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Public Utilities, Second Edition Old Problems, New Challenges

Old Problems, New Challenges

David E. McNabb

A thoroughly updated introduction to the current issues and challenges facing managers and administrators in the investor and publicly owned utility industry, this engaging volume addresses management concerns in five sectors of the utility industry: electric power, natural gas, water, wastewater systems and public transit.
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Index

David E. McNabb

“above the line items” 188
Abramson, Mark A. 117, 417
accountability 12, 13, 32, 192, 282, 297
accounting 1845
see also National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC)
accounting information 185
accrual accounting 195
acid rain 147
action plans (IRP) 318
activism 223, 259
administrative hierarchy 13
administrative planning 286
aerial tramways 153, 154
AES Corporation 286, 308
“affected with a public interest” 4, 6, 11, 22, 46, 266
Africa 410
aggregators (gas) 100
aging infrastructure 3, 14, 16, 17, 77, 116, 117, 124, 12930, 163, 177, 183, 325, 363, 371, 404, 407
aging population 13, 161, 168
aging workforce 77, 325, 404, 423
Agranoff, Robert 276
agriculture 364, 415
air pollution 38, 1467, 165, 223
air pollution control 56, 121, 1334, 3623
air quality 121, 141
Alabama 35
Alaska 58
Alaska Systems Coordinating Council (ASCC) 235
Alaskan natural gas 108
alternating current system 25
aluminium 142
Alvey, Jennifer 250
American Gas Association 107
American Hospital Association 148
American Meteorological Society 410, 414
American Public Power Association (APPA) 264, 330
American Public Transportation Association (APTA) 153, 161, 169, 398, 400, 403
American Public Works Association (APWA) 293
American Rivers 371
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 121, 133, 177
American Society for Public Administration 338
American Water Works Association (AWWA) 126, 182, 231, 293, 330, 397, 425
Americans with Disabilities Act 1990 (ADA) 60, 1589
amortization model 20
anatomical waste 148
annual objectives 315
annual reports 1923, 306, 314, 318
anti-competitive practices, elimination of 80
applications servers 246
approved securities 489
aqueducts 11
aquifers 98, 109, 128
arc lights 70
arid areas 17, 34, 35, 130
Aristotle 352
Arizona 58, 98, 265
Arizona Public Service (APS) 313
Arkansas 58, 116
Artesian Resources Corporation 309, 310, 3323
artificial intelligence 247
artificial monopolies 9
Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation 116
Asia 17, 40, 99, 130, 224, 410
asset management 299
asset valuation 206, 208210
assets 478
assets accounts 186
association assistance 2936
Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies (AMWA) 293
associations 40
Atlanta Gas Light 107
atmospheric contaminants 366
Austin Energy (AE) 277
Australia 12, 40, 410
automobiles 38, 153, 162, 376, 429
average load 201, 224
Avista Corp 242
avoided cost 49
award-winning programmes 149, 150
Bakker, Karen 114
balance sheet accounts 18690, 194
Banishing Bureaucracy 283
bank loans 181
bankruptcies 63, 325
Barnes, Irston 5
base service load 224
Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC) 269, 270
Basin Telecommunications 270
batch processing 2523
Beder, Sharon 83
“below the line items” 188
benchmarking 284, 285
bicycles 162, 164
biodegradable wastes 148
biofuel 33, 109, 148
biological hazards 381
biomass 30, 49, 76, 216, 223
bioterrorism 420
Bioterrorism Act (2002) 397
Bipartisan Policy Center 392
Birchall, Johnston 268
blackouts 3, 21, 69, 223, 235, 414
block rate pricing 212, 214
Bloomfield and Rochester Natural Gas Light Company 89
board members 261
boards of trustees 277
bonds 7, 14, 181, 182, 209, 262, 269, 271, 277, 290, 307
Bonneville Power Authority (BOA) 6, 26, 33, 39, 46, 50, 73, 230, 267, 272, 390
Borins, Sanford 11617, 416, 418
Boston 11, 89, 152, 155, 163
botnets 396
Boulder Canyon Project Act (1928) 272
brain drain 330
Braxton, John M. 346
Brazil 12
Brennan, Timothy J. 74, 75, 198
Breul, Jonathan D. 417
bribery 23, 48, 343
Bristol 89
British Columbia Provisional Emergency Program 390
broad banding 334
brokers (gas) 100
Brooklyn 89
Brundtland Report (1987) 403
Brush Electric Company 24
budget variance reports 194
budgets 315
bundling 110
Bureau of Land Management 36
bureaucratic ethos 354, 355
bureaucratic management model 12, 13, 2823
Burr, Michael 270
bus transit 153, 1545, 157, 159, 162, 164, 176, 422
Bush, George W. 33, 383
business applications programs 246
business ecology (BE) 2412
business information systems 24651
business management professionals 281
Business System Improvement Project 248
buyers and sellers 53, 71, 99, 2345
cable network (fiber-optic) 252
cable television 4, 9
cable-car transit 152, 153, 154
California 34, 51, 63, 64, 98, 102, 107, 116, 127, 128, 130, 153, 260, 265, 311, 387
California energy crisis 21, 31, 71, 84, 224, 342, 345
California Independent System Operator (CAISO) 228
California Integrated Waste Management Board (CIWMB) 141
California Water Board 230
Calpine Corporation 332
Canada 12, 40, 69, 78, 85, 114, 139, 235, 263, 308, 371, 414
Canadian Hydro Developers, Inc. 308
Canadian natural gas 54, 94, 99, 108
capacity costs 200
capital 1415, 262
capital acquisition 175, 177
capital improvement plans 177, 178, 32023
capital structure 177, 17882
capitalism 22
carbon dioxide 139, 146, 362, 410, 413
carbon pollution reduction plans 3623
caring ethics 352
cartels 14, 47
Carter, Jimmy 29, 52
cash accounting 195
cash flow 1834
categorical imperatives 34950
Causey, Warren B. 129
Center for Neighborhood Technology 407
CenterPoint Energy Resources Corporation (CERC) 72
Central Hudson Energy Group 287
centralised gas turbines 103
CERC Corp 72
charters 61, 265, 266, 268
Chelan County Public Utility District 251, 252, 314, 331
chemical attacks 42021
chemical hazards 381
chemicals 366
Chicago 152
chlorine gas 147
Christian virtues 352
Cinergy 2489
Ciolik, Mark 199
cities 15
city councils 265, 277
city grants programme 58
civil rights 351
civil service autonomy 12
Civil War 22, 44, 265
Clean Air Act (CAA) 36, 60, 133, 141
clean burn 146
clean energy 424
Clean Power Plan (2015) 3623
Clean Water Act 1972 (CWA) 34, 57, 58, 141, 36970, 371, 408, 409
Clean Water State Revolving Fund 58, 409
Cleveland 415
Click! 252
climate change 363
contributing factors 374, 376
impacts 4, 1617, 1278, 365, 404, 411
sustainability challenge 410415
cloud storage 251
coal gas 25, 54, 89
coal gasification 109, 270
coal-fired power generation 74, 102, 363, 376, 424
cogeneration facilities 49, 223
collaboration 85, 117, 417, 418
collections model approach 20
collective bargaining 334, 335
Colorado 35, 58, 267, 272
Colorado Springs Utilities 2778
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems 103, 104
combined sewer overflows (CSOs) 123
combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) systems 75, 103
combustion engines 75, 103, 104, 153
Comisión de Electricidad (CFE) 79
commercial customers 229
demand elasticity 2245
natural gas 1045, 109
utility rates 204, 210, 212, 21415
common benefit 8
Commonwealth Edison 337
communications revolution 14, 15
community stations 164
community sustainability 294
Community Transportation Association of America (CTAA) 168, 169, 170
community water systems 112, 113, 120
community-owned utilities 16, 264
see also cooperative ownership
commuter transit 154, 155, 157, 159, 261
company directors 24
