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Heat, Greed and Human Need

Climate Change, Capitalism and Sustainable Wellbeing

Ian Gough

This book builds an essential bridge between climate change and social policy. Combining ethics and human need theory with political economy and climate science, it offers a long-term, interdisciplinary analysis of the prospects for sustainable development and social justice. Beyond ‘green growth’ (which assumes an unprecedented rise in the emissions efficiency of production) it envisages two further policy stages vital for rich countries: a progressive ‘recomposition’ of consumption, and a post-growth ceiling on demand. An essential resource for scholars and policymakers.
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Index

Climate Change, Capitalism and Sustainable Wellbeing

Ian Gough

adaptation policies 23, 40, 5960, 109
for climatic changes 28, 119, 145, 186
concept of 30
in global South 12
impacts of 11213
adaptive preferences, phenomenon of 3, 39
agroforestry 30
air conditioning, impact of 94
air pollution 25, 49, 945, 206
air quality 94
Alkire, Sabina 46
Alma Ata declaration (1978) 166
altruism 159
Anthropocene 1, 19, 38, 53, 59, 62, 79, 170, 1967, 200, 204
Atkinson, Tony 116, 185
austerity 116
balance of power 114
Basic Income Earth Network 184
Baumol’s ‘cost disease’ 115
behavioural economics 126, 158
bioenergy production 96
biomass energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) 96
BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) countries 65
Brundtland Report (1987), on sustainable development 33, 36, 41, 57, 87, 148
business-as-usual (BAU) scenario 78, 169, 195, 204
Caney, Simon 97
cap-and-trade schemes 12930, 136, 140
capitalism
definition of 67
and ecological constraints 9
finance-led 80
green capitalism 83, 200204
inequality and 729, 116
Keynesian welfare state 10
laissez-faire 109
as mode of production 8
neoliberal era of 1011
political economy and 6
reflexive 2049
spread of 7
as a system 68
technological dynamism of 195
typologies of 202
capitalist economy 4, 8, 82, 200, 204
carbon allowances, personal 1645
carbon budgets 22, 74, 87, 127, 128, 134
carbon capture and storage 71, 96, 129, 195
carbon dioxide (CO2) 22
consumption footprint 26
consumption-based emissions 26
cumulative stock of 26
emission of 223, 26, 667, 86, 89
tonnes per person 155
global emission per region 65
and global warming 26
production-based emissions 26
carbon economy 2, 64, 823, 102, 195, 204
Carbon Floor Price 130, 139
carbon footprint 26, 725, 92, 98, 149, 156
carbon mitigation 2, 289, 95, 124
cap-and-trade schemes 12930, 136, 140
compensation policies 13940
and countervailing social policies 139
domestic energy and housing 13443
and energy efficiency programmes 141
and energy poverty 1368
for pricing domestic energy 1368
social and distributive impacts of 13443
social tariffs 14041
carbon pricing 12931, 138, 139, 152
distributive implications of 136
for domestic energy 1368
in major OECD countries 131
policies for 130
strategy for 141
carbon rationing 14, 157, 1645
carbon rationing action groups (CRAGs) 157
Carbon Reduction Commitment and Renewables Obligation 130
carbon taxes 12931, 139, 142
of high-carbon luxuries 1612, 198
Carbon Tracker 29
Carbon Trust 157
citizenship, social rights of 114
civil rights movement 206
climate adaptation 113
demands for 112
programmes for 119
climate capitalism 4, 64, 68
production and growth 648
climate change
challenges of 213
direct impacts of 10910
human impacts of 236
and human wellbeing 1921
indirect global impacts of 11012
migration due to 11012
national obligations to combat 101
social impact of 1
social policy and the impacts of 10813
unequal contributions to 267
and welfare states 11422
Climate Change Levy 127, 130
climate mitigation 119, 167, 203
combined effects of policies of 1334
economic and social practices 113
framework of 12734
carbon pricing 12931
green investment 1323
legal and institutional 1279
public regulation 1312
major drivers of 120
‘non-global’ initiatives contributing to 207
post-growth strategy for 171, 2089
social policies, impacts of 113, 118
three policy pillars of 12734
typologies of 202
welfare regime and 1224
climate mitigation policies (CMPs) 1334
climate obligations
allocation of responsibilities 100
burden-sharing 99100
class obligation 101
to combat climate change 101
