

social responsibilities and minors 73–4

social responsibility measures 58–74, 94–5

supervisory powers 56–7

UK, Gambling Commission’s regulatory powers, self-exclusion

and causation element in legal cases 62, 64, 65–6

compliance responsibility 61

and customer interaction 58–69

duration 59

effects 60

from all gambling opportunities, lack of regulation 64–5

from all gambling opportunities, validity of revocation of agreement 66–9

legal status of scheme 61–5, 92–3

multi-operator, self-exclusion scheme (MOSES) 60

and removal from marketing promotions 80

requests by family members 61

US

Blacksnow Interactive v Mythic Entertainment109–10

Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA) 39–40

Interstate Horseracing Act 39

online gambling rules 39–40

preponderance test and definition of chance 99–100

Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act (UIGEA) 39, 40

virtual property 109–10

Vachon, J 28

Valentine, G 28, 50, 219

Van Hoof, J 176

Veech, M 102

video games

and gaming definition 107

hybrid games see hybrid games

and minors see minors and social gaming, video games

virtual goods/currency see definitions and categorisations, social gaming, and virtual goods/currency

Viscusi, W 49

Vitaro, F 26

Von Hirsch, A 89

vulnerability concept, individual 5, 9–47, 12

addictive properties of gambling 34–5, 44

anti-social behaviour risks 24, 26–7

entrapment issues 35

gambling-related harm 14–24

generic risk factors 29–30

Health Surveys 1, 17, 18–19, 133, 190–91

and homelessness 31–2

low-risk gambling to problem gambling trigger points 16, 17

mental illness, gambling as 14–15, 17

‘near misses’ issues 35–7

‘near misses’ issues, and frustration effect 36–7

‘near misses’ issues, skin conductance response 37

normalisation of gambling 27

pathological gambling and traumatic event prior to onset of disorder, links between 30–31

preventative measures 13–14, 15–22, 33, 41

professional sport persons 32–3

risk rating 24–34

screening tests see screening tests

short pay-out intervals and rapid event frequencies of games 34–5

social and economic harms, distinction between 22–3

structural and psychosocial characteristics of gambling 34–7

substance addictions comparison 15

see also risk assessment

vulnerability concept individual, gambling environment, online gambling participation 37–43

advertising effects 41

communication with other players 42

gambling inducing features 40

hacking and online scams 46

hiding compulsive gambling behaviour 42

incentives 42–3

licensing 38

omnipresence issues 40–41

problem gambling impact 43

stimulations and targeted incentives 42

vulnerability concept, individual, and minors

classification in Gambling Act 25–6

criticism of industry 46

gambling behaviour family member attitudes 23–4, 27–8, 43, 45

gambling engagement in late adolescence 28–9

lack of specific data for 29

opinion of their vulnerability 43–6

pathological/problem gamblers 26–7

on positive aspects of gambling 44–5

screening test 19–21, 132–3

tobacco, alcohol and drug use relationship 29–31

Walker, M 35

Waller, D 195

Wan, F 211, 267, 273

Ward, S 207

Wardle, H 14, 22, 118, 120, 123, 156, 276, 284

watershed and zoning restrictions 203–4, 211–17, 227–8, 230–31

audience indexing 213–14, 216

‘on-demand’ services 212–13

Wegrich, K 53, 79

Welte, J 41

Williams, D 235, 236

Winkler, T 207

Winter, K 25

Wolburg, J 210

Wood, B 88

Wood, R 127, 249, 250

World of Warcraft 244

Wright, J 52

Wynne, H 25

Yosifon, D 197, 210, 211

Youn, S 211, 267, 273

Young, M 205

young people see minors

Young People Omnibus 20–21, 29, 129, 133, 149, 155, 216, 252

Zammit, B 40