company policy 41, 262
compensatory justice 3512
competition 24
consumer protection 40
electric power industry 30, 71, 78
gas industry 27
marketing mix 234
public transit 165
see also market competition; monopoly competition; price competition; retail competition
competitive analysis 233
competitive electricity provider (CEP) 2912
compliance, with public health standards 4
composting 145, 374
computer-based information system (CBIS) 240
computers 15, 240
Comtois, Claude 165
Conectiv Solutions 262
conflict(s) 311, 353
conflict resolution 334
conflicting policies 2021
Connecticut 69, 98, 204, 362, 393
conservation 222, 223, 273
block rates and 212
and drop in service income 16
electrical energy 84
legislation, and marketing 221
and policy approaches to bill non-payment 20, 21
water utility sector 37071
see also Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
consolidated balance sheets 189
Consolidated Electric & Gas Company 248
consolidation 11, 14, 71, 101, 2613, 270
construction costs 289, 74, 75, 76, 98, 209, 293
consumer activism 223
consumer cooperatives (co-op) 260, 2689, 270
consumer perception, utility prices 216, 217
consumer protection 40, 62, 216, 222, 351
consumer-owned utilities (COUs) 216, 230
Consumers Public Power District (Nebraska) 264
container & packaging waste 132, 134, 143
contaminants, and water standards 57
contaminated gas 109
contaminated waste 146
contaminated water 35, 112, 127, 128, 3656, 369
content-based subscribe systems (IT) 240
contingency plans 312
contingency supplies 205
contract market 7, 27, 28, 2267
contract negotiation 3345
Contract Power Projects 181
contribution savings plan (Calpine) 332
control
by holding companies 262
implementation of marketing plans 231
managerial 2889
strategic management process 31617
Control Area Operators (CAOs) 79
control areas, national grids 789
control systems security 389
cooperative innovation 92, 11920, 416, 418
cooperative ownership 7, 23, 24, 230, 270
electric utilities 39, 46, 71, 73, 78, 260, 2689
see also public utility districts
coordinated information systems 246
corporate policy 20, 41
Corporation Finance Division (SEC) 46
corporations 261
corrective maintenance 300
corrosive gases 147
corruption 48, 259, 265
cost of capital 177
cost control 195
cost data 195
cost distribution 200201
cost recovery 8081, 1867, 205
cost savings 29
cost-benefit analyses 349
cost-of service rates 82, 83, 106, 187, 206
Costello, Kenneth 424
Covanta Energy Corporation 146
crime 15
crisis management 298, 3826
crisis planning 298
crossborder cybersecurity vulnerability 39091
crude oil 21, 91, 96
Customer Application Maintenance System (CAMS) 253
customer choice programs 107
customer costs 199200, 201
customer feedback 234
customer focus 234
customer information systems (CIS) 24951, 254
customer lifetime value (CLV) 224
customer portfolio management 25051
customer relationship management (CRM) 222, 2312, 24950, 254
customer satisfaction 294
customers 225
cost distribution 200201
see also commercial customers; industrial customers; residential customers
cyberattacks 85, 379, 386, 3889, 396, 398, 404, 418, 419, 420, 421
cybersecurity 379401
Cybersecurity Considerations for Public Transit Recommended Practice 400
Cybersecurity and the North American Electric Grid: New Policy Approaches to Address an Evolving Threat 392
cyberthreats 421
Dakota Gasification Co. 270
dam construction 267, 293
data analysis 251
data storage 243, 251
data warehouses 2489, 250
debt financing 178, 181
debt-to-equity ratios 48, 177
decentralized public transit 165
decision support systems (DSS) 246, 247
decision-making 6, 24, 177, 184, 231, 292, 352
deductions, income accounts 188
Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act (1966) 423
defensive measures 3889, 391
Delaware 98, 204, 309
demand factors 2245, 233, 405, 414
demand rates 21213
demand response service 153, 154, 157, 168
demand-control systems 215
demand-related costs 200, 201
demand-side management (DSM) 231
demarketing 221, 223, 236
democratic ethos 354, 355
demographic change see aging population; immigrants/ immigration; population growth; urbanization
Department of Agriculture 36, 56, 119, 120, 129, 166, 296
Department of Energy 33, 36, 52, 83, 85, 94, 395, 419
Department of Health 56, 120
Department for Homeland Security 85, 384, 385, 388, 390, 395, 420, 422
Department of the Interior 36, 56
Department of Labor 159, 326
Department of Transportation 38, 5960, 155, 159, 421
deregulation 3, 12, 21, 634, 260, 325
impact on utility pricing 21718
and marketing 223
see also individual utilities
desalination 128
diesel engines 264
dioxins 147
direct current systems 25
directing function 2878
disabled people 60, 153, 1589, 213, 216
disaster scenario training 39091, 393
discharge, of wastewater 57, 58, 122, 124, 125
disease 25, 34, 112
disinfection, of wastewater 123
distributed generation 767, 103
distribution 5, 32, 113
distribution utilities
costs 107
electric power 3, 62, 823
marketing in a diversified company 232
natural gas 3, 28, 39, 54, 72, 93
see also local distribution companies; pipeline sector
network structure 5
reducing reliance on spot market 2279
regulation 3
wholesale marketing contracts 2267
distributive justice 351
District of Columbia 57, 71, 98, 107, 146, 204
diversity factor 205
dividends 263, 269, 290
Dominion Resources, Inc. 227, 228
donor-recipient management model 274
downstream activities 91
drinking water 57, 123, 367
see also Safe Drinking Water Act
droughts 16, 17, 22, 34, 35, 127, 130, 378, 414
dual economy 22
durable goods 132, 143
duties 351
E. coli bacteria 415
E Source 236
e-commerce 2435
e-government 2434
Eadie, Douglas C. 314
Eastern Interconnected System 78
economic change 13
economic constraints 285
economic organizations, utilities as 7, 8
economies of scale 5, 9, 43, 175, 196, 221, 222, 261, 270
Edison, Thomas (and companies) 25
Effective Utility Management 2936
effectiveness 12, 287
El Paso Electric (EPE) 79
El Paso Water Utilities (EPWU) 128
elasticity of demand 2245
elderly people 168, 213, 216
elected utility boards 265
electric energy utilities 6987
blackouts and brownouts 3, 21, 69, 223, 235, 414
see also California energy crisis
buyers and sellers 71
capital structure 1812
challenges 3623, 406
changes 7071
components see distribution; power generation; transmission
cost saving 29
deregulation 30, 634, 71, 83, 217, 218, 306
employment 328
infrastructure 77, 413
labor union representation 327
marketing 226
ownership 39, 713, 260, 264, 267, 269
pricing and rate setting 31, 200, 2023, 212, 215, 424
public policy 25, 2931, 33
regulation 3, 46, 4951, 85, 408, 424
restructuring 28, 30, 31, 39, 71, 834, 287
security 41920
cybersecurity concerns 3923, 395
physical attack (examples) 3878
sustainability 4234
tangible and intangible products 3012
uncertain future 7783
Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) 79, 235, 408
Electric Utility Commission (EUC) 277
electric-powered public transit 152, 153
electronic meter-reading systems 1012
Ely, Richard T. 9
emergency maintenance 300
Emergency Management Institute (EMI) 385
emergency response plan (ERP) 387
employee and leadership development 294
employee stock purchase plan (Calpine) 332
employee-centered reorganization program 3378
employees, and privatization 336
employment 12, 137, 162, 3269
endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) 367
Energy Act (2003) 63
energy crises/shocks 21, 52, 7071, 221, 222, 236