fair allocation of 99103
global equity approach for 102
national capacity and 101
‘polluter pays’ principle 34, 100
climate policies 2730
adaptation policies 30
global 100
mitigation policies 289
‘polluter pays’ principle 34
climate ‘safety net’ 203
climate stability 14, 51, 69, 101, 102, 162
climate states 121, 196
climate system, warming of see global warming
climate-related disaster 110
climate-sustainable wellbeing 91
climatic hazards, impacts of 23
coal-burning emissions 94
commitment device, citizenship-based 162
Committee for the Future, Finland 53
Committee on Climate Change (CCC) 1279, 136, 142
common pool resources 8, 30, 69
communication technology 153
community-based projects 157
compensation, policies for 13940
consumer behaviour, climate-stabilising 162
consumer sovereignty, notion of 159, 162, 169, 200, 2045
consumption 9, 12, 81, 187, 188
accounting 84
and carbon 725
in climate change 35
composition of 102, 170, 172, 208
consumption corridor 14, 148, 1547
drivers of 85
emissions from see consumption-based GHG emissions
of energy 60, 86, 123, 136, 143
footprint 26, 835, 162
growth of 44
high-carbon 92, 204
hyper-consumption 164, 167, 199
international inequalities in 75
and investment 174
luxury and locked-in, 198
mass consumption 7
of natural resources 41
of necessities 80
recomposition of 2, 13, 149, 169, 199, 208
in rich countries 2
social 118, 1624, 186
sustainable 14, 50, 64, 87, 979, 145, 204
barriers to 15761
tax 161
consumption-based GHG emissions 72, 757, 88, 195
categories of 152
calculation of 26
class inequalities in 77
decomposition of trends in 147
drivers of 75
economies of scale in 151
global concentration shares of income and 77
global distribution of 78
international inequalities in 75
life expectancy and 90
measurement of 100
per capita 150, 163
size and distribution of 14953
in UK household 156
Convention on the Rights of the Child 32
coordinated market economies (CMEs) 200, 2023
Copenhagen Accord 28
co-production, concept of 182
‘core’ economy 108
post-growth strategy for rebuilding 182
cost–benefit analysis 6
cultural relativism 40
Daly, Herman 9, 52, 173, 208
decarbonising of economy 70, 126, 146
forms of economy in the three stages of 201
Nässén’s model of 147
roadmap of 128
Decent Homes programme 141
decent life budget 155
‘de-commodification’ of labour 115, 122
degrowth see post-growth economy
disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) 94
diseases, food- and water-borne 24
division of labour 11, 80, 115
double movement, concept of 8
Doyal, Len 42
drought, due to global warming 94
Earth’s ecosystems 19
Earth-system processes, types of 19
Eckersley, Robyn 123, 207
eco-efficiency 86, 125, 153
of consumption emissions 99
equitable 1435
green growth policies 204
of production emissions 67, 99, 161, 195
and sustainable consumption 979
of wellbeing 87
ecological economics 9
ecological investment 1746
ecological macro-economics 174
economic globalisation 73, 115
economies of scale, in consumption 151
eco-productivity 83
‘eco-social’ policies, for human wellbeing 2, 11, 143, 1689, 196200
eco-social political economy (ESPE) 45, 11
eco-social proposals, for policy integration
personal carbon allowances 1645
taxing of high-carbon luxuries 1612
widening of social consumption 1624
ecosystem maintenance 167, 1756, 206
ecosystem services 33, 51, 110
ecosystemic reflexivity 204
eco-villages 157
eco-welfare state 198, 203
electricity generation 70, 142
emission elasticity 76, 80, 85, 153
Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), EU 130
Energy Company Obligation (ECO) 141
energy efficiency 135, 138, 141
retrofitting housing for 1423
subsidies for 141
energy poverty 86, 1368, 141
energy precarity 138
Energy Saving Trust 157
energy-saving programme, pillars of 142
environmental capital 51
‘environmental challenge’ scenario 33
‘environmental disaster’ scenario 33
environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) 67, 92
environmental load displacement 26
environmental quality, impact of economic growth on 67
environmental refugees, classification system for 111
environmental risks, on human development 34
environmental states (eco-states) 119, 121
environmental sustainability 36, 51, 108, 177, 203
environmental tax reform (ETR) 129
equality, principle of 6061
ethical obligations 3, 38, 47, 578
Ethiopian famines of 1980s 24
