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Energy Security, Trade and the EU

Regional and International Perspectives

Rafael Leal-Arcas, Costantino Grasso and Juan Alemany Ríos

Energy security is a burning issue in a world where 1.4 billion people still have no access to electricity. This book is about finding solutions for energy security through the international trading system. Focusing mainly on the European Union as a case study, this holistic and comprehensive analysis of the existing legal and geopolitical instruments strives to identify the shortcomings of the international and EU energy trade governance systems, concluding with the notion of a European Energy Union and what the EU is politically prepared to accept as part of its unified energy security.
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Rafael Leal-Arcas, Costantino Grasso and Juan Alemany Ríos

List of figures
List of tables
1.  Overview
I.  Introduction
A.  Energy governance and energy security: definitions
B.  What is the challenge?
1.  The governance of international trade in energy
2.  Sovereignty over natural resources
II.  Background to EU energy policy
A.  Allocation of competences between the EU and its Member States
1.  The situation prior to the Lisbon Treaty
2.  The Lisbon Treaty
B.  EU energy policy and its complications
C.  The EU energy situation: dependent and undiversified
D.  EU energy consumption vis-à-vis global energy consumption
E.  Energy production in the EU
F.  Energy pricing in the EU
III.  Objectives, scope and originality
A.  Objectives and scope
B.  Originality
C.  Why is the problem worth researching?
D.  Ground-breaking nature of the book
E.  Hypotheses
IV.  Methodology and research questions
V.  Structure of the book
2.  Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance
I.  Introduction
II.  Multilateral energy trade governance
A.  The World Trade Organization and energy trade
B.  The Energy Charter Treaty
C.  International Energy Agency
D.  The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
E.  The Gas Exporting Countries Forum
F.  Energy transportation issues
G.  Promotion of regulatory convergence
1.  The Environmental Goods Agreement
2.  The International Renewable Energy Agency
III.  Regional energy trade governance
A.  Proliferation of regional trade agreements
1.  Their role in the energy sector
2.  Compatibility between WTO and regional trade agreements
B.  NAFTA and energy trade
C.  European Union energy policy
D.  The Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR)
E.  The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
IV.  Bilateral energy trade governance: the case of the European Union
A.  Russia
B.  Norway
C.  Algeria
D.  Libya
E.  Caspian alternatives
1.  Azerbaijan
2.  Kazakhstan
3.  Turkmenistan
4.  Iran
F.  Persian Gulf alternatives
1.  Saudi Arabia
2.  Qatar
3.  Iraq
G.  Sub-Saharan Africa alternative: the Nigeria case
H.  United States
1.  Raw materials and natural resources
2.  US shale gas revolution
V.  Conclusion
3.  Energy transit
I.  Introduction
II.  The fundamentals of energy transit
A.  Importance of transit
B.  Legal regime of energy transit
C.  Regulation of energy transit under the Energy Charter
1.  The Energy Charter Treaty
2.  The Energy Charter draft Transit Protocol
a.  Link with other international agreements
b.  Accidental interruption, reduction and stoppage of transit
c.  International technical standards
3.  Model Intergovernmental Agreement and Model Host Government Agreement
a.  Link with other international agreements
b.  Obligation of the host governments
c.  Transit rights
d.  Land rights
e.  Environmental and safety standards
D.  International cooperation in energy
III.  Selected oil and gas transit agreements
A.  The Nabucco, Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan (BTC), and South Caucasus Pipelines
1.  Commonalities and regional specificities
a.  The BTC, South Caucasus and Nabucco Pipeline Intergovernmental Agreements
b.  The BTC and South Caucasus Pipeline Project Host Government Agreements
c.  Conclusion
2.  Links to the Model Agreements and the draft Transit Protocol
a.  The South Caucasus Pipeline Project Agreements
i.  Georgia–Azerbaijan Intergovernmental Agreement
ii.  Azerbaijan–Turkey Intergovernmental Agreement
iii.  Georgia and Azerbaijan Host Government Agreements
b.  Nabucco Pipeline Intergovernmental Agreement
c.  Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline Agreements
i.  BTC Intergovernmental Agreement
ii.  BTC Host Government Agreements
iii.  Turnkey Agreement between BOTAŞ Petroleum Pipeline Corporation and the investor consortium
iv.  Agreement between the BTC Pipeline Company and the Government of Georgia on the Provision of Security Equipment, Facilities and Operations Funding for the Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline Project
d.  Conclusion
3.  Recommendations
a.  More detailed provisions on environmental safety
b.  More detailed provisions on labour standards
c.  Provisions on human rights standards
B.  The TAPI Pipeline and Kirkuk–Ceyhan Crude Oil Pipeline Agreements
1.  TAPI Pipeline Framework Agreement and Intergovernmental Agreement
a.  The project
b.  The TAPI Framework Agreement
i.  Relation to international instruments
ii.  Technical and environmental standards
2.  Kirkuk–Ceyhan Crude Oil Pipeline Agreement
a.  The project
b.  Transit issues
c.  Security concerns
3.  Comparison
a.  Commonalities and regional specificities
i.  Common principles