see also California energy crisis
Energy Information Administration (EIA) 76, 8081, 100, 107
energy market 225
Energy Policy Act 1992 (EPAct) 30, 50, 60, 317, 408
Energy Policy Act 2005 (EPA) 263
Energy Policy Bill (2003) 33, 812
energy-related utilities
consolidation 11
customers 225
investor-owned 7
pricing and production decisions 11
private enterprise 14
reduction in regulation of 45
supplies, increased availability and use 16
transformation in 14
see also electric energy utilities; natural gas utilities
engineers 281
Enron 63, 64, 183, 260, 342, 3445, 350
enterprise application integration 246
enterprise planning 3045
entrepreneurs 24
environmental analysis 233, 31112
environmental challenges 4, 36178
environmental concerns 121, 161, 2223, 2334
environmental constraints 2923
environmental hazards 37980, 381
Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) 61
environmental protection 36, 37, 55, 61, 83, 221, 261, 325
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
establishment 45, 56
improving utility management 2967
power generation and environmental impact 31112
regulation and oversight 274
public transit sector 38
solid waste sector 37, 38, 59, 132, 134, 138, 139, 142, 145, 147, 15051, 375
wastewater sector 58, 123
water utility sector 36, 545, 57, 112, 119, 124, 235, 2745, 330, 3678, 415
environmental regulation 3612, 36870, 3734
environmental restrictions 404
equipment and systems maintenance 300
equity 178, 181
ethical dilemmas 3534
ethics 34257
ethos 3545
Europe 12, 15, 17, 99, 130, 146, 224, 268, 410
European Union 12, 40
evaluation 13, 31617
Evans, Willard 242
Evergreen Rural Water of Washington (ERWoW) 11920
Executive Order 13636 (2014) 395
Exelon Corporation 62, 337
Exempt Wholesale Generators (EWGs) 50, 63
expert systems 246, 2478
express bus service 164
external analysis 304, 31112
external policy 19
extranets 245
extraordinary items 189
factor of safety, in valuation 209
fair rate of return 82, 181, 188, 206, 209, 221, 236
fair value, doctrine of 209
fare structure, urban public transit 166
farm cooperatives 268
Farris, Martin 239
federal assistance see financial assistance; technical assistance
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 3989
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 384, 385, 390
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 27, 31, 33, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 63, 69, 78, 85, 91, 218, 274, 408
Orders see Orders
federal licences, water power projects 45
federal power, low-priced 264
Federal Power Act 1935 (FPA) 408
Federal Power Act 1992 (FPA) 467, 49, 50, 53
Federal Power Commission (FPC) 26, 27, 445, 52, 64, 105
Federal Public Transportation Law (2012) 61
Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) 60
federal regulation 44, 45, 469, 291
electric energy sector 3, 46, 85
governance functions 263, 266, 267
monitoring of management practices 346
natural gas sector 3, 467, 1056
public transit 38, 153
solid waste 45, 14041
state implementation of 612
wastewater sector 3, 45
water utility sector 3, 356, 445, 121
see also individual legislative acts
Federal Transit Act (1994) 60
Federal Transit Act (1998) 61
Federal Transit Act Amendments (1991) 60
Federal Transit Administration (FTA) 60, 61, 159, 422
Federal Water Pollution Control Act (1956) 57, 371
federal-level crisis management 3834
federal-level policy planning 3034
federally-owned utilities 26, 39, 71, 73, 78, 136, 230, 271
Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) 114
fees, underwriting securities 49
ferry boat transit 154, 157, 159
fiber-optic communication systems 215, 2512
finance 33, 17596, 41618
financial assistance 56, 60, 129, 153, 159, 182, 223
financial crises 1834
financial information 185, 1946
financial management 176, 1834, 285
financial viability 294
fines 37, 364
first generation rights 351
Fitchburg Gas and Electric Light Company 387
fixed transit systems 165
fixture rates 210, 214
flat charge rates 210, 214
flat rate system 166, 210, 214
flood control 57
flooding 34
Florida 35, 98, 102, 204, 235, 255
Florida Gas Utility (FLU) 92
Florida Power and Light (FPL) 236
food waste 143, 145
Ford, Gerald 91
forecasting 233, 285, 286, 305, 306313
foreign energy, easing of dependence on 212, 49, 52
foreign policy, water and 34
Form 10-K 314
fossil fuel power generation 75, 102, 362
see also coal-fired power generation
Fox, Mary F. 346
fracturing (fracking) 35, 53, 54, 92, 109, 3678
France 12, 146
franchises 9, 23, 70, 264
free-enterprise businesses 7
freshwater 17, 35, 11314, 115, 116, 127, 130
frost-free season 412
fuel cell generators 30, 76, 104
fuel costs, hydropower 76
funding 8
aging infrastructure 3, 117
challenge of finding 16, 404, 41618, 430
DOE-owned transmission lines 33
investigation into corruption 48
public transit 166, 168, 169, 170, 176
water and wastewater utilities 56, 129
see also financial assistance
futures market 222, 227
Gaines, Bennett 248
gap analysis 233, 312
garbage 36, 59
garbage dumps, unregulated 133
Garofalo, Charles 353
gas turbines 30, 54, 745, 77, 103
gas-fired dehydration units 94
gas-fired reciprocating engines 104
gas-plus-transportation packages 53
GASB system 185, 19094
Gasprom 100
general expenses 200, 201
general instructions (NARUC) 186
general model of pricing 198
geographic information systems (GIS) 241, 249
geographical water demand 3645
Geological Surveys 11415, 127, 128, 410, 414
Georgia 35, 98, 107, 204
geothermal power generation 30, 49, 74, 76, 216, 227
Germany 12
Gerstberger, Richard L. 241
Geuras, Dean 353
giant industries 22
Glaeser, Martin G. 239
glass recycling 145
global-level crisis management 3823
globalization 383
Google 388, 391
Goss 354
governance 78, 25980
consolidation shaping 2613
evolution of 2658
examples of evolving 2778
government’s role 2635
models 26876
reform 25960
Governance Survey (APPA) 2645
government-owned organizations 67
see also federally-owned utilities; locally-owned ownership; state-owned utilities
grain elevators 1011, 266
Granger laws 23, 44, 64
Granite Peak Energy 270
Great Depression 10, 13, 20, 21, 47, 48, 152, 260
Great Lakes 41415
Great Recession 20, 21, 71
“greatest good for all concerned” 349
greed 342
greenhouse gases 33, 38, 133, 1467, 373, 374, 375, 410414
see also individual gases
groundwater 113, 115, 116, 122, 127, 3658, 369
Groundwater Foundation (TGF) 365
Gulf Coast 72, 98, 109, 110
Harstene Pointe Water and Sewer District (HPWSD) 11821, 32023
hazardous air pollutants 141
Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments Act 1984 (HSWA) 38, 59
hazardous waste 36, 37, 132, 136, 146, 1479, 366
health issues 15, 126, 161, 223, 372
see also disease; public health
health services 14, 15
heavy rail 154, 155, 157, 164, 261
Heller, Miriam 241
“hidden” extreme wholesale prices 215
High Level Risk Forum (OECD) 383
high voltage power transmission 73, 78
high-occupancy vehicles (HOVs) 164
historical cost 209
historical information, in forecasting 233
historical records, in accounting 185
Hodgkinson’s laws of leadership 289
holding companies 39, 478, 91, 229, 2623
see also Public Utility Holding Company Act
Holding Company Act (1935) 49
home rule charters 266
Homeland Security Act (2002) 384, 385
Homeland Security Presidential directive 5 3834
Hoover Dam 267, 273
horse-drawn public transit 152
household waste 36, 132
Hudson River 287, 399
human resources management 233, 234, 325, 3335, 3378, 339
human rights 351
human-machine interface (HMI) software 389