European Commission 179
European Union
Lisbon Treaty 123
Working Time Directive 189
Eurozone 178, 203
expenditure elasticity 152
feed-in tariff (FiT) 143
Fell, David 162
fictitious commodity, notion of 9
financial crisis of 2008 26, 73, 116, 122, 133, 142, 155, 178, 196
‘five Is’ of industrialisation 10, 120
floods, due to global warming 94
food insecurity 95
food security 24, 96
‘footprint’ emissions 72
global distribution of 769
government 84
investment 84
forbearance and protection, duty of 59
fossil fuels 8, 68, 123
burning of 22, 26
emissions from 94
respiratory diseases due to 94
coal 94
Frank, Robert 161
fuel poverty 1378, 141
gender equality, in labour market 187
Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) 71, 72
Genuine Savings Indicator (GSI) 71
geo-engineering 28
global emissions, of GHGs 9, 19, 25, 59
annual growth of 66
calculation of 845
carbon dioxide (CO2) 223, 26, 667
consumption accounting principle 74
consumption-based emissions see consumption-based GHG emissions
cross-national variations in 66
cumulative 100, 107
distributional 745
drivers of 656, 75
estimation of 85
ethical 74
factors affecting 66
‘footprint’ emissions 72, 769
global distribution of 769
geopolitical 75
international inequality and 756
‘Kaya’ identity 66
Kyoto report on 77
market failures, impact of 69
from motorised transport 95
necessary emissions 913, 98
policy relevance of 75
from private consumption 147
production-based emissions 67, 74
property rights in 130
shares of income and 77
strategy to reduce 71
territorial-based emissions 72, 83, 100
in high-income nations 100
within-country inequality and 7982
global inequality 21, 40, 69, 72, 757, 97, 102
pattern of 76
global North 27, 110, 113, 1256, 146, 171
responsibility for global warming 101
global South 12, 27, 171
climate migration in 112
global warming 22, 41, 67, 86, 194
direct impacts of 94
due to emission of CO226
‘environmental challenge’ scenario 33
‘environmental disaster’ scenario 33
in global North 101
impacts of 236
indirect impacts of 945
national and regional responsibilities for 27
Goldemberg’s Corner 89, 90, 99
Goodin, Robert 187
Great Acceleration, in global emissions 64
green capitalism, idea of 83
green growth 6872
concept of 35, 64
Paris Agreement 70
strategy of 2, 7071, 83, 195
green investment 1323
public borrowing for 133
by public credit banking 133
for retrofitting housing for energy efficiency 1423
green poverty 96
Greenhouse Development Rights (GDR) 100
shares of national obligations 100
greenhouse gases (GHGs)
carbon dioxide (CO2) 22
emissions of see global emissions, of GHGs
methane 22
sinks of 278, 113
stabilisation of concentration of 28
zero net anthropogenic emissions 29
happiness and subjective wellbeing 40
‘happy planet’ countries 92
Happy Planet Index (HPI) 88
health, impact of climate change on 24
healthcare system 163
heatwaves, due to global warming 94
high-carbon luxuries, taxing of 2, 14, 1612, 169, 198, 204
high-carbon societies 168
high-energy lifestyles 97
homo economicus41, 158
human capital 512
human development
Human Development Index (HDI) 31, 33, 41
impacts of environmental risks on 34
social conditions for 312
human fulfilment, dimensions of 46
human functional capabilities 41, 45
human needs
basic need 425
concept of 195
core elements of 45
critical autonomy of 44
cross-generational 46
goals of 43, 44
intermediate needs 43, 46, 48
material needs 56
material satisfiers 5053
moral priority of 38
moral significance of ethical obligations 578
needs and rights 5860
sufficiency and equality 6061
versus need satisfiers 489
need thresholds and shortfalls 478
non-material needs 56
non-substitutable 46
normative framework of 34
objective 45
plural 456
psychological 44
rights and obligations 47
satiable 46
satisfiers and societal preconditions 43
substitutability of 52
and sustainable wellbeing 457
theory of 1, 39, 428, 53
thresholds of 46
universality of 42, 45
human scale development (HSD) 157
human wellbeing 69
capability approach for 41
climate change and 1921
components of 56
eco-social policies for 2, 11
global warming, impacts of 236
happiness and subjective 40
history of 39
levels of 31
meaning of 38, 3941
preference satisfaction theory 3940
prevention for 1657
relational 40
Rockefeller Foundation–Lancet Report on 31
safe and just space for humanity 20
social foundations of 20, 62
