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Outsourcing the Law

A Philosophical Perspective on Regulation

Pauline Westerman

Not only can services such as cleaning and catering be outsourced, but also governmental tasks such as making, applying and enforcing the law. Outsourcing the law is usually recommended for its cost-efficiency, flexibility, higher rates of compliance and its promise of deregulation. However, lawmaking is not the same as cleaning and rules are more than just tools to achieve aims. In this timely book, Pauline Westerman analyses this outsourcing from a philosophical perspective.
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Pauline Westerman

List of figures
1  Introduction
1.  All ends and no means
2.  The performing state
3.  Law and regulation
4.  The toolkit approach
5.  A style of regulation
6.  The organisation of this book
2  The structure of the rules
1.  The template: A European framework Directive
2.  Reproduction by member states
3.  Concretisation into themes
4.  Specification into performance indicators
5.  Ought-to-be and ought-to-do norms
6.  Conclusion
3  Between compliance and performance
1.  Compliance and performance
2.  Risks of gaining weight
3.  Rules as compromises
4.  Rules as exclusionary reasons
5.  Risks minimised
6.  Conclusion
4  Commissioned self-regulation
1.  Principals and agents
2.  Self and others
3.  Internal self-regulation
4.  Accounting to P
5.  An outsider’s perspective
6.  Separate normative realities
7.  Conclusion
5  Outsourcing democracy
1.  Voters as principals
2.  Authorisation, discretion and accountability
3.  Exchange of benefits
4.  Vulnerability
5.  Two kinds of problems
6.  Partners or pirates
7.  Conclusion
6  The limited role of the judiciary
1.  Interpretation as weighing aims
2.  Interpreting abstract aspirational norms
3.  Interpreting concrete aspirational norms
4.  Escape routes
5.  Judicial codes
6.  Conclusion
7  Legal research and the empirical turn
1.  The maintenance of order
2.  Autonomy and autopoiesis
3.  A conditional programme
4.  Aspirations in the black box
5.  Conditions or causes?
6.  The empirical turn
7.  The future of legal research
8.  Conclusion
8  A rule of outsourced law
1.  Generality
2.  Differentiation and flexibility
3.  Distance meters and reasons
4.  Again: Rules as compromises
5.  The principle of equality
6.  The rule of law as policy aim
7.  Accounting to donor
8.  Conclusion
9  A contagious style
1.  Three stylistic characteristics
2.  Techniques
3.  Radicalised discipline
4.  Mutual entanglement
5.  Counter-movements
6.  Conclusion