hurricanes 17, 413
hybrid rail 154, 157
hybrid system, water access 35
hydrates 109
hydrochloric acid 147
hydroelectric power 756, 82
hydrogen cyanide 147
Hyman, Leonard S. 20
ice volume 410, 413
Idaho 58, 98
Idaho Power 242
Illinois 1011, 23, 98, 266, 302
immigrants/immigration 15, 25, 133, 161, 165, 168
implementation
marketing plans 231
strategic choices 31516
imported natural gas 108
incident command system (ICS) 384, 385
incidents of national significance 3856
incinerators/incineration 133, 1457, 374
income 7, 8, 16
income accounts 186, 1879
income statements 192, 193
independent service operators (ISOs) 218
Independent System Operators (ISOs) 50, 228
independent utility boards 265
Indiana 98
Indianapolis 124
industrial (business) ecology (BE) 2412
Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) 3889, 390, 391, 395
industrial customers 229
demand elasticity 2245
natural gas 104, 109
utility rates 204, 210, 212, 21415
industrial gas turbines 103
industrial gas usage 53, 89
industrial waste 36, 59, 132
industrial wastewater 122
infectious waste 148
information 240
availability of transmission capacity 51, 81
see also financial information; public information; sensitive information
information management 239, 24041
information processing 243, 2523
information systems 23956
security issues 389, 398, 421
information technology 14, 77
applications 2416
functions 239
management requirement 239
in publicly owned utilities 2514
purpose 24041
security 389, 398
upgrades 2489
information technology management 239, 240
infrastructure 12
aging see aging infrastructure
funding issues 14, 24, 181
information technology 239
repair and replacement 16, 177, 183
security 379, 380, 3868, 390, 41920
stability 294
sustainability 4058
see also individual utilities
innovation
as critical for utility success 281
federal grants for energy-related 223
in financing 41617
in pricing and rate setting 21315
in rural transit systems 169
water and wastewater utility sector 11618, 130
see also technological innovation
input systems (data) 243
Insull, Samuel 26, 47
intangible products 301
integrated resource planning (IRP) 31718
Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) 15051, 375
integrated utility information management 244, 2523
inter-organizational collaboration 117, 417, 418
intercommunity express bus service 164
interconnected utilities, electric power 78, 79
interest charges 188
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 411
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act 1991 (ISTEA) 60, 61
internal analysis 304
internal combustion engines 75, 153
internal controls 195
internal policy 19
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 3823, 397
International Personnel and Labor Relations Association (IPMA) 338
Internet 15, 243, 244, 245, 246, 250
interstate commerce 46, 47, 50, 52, 53, 106
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) 23, 259, 266
interstate gas pipelines 91, 92, 96, 101, 106, 107
interstate gas reserves, decline in 52
intracommunity short-transit service 164
intranets 244, 245, 251
intrastate aspects 82, 91, 101, 408
investment 30, 177, 2489, 365
investor-owned utilities (IOUs) 3, 7, 23, 230, 261
advocates of 2723
challenges 16
corporate policy 20
demands for ethical reform 3423
deregulation 12
electric power 39, 70, 713, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 215, 267
environmental concerns 2334
finance 178, 181, 185, 416
financial crises and incentive for public ownership 10
innovation 116
marketing 226, 2345
pricing and rate setting 8, 206, 215
public opinion constraints 292
regulation 260
retirement plans 331, 3323
strategic management 314
trading 228
water 28, 127
investors 48, 185, 254
invisible hand 11
Iowa 98
irrigation 116, 127, 2712, 365
Italy 12
jet-engine turbines 77
jitney service 164
Jones, Wallace 199
jurisdiction-based governance model 2756
justice ethics 3512
Kamensky, John M. 417
Kant, Emanuel 349
Kaschub, William 337
Katz, Sara M. 231
KBC Advanced Technologies, Inc. 338, 339
Kearney, Bryan 242
Kenesok, Jim 242
Kissimmee Electric Utility (KEU) 326
knowledge management systems 245
labor action 429
labor contracts negotiation 3345
labor union representation 327
laissez-faire 13, 23, 42, 45
Lake Erie 415
Lake Washington 36, 125
land reclamation 267
landfills 38, 132, 134, 135, 137, 1389, 141, 261, 366, 374
Latin America 40, 410
leaders/leadership 2878, 289, 294
Leadership from within 331
Lean Management Information System (LMIS) 2534
Lee’s Summit 320
legacy costs 166
legacy systems 247, 248, 252
legal constraints 282, 285, 2912
legal requirement 7
legal rights 35051
leveraging 47, 48, 170, 178
liabilities accounts 186
light rail 154, 155, 157, 159, 162, 164, 176
liquefied natural gas (LNG) 54, 99, 108, 223
load centers 78
load costs 200
load factors 2015, 224
load-duration curve 233
loan guarantees 33, 182
local distribution companies (LDCs) 91, 94, 100102, 106
Local Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) 1412
local government regulation 62
governance functions 2635
natural gas 91
solid waste sector 1412
water and wastewater 3, 121
local level security planning 393
locally-owned utilities 7, 113, 136, 327
London underground bombing 399400
long-range planning 314
long-term contracts 2267
long-term objectives 31213
loop flow 69
Los Angeles 165, 369, 407
Louisiana 92, 98, 102, 109
low voltage power transmission 73, 78
McCann, Justin C. 82
McGuire, Michael 276
Maine 98, 204
Maine & Maritimes Corporation 248
Maine Public Service Co. (MPSC) 248, 249, 2912
Maine Public Utility Commission (MPUC) 292
maintenance see operation and maintenance management
malware 396
man-made disasters 380, 418
management 28198
application of science and IT 14
association assistance 2936
constraints 28993
failure of bureaucratic model 2823
improving 2967
and information technology 239
investigation and monitoring 346
landfills 1389
marketing 23032
operating environment 283
regulated businesses 6
of a sustainable water supply 11416
term 2812
transformation in 3, 1112, 13
universal functions 2839
of water and wastewater utilities 11621
see also financial management; new public management; operation and maintenance management; workforce management
management analysis 233, 2845, 302, 304, 31113, 314
management attributes 293
management controls, information systems 243
management discussion and analysis (MD&A) 192
management information systems (MIS) 2456, 2468, 2534
Managing for Results programs 231
manufactured gas 15, 24, 25, 54, 89
manufacturers, operations management 301
Marina Energy 262
market competition 3, 31, 43, 82, 2234, 283
market-oriented management 13
marketing 22137
in action 2325
different meanings 222
electric power 73, 82
evolving role of 2224
maintaining quality and reliability 235
management 23032
natural gas 93, 99100
role of markets 22530
utility demand factors 2245
marketing mix 234
Martinez, Salvador A. 74, 75, 198
Maryland 51, 89, 98, 146, 204
Maryland Transit Administration (MTA) 176
Mason County Public Utility District 2512, 309, 310
Mason Transit Authority 169, 170
Massachusetts 69, 98, 204
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) 163
Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities 207
Mattoon, Richard 24
maximum available control technology (MACT) 146
mechanical hazards 381
medical waste 1479
Mega-Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (MegaNOPR) 27
megatrends 16, 325, 340