ii.  Regional specificities
iii.  Conclusion
b.  Links to the Model Agreements and the draft Transit Protocol
i.  TAPI Agreements
i.a.  TAPI Framework Agreement
i.b.  TAPI Intergovernmental Agreement
ii.  Kirkuk–Ceyhan Oil Pipeline Intergovernmental Agreement
iii.  Conclusion
c.  Recommendations
i.  The addition of a new Model Agreement to the Model Agreements
ii.  Inclusion of articles on environmental protection
iii.  Inclusion of labour and human rights standards articles
4.  Conclusion
C.  Trans-Anatolian Pipeline Agreement
1.  The project
2.  Energy transit
a.  General obligations
b.  Transit rights
c.  Technical, safety and environmental standards
3.  Comparison
a.  Commonalities and regional specificities
b.  Links to the Model Agreements and the draft Transit Protocol
c.  Recommendations
D.  Pipelines in the MENA region
1.  Arab Gas Pipeline Project
a.  An overview
b.  Iraq–Jordan oil and gas pipelines Agreement
2.  Dolphin Gas Pipeline project
a.  An overview
b.  Qatar–United Arab Emirates gas pipeline Agreement
3.  Future trends
4.  Comparison
a.  Commonalities and regional specificities
b.  Links to the Model Agreements and the draft Transit Protocol
c.  Recommendations
IV.  Conclusion
4.  Unconventional fossil fuel sources and EU energy security
I.  Introduction
II.  Revolution of unconventional sources of fossil fuel
A.  The basics of shale gas extraction
B.  Legal situation in the EU
C.  Ecological viability of natural gas as an energy resource
D.  Geopolitical impact on the EU
1.  The United States
2.  China
3.  Russia
4.  OPEC
III.  Conclusions and policy recommendations
5.  Renewables, preferential trade agreements and EU energy security
I.  Introduction
II.  Setting the scene
A.  Towards climate change mitigation and environmental sustainability
B.  Difficulties regarding climate change mitigation
III.  The EU energy security strategy and renewable energy
A.  What is renewable energy?
B.  Why is renewable energy so important?
C.  Promotion of renewable energy
D.  The Renewables Directive
1.  Potential for energy independence
2.  Encouraging trade in renewable energy goods and services
3.  Trading with third parties
E.  Renewables and barriers to their effective development
F.  How can renewable energy be made the norm?
G.  Transitioning to greener economies through renewables: looking beyond the EU
IV.  EU preferential trade agreements and renewables: why and what benefits?
A.  Trade effects
1.  Why do countries and regional bodies enter into PTAs?
2.  Is one party better off than another?
3.  Advantages and disadvantages of PTAs
B.  Why use PTAs to promote renewables?
C.  Transportation of renewable energy between countries
V.  Renewable energy-related provisions in EU preferential trade agreements
A.  Background
B.  The European Economic Area Agreement and EU PTAs with EFTA Member States
C.  EU PTAs with the Energy Community’s Member States and Georgia
1.  A note about the Energy Community
2.  Evaluation
a.  EU–Moldova PTA
b.  EU–Serbia PTA
c.  EU–Ukraine PTA
d.  EU–Georgia PTA
D.  EU PTAs with the Member States of the Union for the Mediterranean
1.  The UfM and renewables
2.  Renewable energy provisions
E.  EU–Andorra and EU–San Marino PTAs
F.  EU PTAs with non-neighbouring countries
G.  How to further promote renewable energy through EU PTAs
1.  Requiring the implementation of the acquis on renewables
2.  Protecting investments in the renewable energy sector
3.  Liberalizing renewable energy goods, services and technologies
VI.  Conclusion
6.  Diversifying EU energy supply to improve EU energy security
I.  Introduction
II.  The creation of a single EU energy market
A.  General overview
B.  Integration of energy markets between EU Member States
III.  Diversification of energy supplies
A.  Increasing imports of liquefied natural gas
B.  Construction of alternative pipelines and energy routes
1.  Rationale
2.  The Southern Gas Corridor
a.  The Nabucco pipeline project
b.  The Trans-Anatolian and Trans-Adriatic pipeline projects
c.  The Trans-Caspian pipeline project
3.  Russian projects
a.  South Stream
b.  Turkish Stream
C.  The Eurasian Customs Union, the Single Economic Space, and the Eurasian Economic Union
1.  Link to the broader European context
2.  The role of energy
3.  Russian energy companies
a.  Gazprom
b.  Rosneft
c.  EU sanctions against Russian energy companies
IV.  Developments in the Energy Charter Conference
A.  The role of the Energy Charter Treaty
B.  An International Energy Charter
V.  Conclusion
7.  The creation of the European Energy Union
I.  Introduction
II.  Institutional and legal framework
A.  The prelude to the initiative
B.  Speaking with a single voice on the energy front
1.  Why it would make a difference
2.  Emulating the example of the Common Commercial Policy
a.  Duty of cooperation
III.  The pillars of the European Energy Union
A.  Enhancing EU energy security: the EU and its Eastern and Southern neighbours
1.  The Energy Community
2.  The Euro-Mediterranean Energy Partnership
3.  Concluding remarks
B.  The finalization of the internal energy market
1.  Overview
2.  EU energy-related financial support
C.  Improvement of energy efficiency
D.  The transition towards decarbonization
1.  A balance between decarbonization and industrial competitiveness
2.  The Paris Agreement on Climate Change
3.  Greenhouse gas emissions reduction
E.  Technologies, research and innovation
IV.  The Energy Union and the rule of law
A.  Equality and non-discrimination
B.  Transparency
V.  Conclusion