Hurricane Katrina (2005) 24, 94, 110
Hurricane Mitch (1998) 24
hyper-consumerism 161
income and wealth, sharing of 64, 75, 83, 161, 173, 17981
Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW) 71
industrial revolution 68, 70, 133
inequality, on emissions and climatic stability 7982
intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) 70, 97, 101, 134, 196
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Fifth Assessment Report 21, 25, 94, 100
on impacts of global warming 223
integrated assessment models (IAMs) 23
on public welfare systems 113
Second Working Group Report on Human Impacts 24
Summary Report 22
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (ICEDAW) 32
International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives 206
International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 32
International Covenants on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESR) 32
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 80
Jackson, Tim 155, 157, 172, 175, 176, 185, 208
‘Kaya’ identity 66
Keynesian welfare state 10, 11415, 167
Klein, Naomi 11, 121, 200, 206
Krugman, Paul 68
Kuznets curve 67, 92
Kuznets, Simon 67, 92
Kyoto report (1998) 77
Kyoto-based territorial emissions 83
labour market security 117
laissez-faire capitalism 109
liberal market economies (LMEs) 200, 202
life expectancy 78, 889, 115
and consumption-based emissions 90
lifestyles, high-energy see high-energy lifestyles
Lisbon Treaty 123
livelihoods and poverty, impact of climate change on 24
Lomborg, Bjorn 68
Low Carbon Transition Plan (UK) 128
McKibben, Bill 29, 36
maintenance investment 98
market economies 6, 8, 9, 26, 109, 11617, 129, 138, 176, 198, 200, 2023
Marmot Report, on health issues 166
Marshall, T.H. 117
Marx, Karl 7
material satisfiers
institutional 51
and sustainable wellbeing 5053
Medicare 115
Meidner plan (Sweden) 181
methane 22, 98
migration, climate-induced 11012
environmental refugees 111
in global South 112
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 32, 35, 86, 91
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 33
Minimum Income Standard (MIS) 154
moderate sufficiency, principle of 59
motorised transport, global emissions from 95, 166
national welfare systems 57, 113
natural capital 51, 70
climate change, impact of 52
critical 52
strong sustainability of 523
weak sustainability of 52
natural commons, idea of 199
‘natural’ disaster 110
need satisfiers
basic needs 159
dual strategy of 4850
versus human need 489
needs see human needs
needs-based global equity 102
neoliberal capitalism (neoliberalism) 2, 1011, 80, 115, 177, 205, 206
net zero emissions 36, 96
New Economics Foundation 62, 180, 182
New York agreement (2015) 29, 356
newly industrialised countries (NICs) 67
Nussbaum, Martha 41, 45, 48
nutrition, affect of global warming on 95
Optimum Population Trust 177
Ostrom, Elinor 8, 30, 164, 183, 206
Pareto efficiency 173
Paris Agreement (2015) 29, 356, 70, 107, 194
net zero emissions, goal of 96
patient capital 132
patrimonial capitalism 79
personal carbon allowance and trading (PCAT) scheme 164
petrochemical industry 22
Piketty, Tomas 79, 116, 178
Plutocene phenomenon 79, 101, 161
Polanyi, Karl 89
political economy 6
framework of 4
of three transitions 200209
‘polluter pays’ principle 34, 100
population declinism 177
population displacements, caused by climate change 24, 93
population fatalism 177
population policy 1768
population-shaming 177
post-growth economy
‘Big Seven’ factors 172
capitalism and 209
by design 1738
dimensions of investment in 175
ecological investment 1746
limits to 209
population and 1768
in private business sector 175
for rebuilding
core economy 182
social commons 1834
sharing of income and wealth 17981
steady-state economy 171, 1738, 209
strategy for climate mitigation 171, 2089
and sustainable wellbeing 1912
throughput, sustainable level of 173
and welfare state 17884
poverty 78, 97
preference satisfaction, theory of 3940
production-based emissions 26, 67
psychological needs 44, 1723
psychological ‘wellness’ 44
public welfare systems 113
quality of life 187
rational necessities, production of 170
Ravallion effect 82
Raworth, Kate 4, 20, 172, 194
Raworth’s ‘lifebelt’ 21, 31, 38, 62, 86, 94
reduced working time (RWT)
distributional impact of 189
merits of 18691
motivations for 187
welfare-to-work policies 190
work-time policies 18891