merchant power-producing project (MPP) 1812
mercury 147
mergers and acquisitions 11, 14, 47, 85, 261, 263
metering systems 1012, 21415, 2278
methane 89, 94, 109, 134, 139, 410
Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (MATA) 163
Mexico 78, 79, 94, 99, 410
Michigan 69
microcystin 415
microturbines 103
midstream activities 8991
Millennial Generation 1612
Minnesota 98
miscellaneous rates 213
mission/statements 234, 286, 3079, 314
Missouri 58, 98
Monopolies and Trusts 9
monopoly competition 6, 14
monorail 154, 159
Montana 58, 270, 362
Montreal 371
moral behavior 346, 347, 348
moral demands 352
moral responsibility 353
moral standards 346, 347, 34852, 355
morality 346
morally right action 352
mortalities (utility-related) 112, 126, 163
multi-tiered holding companies 47
Municipal Research and Services Center (MRSC) 119, 120
Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) rules 38
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) 132, 134
municipal wastewater 122
Municipal Water Law (MWL) 120
municipally owned utilities (MOUs) 14, 23, 230, 264, 265
accounting 191, 192
challenges 16
electric power 39, 73, 80
governance models (examples) 2778
managerial job description 303
need for capital 14
water and wastewater 121, 127, 260
Munn v. Illinois 1011, 23, 266
mutual societies 260, 2689
Nanus, Burt 2878
National Academy of engineering (NAE) 405
National Air Pollution Control Administration (NAPCA) 56
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 141
National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) 293
National Association of Government Accountants 191
National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) 40, 85, 389
controls in 1945
key components 18590
in publicly owned utilities 19094
National Association of Water Companies 293
National Drought Mitigation Centre (NDMC) 35
National Energy Policy Act 1992 (NEP) 71, 80
National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (NEPA) 61
National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry 23
National Incident Management System (NIMS) 384, 385, 386
National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center 420
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) 367
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 85
National Integration Center (NIC) 385
National Interagency Incident Management System (NIIMS) 3845
national interest electric transmission corridors 33
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 410, 414
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) 58, 123, 370, 371
National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI) 424
National Response Plan (NRP) 384, 3856
National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) 85
National Transit Systems Security Act (NTSSA) 159
National Waste and Recycling Association (NWRA) 134
nationalized industries 67
nationally integrated gas marketers 100
natural disasters 379, 380, 3812, 421
natural gas
commodity market 28, 99
consumers 1025
consumption 89, 90, 102, 109
electric power generation 745, 77, 89, 1024, 109
future supply 1079
shortages 3, 26, 52, 92, 93, 108, 223
storage 989
surplus 22, 27
unconventional 109
Natural Gas Act (1938) 26, 29, 467, 52, 105
natural gas liquids (NGL) 94
Natural Gas Policy Act 1978 (NGPA) 27, 29, 52, 53, 106
natural gas utilities 89111
activities 8991
components see distribution; production; transmission
cost saving 29
deregulation 27, 28, 52, 53, 54, 92
industry structure 93102
infrastructure 413
labor union representation 327
marketing/marketers 226, 229, 230
ownership 39, 260
pricing and rate setting 26, 27, 52, 54, 89, 93, 1067, 200, 223
public policy 268, 29
regulation 26, 467, 514, 91, 1057
restructuring 28, 30, 287
tangible and intangible products 301, 302
Natural Gas Wellhead Decontrol Act 1989 (NGWDA) 27, 53
natural hazards 381
natural monopolies 5, 810, 14, 25, 43, 46
Natural Resources Defense Council (NRD) 61
NaturalGas.org 93, 101
Nebraska 58, 98, 116, 264, 265, 365
needles and sharps 148
negative public opinion 292
network communications technology 2445
network expansion 252
network externalities 5
network industries 256, 30
network model of governance 2745
network structure 5
Nevada 58, 98
New Deal 45, 46, 47, 71, 267
New England 51
see also individual states
New Hampshire 98, 204
New Jersey 51, 69, 98, 139, 204, 336
New Mexico 58, 160, 270
New Public Management (NPM) 12, 13
New York 25, 36, 51, 69, 89, 98, 102, 107, 139, 152, 204, 347, 399
New York City Transit (NYCT) 155
New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) 28
New York Metropolitan Transit Authority (NYMTA) 163
New York State Power Authority (NYSPA) 263
New Zealand 7, 12, 13, 40
nitrogen oxides 147
Nixon, Richard 56
non-coincidental demands 205
non-community water systems 120
non-confrontational contract negotiation 335
non-discrimination requirements 7, 27, 30, 50, 15960
non-durable goods 132, 143
non-hazardous waste 59, 1378
non-peak period prices 225
non-profit organizations 116, 129, 153, 162, 169, 416
non-profit trusts 268
non-recourse finance 181, 182
non-regulated business 6, 290
non-utility generators 30, 39, 71, 73, 84
North American Classification System (NAICS) 326, 327
North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) 7980, 85, 235, 420
North Carolina 98, 204, 363, 364
North Dakota 58, 96, 270, 342
North Pacific Ocean 410
North Slope Borough 37
Not In My Backyard (NIMBY) 9
nuclear power generation 74, 75, 223, 293
Obama, Barack 362
ocean surface temperatures 410, 414
Office of Critical Infrastructure Protection and Emergency Preparedness (OCIPEP) 390
Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OEDER) 395
Office of Energy Assurance 420
offshore gas 52
Ohio 69, 98, 107, 41415
oil and gas 3, 22
oil prices 21, 22, 222
Oklahoma 92, 110, 116, 263
Olathe capital improvement plan 178, 17980
oligopolistic competition 14
Olympia 169
Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act (1991) 60
online processing 252, 253
onshore gas 52
Ontario 69, 235, 308
open access
electric power industry 30, 31, 50, 80
natural gas sector 27, 39, 53, 100
Open Access Same-time Information System (OASIS) 81
open innovation 417
operating companies 47
operating costs 62, 74, 75, 199200, 206, 225, 234, 404
operating expenses 177, 188
operating income 188
operating information 194
operating revenues 188
operation and maintenance management (OMM) 299324
operational changes 16
operational constraints 306
operational crisis 379
operational efficiency 12
operational optimization 294
operational planning 305
operational resiliency 294
operational systems (IT) 239
operations costs 200, 201
operations management 300
operations planning 3025
optimal urban transit system 1634
Order 436 (FERC) 27, 53, 106
Order 500 (FERC) 27
Order 636 (FERC) 278, 54, 96, 106
Order 637 (FERC) 28
Order 888 (FERC) 30, 50, 80, 81
Order 889 (FERC) 30, 50, 80, 81
Order 2000 (FERC) 81
Ordinance (1787) 11
Oregon 71, 98, 137, 139, 265
organic waste 143, 145
organisational information systems 239
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 383
organizational culture 290, 298, 308, 338, 347
organizational plans 304
organizational profiles 308, 309, 310, 314
organizational structures (OMM) 3015
organizing function 2867
Osborne, David 283
outcome evaluation 31617
Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act 1953 (OCLSA) 27
output systems (data) 243
outsourcing 260, 312
over-the-road buses 1545
overhead costs 200, 201
overpricing 44
Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) 63
Pacific Institute 424
Pacific Northwest 120, 192, 251, 264
Pacific Northwest Partnership for Regional Infrastructure Security (PNPRIS) 39091, 393
Palmer, Karen L. 74, 75, 198
partnership(s) 13, 177, 275, 336
pathological waste 148
peak demand(s) 54, 75, 76, 201, 205, 224, 227, 228
peak flows 124
peak load 103, 201, 227
PECO Energy, Inc. 337
Pennsylvania 11, 51, 69, 92, 139, 204, 393
People’s Energy 242
performance evaluation 334
performance measurement 284, 2889, 2956
performance standards 195
performance-based management 12
petitions, for rate relief 206
Pew Research Center 1612
pharmaceuticals 148, 3667
Philadelphia 152
Phillips Decision (1954) 26, 27
phishing 396
phosphorus 415
photovoltaic power generation 76
physical attacks 3868, 404, 419, 420
physical environment model 21
physical hazards 381
physical security 389, 397, 400
Pinnacle West Capital Corporation 31213
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMS) 96
pipeline sector (natural gas) 948
competition 27
deregulation 21718
gas consumption 105
new pipe technology 101
pipeline capacity 25, 26
pipeline companies 39, 53, 54, 96
regulation and oversight 3, 534, 96
restructuring 278, 96
zone rates 213
planning
in management 2856
marketing management 23031, 233
rural public transit 1667
sustainable water supply 114
see also capital improvement plans; operations planning; security planning; strategic planning; urban planning
plant-in-service 186
Plastrik, Peter 283
political rights 351
pollutants 57, 58, 1467, 374
population growth 4, 1314, 15, 17, 34, 1278, 130, 139, 364
post-civil war changes 1112
postretirement plan 332
power generation 32, 746
environmental impact 31112
natural gas use 745, 77, 89, 1024, 109
reclamation projects 272
waste reuse 133, 138, 146
water withdrawals 116
see also fossil fuel power generation; renewable power generation
Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act 1978 (PPIFU) 29, 53
Power Play: The Fight to Control the World’s Electricity 83
power shortages 7071, 223
power storage 77
power transmission
Energy policy bill (2003) 33
operators 78
regulation 3, 50
system monitoring 6970
transmission grids 78
capacity 70, 81
changes 8082
control and oversight 7880
see also regional transmission organizations; smart grid
preference clause system 2678
preparedness (security) 382, 385, 422
President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure 419
preventive maintenance 300
price averaging 215
price competition 43
price control 27, 52, 93, 198
price discrimination 7, 8, 32, 217
price gouging 63
price regulation 1011, 23, 25, 27, 28, 100
pricing and rate setting 7, 8, 198219
challenges 404
collective bargaining 335
court-instituted restrictions 16
demand factors 225
fundamentals of 199205
impact of deregulation on 21718
innovation in 21315
just and reasonable 26, 105, 199, 266
local regulation 62
market forces 11
monopoly position and temptation of raising 44
role of commissions 20513
social considerations 21517
use of CRM data 250
see also individual sectors
primacy status 57
primary accounts 18690
primary treatment, of wastewater 122
prior appropriation approach 34
private capital 182
private enterprise 14
Private Securities Litigation Reform Act (1995) 306
privately-owned utilities 5, 7, 234
finance 185
franchises 9
integration 261
solid waste sector 136, 137
see also investor-owned utilities
privatization 3, 13, 40, 45, 71, 83, 325, 336, 416
problem solving applications (IT) 24041
process monitoring, water flow 113
processing plants (gas) 94, 101
producer marketers (gas) 100
producers
of natural gas 39, 94
preference for long-term contracts 227
product quality 234, 235, 237, 294
production 5, 32
of electric energy see power generation
natural gas 913
professional competence 354, 356
profit constraints 290
Progressive Era reforms 9, 20, 23, 259
Providence 11
psychosocial hazards 381
public administration 12, 13
public authority 282
public authority utilities 26970
public awareness, marketing programs 231
public health 4, 45, 55, 121
public information, safe drinking water 56
public interest companies 268
see also “affected with a public interest”
public management 282
public opinion 6, 10, 1920, 292
public participation, marketing programs 231
public policy 1942
early 238
energy self-sufficiency 223
evolving 223
expectations of management 6
federal level planning 3034
forces and events shaping 1920, 21
future challenges 3941
importance of public support 212
internal and external 19
twenty-first century 289
types 19
see also individual utilities
public purpose programs 21516
public safety 19, 38, 45
public servants 12, 13
public service 3546
Public Service Commission (PSC) 62
public supply, water withdrawals 116
public support, public policy 212, 38
public transit utilities 15271, 261
challenges 1659, 3756, 430
employment 162, 3289
federal assistance 153, 159
infrastructure 163, 166, 429
largest agencies by trips and passenger miles (2012) 1567
modern systems 153
modes of transport (2012) 154
passenger miles by mode of transit 157
public policy 389
regulation 5961, 15560
rider security 153
ridership trends 1612
rural issues 1669
security 398400, 4212
structure 1535
sustainability 429
top ten systems (2014) 158
unlinked passenger trips 155, 157
urban systems 1626
public utilities
birth and growth of 1015
capital intensive nature 24
defined 5
differences in 67
forces shaping 1314, 1517
function challenges
finance 17596
information systems 23956
marketing 22137
pricing and rate-setting 198219
management and operations challenges ethics 34257
governance 25980
management 28198
operations, maintenance and planning 299324
workforce management 32541
as natural monopolies 89, 14, 25, 43, 46
new challenges 3
environmental 36178
physical and cybersecurity 379401
sustainability 40232
organizations 45
policy issues see public policy
products and services 4, 6, 16
regulation see regulation
restructuring see restructuring
term 4, 56
see also individual utilities
Public Utilities in American Capitalism 239
Public Utilities Division (SEC) 46
Public Utilities Fortnightly 325
public utility commissions (PUCs) 6, 44, 82, 83, 85, 205, 266, 291, 3067, 394
public utility districts (PUDs) 80, 216, 251, 252, 256, 260, 264, 265, 275, 310, 314, 331
Public Utility Holding Company Act 1935 (PUHCA) 10, 26, 33, 39, 40, 45, 46, 479, 50, 64, 82, 260, 263, 267, 2734, 291
Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act 1978 (PURPA) 2930, 49, 62, 80, 84, 134
public-private partnerships 13, 177, 336
publications management (NIIMS) 384
publicly owned utilities 14, 23
advocates of 266
decline in 267
electric energy 33, 71, 73, 78, 81, 264, 267
evolution of 2713
financial crises and incentives for 10
human resource management 334
information technology 2514
leverage 178
marketing 226
monitoring of management practices 346
NARUC in 19094
pricing and rate setting 8, 206
retirement benefits 3312, 333
solid waste sector 14
strategic management 314
as tightest form of regulation 910
trading 228
water and wastewater 3, 14, 121
see also municipally owned utilities
Publico 154, 157
publish-subscribe systems (IT) 23940
Puget Sound 36, 118, 125, 137, 169
pumped storage (hydropower) 76
qualifications and certification (NIIMS) 384
Qualifying Facility (QF) generating units 4950, 63
quality, maintaining 235
radioactive materials 148
rail transit 152, 154, 155, 157, 159, 162, 164, 176, 261, 376, 422