relational wellbeing 3940
renewable electricity generation 142
Renewables Obligation subsidies 130
for onshore wind farms 127
renewables-based economy 204
Ridley, Matt 68
Rio Earth Summit (1992) 33, 34
Rockefeller Foundation–Lancet Report (2015) 31, 33
selective growth, scenario of 169
Sen, Amartya 41
social adaptation, measures for 30
social capital 30, 51, 123
social commons, concept of 1834, 199
social consumption
public 1623
tax-financed 163
widening of 1624
social development 87, 1023
goals of 92
low-carbon 89
policies for 97
social economy 14, 108, 182
social housing 141, 155
social investment 118, 121, 123, 133, 145, 203, 209
social justice 12, 21, 367, 58, 60, 99, 108, 113, 207
social policy
adaptation measures 11213
defined 108
drivers for development of 119
eco-social policy 144, 201
emergence of 11922
generic goals and activities of 118
housing 135
impacts of
adaptation measures 11213
climate change 10813
climate-induced migration 11012
mitigation policies 113
investment functions of 145
relevant to climate mitigation 113, 118
social risks, public management of 108
social security systems 11415
socio-economic-technical-ecological systems 144
Standard Assessment Procedures (SAPs) 131
standard of living 32, 154, 155, 166, 198
steady-state economy (SSE) 171, 1738, 1912, 198, 208, 209
Stern, Nicolas 25, 29, 6870, 102, 172
Stockholm Resilience Centre 1920
subsidies 143, 145, 197
for onshore wind farms 127
for thermal efficiency 141
sufficiency, principle of 6062, 148, 161, 179, 194, 197
surface temperature, rise in 23
sustainable consumption
barriers to 15761
dual strategy for 162
eco-efficiency of 979
sustainable development 69, 83, 1012
Brundtland Report (1987) on 33, 36, 41, 57
definition of 33
diverging trends in 326
New York and Paris agreements on 356
Rio Earth Summit (1992) 33, 34
triangle of 5
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 12, 20, 35, 38, 53, 56, 77, 89, 937, 102, 194
achievement of 97
global inequality in 102
sustainable wellbeing 4, 12, 198
components of 93
conflicts and synergies associated with 937
compatibility of SDGs with 2 ºC 967
potential synergies 945
threats and conflicts 956
ecological efficiency of 87
emissions, impact of 93
features of 45
fundamental issue of 86
human needs and 457
intermediate needs 8991
mapping and social foundations of 536
material satisfiers and 5053
measure of 88
need satisfaction and 93
post-growth and 1912
strong 523
tracking 8793
weak 52
Swiss ‘2000 Watt Society’ 86
synergic satisfiers 157
System of Environmental Economic Accounting (SEEA) 71
technological innovation
low-carbon 132
zero-carbon 132
technological revolution 70
theory of human need (THN) 1, 39, 428, 53
basic need 425
human needs and sustainable wellbeing 457
need thresholds and shortfalls 478
Theory of Human Need, A (1991) 42
thermal comfort 138
Tinbergen’s rule 127
Townsend, Peter 154
trade unions 11, 109, 115, 124, 181, 190
transition towns 157, 183, 206
Turner, Adair 170
Typhoon Nona 94
UK Climate Change Act (2008) 1278
UN Declaration on Human Rights (1948) 31, 59
under-nutrition 24, 95
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 31
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 28, 35, 59, 100, 107, 111
United Nations High Commission for Refugees 111
universal basic income (UBI) 179, 1846
value-added tax (VAT) 130, 139, 161
smart VAT 162
Vehicle Excise Duty 127
wage-earner funds 181
Warm Front programme 141
Weitzman, Martin 138
welfare capitalism 1078, 122, 124, 178
welfare states 2, 57, 1079
anti-welfare versus social investment 121
climate change, impact of 11422
and climate mitigation 1224
economic impact of 116
history of 11418
international influences on 1212
Keynesian macro-economic policy 11415, 167
liberal economies and 202
major drivers of 120
post-growth economy and 17884
precautionary 1657
problem pressures 12021
and social rights of citizenship 114
social security systems 114
typologies of 202
wellbeing, human see human wellbeing
Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act (2015), Wales 53
wind farms 127
wind power revolution 163
work–life balance 167, 184, 187
World Bank 25, 80, 86, 97
World Economic Forum 80
world economy, globalisation of 7, 27, 196
World Health Organization (WHO)
Alma Ata declaration (1978) 166
review of health inequalities in Europe 166
Yoichi, Kaya 66
zero net anthropogenic GHG emissions 29, 59, 96