railroads
developers of early private-financed 23
employment 329
gas transportation 96
power of early 22
regulation 223, 44
revolution in transportation and communications 15
waste shipment 137, 139
rainfall 412, 413, 414
rainstorms 17
rate adjustment 199, 216, 218
rate allowances 213
rate relief 206
rate of return regulation 5, 62, 424
rate structures 199, 2023, 21013, 214
raw water storage 113
readiness to serve costs 200
Reagan, Ronald 13
real-time metering systems 21415, 2278
Reclamation Act (1906) 2712
record-keeping 184
recyclable waste 1489
recycled water 128
recycling 134, 138, 1445, 373, 374
refuse 59, 133
regional transmission organizations (RTOs) 31, 39, 51, 81
regional transmission territories 51
registration (SEC) 48
regulated businesses 6, 7
regulated market 2267
regulation 3, 4365
the beginnings of 445
by government
public opinion and shift in favour of 10
see also federal regulation; local government regulation; state regulation
increasing compliance requirements 404
sustainability challenge 4, 4089
tightest form 910
see also deregulation; environmental regulation; price regulation
regulatory constraints 29091
Reinventing Government 283
reliability 153, 167, 235
Reliability Councils 7980
remediation service organizations 13940, 328
renewable power generation 39, 74, 756, 77
see also biomass; solar power; thermal power generation; wind power
reorganization 286, 287, 325
repair and replacement (R&R) 16, 166, 177, 182, 183
replacement cost 209
Reporting System (RS) 254
reserve capacity 205
reservoir gas storage 98
reservoir water storage 113, 128
residential customers 229
conflicting policies regarding bill non-payment 2021
demand elasticity 224
demand-control systems 215
natural gas 104, 107, 109
retail competition 83
utility rates 8, 32, 204, 210, 216
resource analysis 312
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 1976 (RCRA) 368, 59, 134, 140, 147
resource mix 313
Resource and Recovery Act 1976 (RRA) 134
responsibility for costs 195
restructuring 3, 21, 32, 260, 286, 287
see also individual utilities
Restructuring Rule see Order 636 (FERC)
retail competition 71, 83, 213, 229, 231, 270
retail customers 215, 224, 225, 22930
retail marketing 30, 823, 226, 22930
retail pricing system 215
retained earnings account 186, 189
retirements, high cost of 3313
retributive justice 351
reversibility, rule ethics 34950
Rhee, Hyen-Suk 244
Rhode Island 11, 89, 98, 204
Richmond (Virginia) 227
Riggins, Frederick J. 244
right direction 288
rights ethics 35051
riparian doctrine 35
risk management 221, 228
river-current driven generators 76
Riverside Public Utility (RPU) 228, 31820
road safety 168
road salts 366
road system integrity (rural) 1678
road transport employment 329
Rodrique, Jean-Paul 165
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano 26, 45, 64, 105, 259, 267
Roosevelt, Theodore 259, 266
rootkits 396
Rubin, Scott 29
rule ethics 34950
run-of-river generators 76
rural cooperatives 46, 71, 73, 230, 260, 268, 269
Rural Electrification Act (1936) 26
rural electrification program 46, 267
rural public transit 154, 1669, 170
Rural Utilities Service (RUS) 182
Safe Drinking Water Act 1974 (SDWA) 54, 557, 371
St Lawrence River 263, 371
St Thomas Aquinas 352
salary reduction plan 332
saline water 115, 116
Salon 163
salt cavern gas storage 98
Sampson, Roy 239
San Diego, etc. v. Jasper (74 Fed.78, 83) 2089
San Francisco 152, 153, 155
sanitary system overflows (SSOs) 124
sanitation 15
Scharfenberg, David 163
science, and capital 14
Scotland 270
scrap recycling 144
sea levels 41011, 413
sea surface temperature 410
Seattle 9, 19, 36, 125, 137, 139, 152, 342, 343
second generation rights 351
secondary treatment, of wastewater 1223, 124
Securities Act (1933) 42, 46
Securities and Exchange Commission Act 1934 (SEC) 42, 45, 46, 64, 260, 314
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) 46, 48, 185, 263, 274
security
challenge 3, 41823
planning 39098
standards 397
threats 16, 379, 380, 390
see also cybersecurity
Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide 422
segments (market) 225
self-assessment (managerial) 2956
sellers see buyers and sellers
Sempra Energy Corporation 213
senior management 281
sensitive information 394
service distances, rural public transit 167
service ethos 355
Service Order Entry System (SOES) 2534
service organizations, operations management 301
sewage overflow pollution 1235, 371, 372
sewage treatment 123, 370, 372
shale gas 92, 109
shareholders 261
Shelton 169, 170, 2756
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) 260
SHODAN 388
short-term strategies 315
short-trip transit service 164
simulation 285
single provider operations 44
site limitations 4, 9, 16, 293
situational analysis 233, 307
Slack, Brian 165
sludge 59
small marketers (gas) 100
Small Order Execution system 2534
small power generating facilities 49, 50, 2289
smart grid 77, 424
Smith, Adam 11
Smyth v. Ames (169 US 486) 209
snow accumulations 414
social capital 5
social constraints 2923
social engineering 396
social environments 311
social pricing considerations 21517
social problems 15
societal integration, public transport and 161
soil shoreline erosion 410, 414
solar power 76, 77, 223, 227
Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA) 149
Solid Waste Disposal Act 1965 (SWDA) 36, 133
solid waste utilities 13251
award-winning programmes 149, 150
dealing with hazardous waste 1479
employment 3278
environmental challenges 3735
franchises 9
history 1336
ownership 7, 9, 14, 136, 261
public policy 368
rate structures 212
regulation 45, 59, 14042
security 398
site restrictions 4, 16
structure 13640
sustainability 4289
South Carolina 98, 204, 263
South Dakota 58, 98
South Jersey Industries, Inc. 262
spoils system approach 12
spot market 224, 226, 2279
spyware 396
stakeholder understanding and support 295
Standard Market Design (SMD) 40, 51, 81, 82
standard operating procedures 195
standard policies 25
state drinking water programs 57
state level security planning 393
state regulation 613, 266, 291
electrical energy utilities 70
governance functions 2634
natural gas utilities 91, 1067
public transit utilities 160
railroads 223
solid waste utilities 1412
water and wastewater utilities 3, 121
state utility commissions 47, 107, 185, 20513
State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund 58, 409
state-owned utilities 136, 230, 265, 327
Statement of Earnings Invested in the Business 189
steam powered generation 15, 30, 74, 75, 102
step rates 21012
stock incentive plan (Calpine) 332
Stock Market Crash (1929) 10, 21, 26, 42, 47, 48, 260, 264, 267
stockholder activism 259
stockholder’s equity 181
stormwater 123, 124, 125, 3712
stranded costs see sunk costs
strategic business plans 307
strategic choices, implementing 31516
Strategic Directions: U.S. Water Industry survey 4267
strategic gaps 233
strategic management 31318
strategic objectives 296, 304, 313, 337
strategic options 304
strategic planning 13, 302, 303
examples 31823
marketing 23031, 233
process 30913
purposes 304
see also mission statements
strategy formation 2856
Street Railway Association 152
streetcar transit 154, 157, 162
“strengths and weakness” analysis 233, 305, 314
Strickland, A.J. 316
subject-based subscribe systems 23940
subsidiary balance sheet accounts 186
subways 159, 162, 163, 165, 399400, 422
sulfur 147
sulfur dioxide 147
summary accounts 186
sunk costs 5, 8081, 2045
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems 113, 239, 252, 389, 390, 398, 420
supplemental pension plan 3323
supply and delivery 16
supply and demand 7, 8, 198
supply and transposition contracts 28
supranets 245
surface water 113, 122, 368, 41314
sustainability challenge 3, 4, 40232
Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) 151
Sweden 7, 12, 146
synthetic natural gas 54, 223
system failures 223, 325
System Security Program Plans 422
systematic program implementation 316
Tacoma 169
Tacoma Public Utilities 226, 236, 248, 252, 333
take-or-pay contracts 27, 227
Tampa Bay Water 307
tangible products 3012
tank storage, natural gas 98
target emissions rate 362
taxes 8
technical assistance 56, 119, 129, 132, 159
technological innovation 33, 101, 103, 108, 429
technologies
NIIMS 384
see also information technology
technology-enabled customer relationship management (TCRM) 24950
telecommunications
co-ops 269
consolidation 14
as critical component in utilities 240
fiber-optic systems 215, 2512
private enterprise 4, 14
reduction in regulation of 45
restructuring 30
revolution in 15
telegraph 15, 24
telephones 15, 24
temperatures 410, 412, 41314
Tennessee 98
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 6, 26, 39, 46, 50, 73, 230, 259, 267, 271
terrorism 16, 20, 380, 383, 3989, 419, 422
tertiary treatment, of wastewater 123
Texas 71, 79, 92, 98, 102, 109, 110, 116, 263, 277
Texas Interconnected System 78
Thatcher, Margaret 13
thermal power generation 30, 49, 74, 76, 116, 216, 223, 227
Thomas, Arthur A. 316
Thomson-Houston Electric Company 245
time series analysis 233
Title III (ISTEA, 1991) 60
Title III (TEA) 61
Tokyo subway attack 399, 422
Toledo 415
top-down governance model 2734
Toronto 139
Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) 58, 370
Touchstone Energy 270
toxic algae blooms 414, 415
toxic gases 147, 373, 395
Toxic Substances Control Act (1976) 59
toxic wastes 132, 376, 378, 398
Trading and Exchange Division (SEC) 46
traffic congestion 38, 161, 164, 165, 375, 429
training
in ethics 347
in security 384, 39091, 393, 423
water utility sector 56, 119
transaction processing systems (TPS) 246, 247
TransAlta Corporation 308
transfer payment/financial aid model 20
transfer stations (waste) 9, 137
transfers, between utilities 192
transformers 78
transition costs 80
transmission 5, 32
see also pipeline sector; power transmission
transparency 12, 81
transport assistance 161
transportation
by railroad 96, 137, 139
gas consumption in 105
technological revolution 14
of water 113
Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA) 61
trojan horses 396
trolleybus transit 153, 154, 157, 159, 162
trunk line service 164
trusts 14, 24, 47
trustworthiness 354
twentieth century reforms 13
two-way goal setting 234
unbundling 223, 287
electric power sector 30, 50, 80, 81
in natural gas sector 278, 53, 54
underwriting, of securities 49
unethical behaviour 48, 325, 342, 3435, 3467, 356
Unicom 337
uniform systems of accounts 185
Union Passenger Railway 152
union-management relations 335
United Kingdom 7, 13, 114, 269, 399400
universalizability, rule ethics 349
unregulated garbage dumps 133
unregulated market 226, 227
upgrades (IT) 2489
upstream operations 89
uranium-contaminated water 127, 128
Urban Mass Transportation Act (1964) 60
Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) 159
urban planning, public transit and 38
urban public transit 154, 1626
urbanization 13, 15, 22, 139, 383
user fees 13
utilitarian ethics 349
utility business architecture (UBA) 241, 2456
utility communications architecture (UCA) 241, 2435
Utility Drive 423
utility reform movement 1213
utilization, and rate setting 205
valuation (asset) 206, 20810
van transit 154, 157, 164
Velasquez, Manuel 352
Vermont 69, 98, 204
vertically integrated utilities 7, 32, 39, 50, 70, 71, 80, 85, 175, 181, 204, 218, 223, 227
vices 352
Virginia 139, 146, 152, 204, 227, 286
virtual private networks (VPNs) 388
virtue ethics 352
vision 234, 302
Von Sacken, Eric W. 241
vulnerability (security) 389, 39091, 398, 429
Waikiki beaches 125
Waite, Chief Justice 4, 1011, 266
Walk Score 155
Wall Street Journal 62
Washington 98, 169, 234, 235, 265, 345
see also Olympia; Seattle; Shelton; Tacoma
Washington Association of Sewer and Water Districts (WASWD) 119
waste
collection 7, 133, 1368, 398
reduction 134, 142, 1427
reuse 133, 134, 138, 1445, 373
treatment and disposal 9, 56, 138, 1412, 398
see also composting; incinerators/ incineration; landfills; recycling
waste heat recovery 103, 133
waste-to-energy plants 1334, 146
wastewater utilities 1215
challenges 1269, 3712
climate change 41415
demand forecasting 233
disposal systems 366
federal assistance 129, 182
information technology 239
infrastructure 17, 124, 12930
management 11621
ownership 3, 7, 14, 113, 260
prices 200
production managers’ objectives 302
regulation 3, 45, 578, 113
security 3957, 42021
site restrictions 16, 293
sustainability 4248
treatment/systems 1223, 367
Water Aid Act (2005) 34
water demand 345
Water Environment Federation 293
Water and Environmental Programs (WEP) 129
water flow 113
water governance 259
water pollution 223, 364, 3668, 369
water pollution legislation 55, 408
see also individual acts
Water Power Act (1920) 44, 64, 105, 267
water quality 25, 28, 34, 121, 124, 363
Water Quality Act (1987) 3689, 371
Water Quality Administration (FWQA) 56
water rights 35
water shortages 3, 4, 22, 34, 363
water source 56, 113, 295
water standards 55, 57, 370
water storage 113, 127
water supplies 16, 17, 112, 1279
water supply management 11416
water supply systems 11, 25, 112, 1267
water treatment 29, 40, 113, 1289
water use 11416
Water Use Efficiency Requirements Act 120
Water Use Efficiency (WUE) program 120
water utility sector
challenges 1269, 3635
climate change 41415
cost saving 29
demand forecasting 233
deregulation 306
federal assistance 129, 182
information technology 239
infrastructure 3, 17, 12930, 365, 4067
labor union representation 327
management 11621, 2945
marketing 226, 231
ownership 3, 7, 14, 28, 29, 113, 260, 261, 336
pricing and rate setting 22, 28, 200, 21112
production, transmission and distribution 32, 302
public policy 28, 346, 3940
regulation 3, 28, 445, 547, 113, 121, 4089
restructuring 289, 40, 270
security 3957, 42021
structure 11213
sustainability 114, 4248
workforce planning 330
Watkins, Sherron 344
weather events 17, 124, 129, 383, 410, 413
Weber, Max 12, 13, 282
weighted average retail pricing system 215
wellhead prices 26, 27, 52, 93, 223
Westar Energy 309
Western Electric Coordinating Council (WECC) region 201
Western Energy Services 317
Western Interconnected Grid 78
Western Rural Development Center (WRDC) 1667
Western Union 24
Westinghouse, George 25
wetlands 57
WGL Holdings 232, 306, 315, 335
wheelchairs 1589
Wheeler-Rayburn Act see Public Utility Holding Company Act
whistleblower process 3456
wholesale marketing 30, 2256, 2269
wholesale power market platform 81
wholesalers 229
Wilson, William 199
Wilson, Woodrow 13, 282
wind power 30, 49, 74, 76, 216, 223, 227
winter storms 413
Wipro Technologies 251
Wisconsin 98
workforce management 32541
employees and privatization 336
replacing the shrinking workforce 33034
see also human resources management
workforce security threats 380
working capital 177, 178, 181, 191
Workshop on Inter-Agency Crisis Management (2012) 383
World Bank 12
World Trade Towers 20, 399
Wyoming 57, 58, 92, 270
yard wastes 132, 133, 143, 145
zone rates 213