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Energy Security, Trade and the EU

Regional and International Perspectives

Rafael Leal-Arcas, Costantino Grasso and Juan Alemany Ríos

Energy security is a burning issue in a world where 1.4 billion people still have no access to electricity. This book is about finding solutions for energy security through the international trading system. Focusing mainly on the European Union as a case study, this holistic and comprehensive analysis of the existing legal and geopolitical instruments strives to identify the shortcomings of the international and EU energy trade governance systems, concluding with the notion of a European Energy Union and what the EU is politically prepared to accept as part of its unified energy security.
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Index

Rafael Leal-Arcas, Costantino Grasso and Juan Alemany Ríos

Abkhazia 361
Abu Dhabi Fund for Development 834
Afghanistan 191, 197, 198, 201
TAPI Pipeline 18993, 195202, 205, 206, 207
Africa 67, 234, 327, 341, 377, 378, 448
EU–East African Community EPA 316
EU–Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) States PTA 310311
EU–Southern African Development Community (SADC) EPA 316
EU–West Africa EPA 316
IRENA 83
MENA region 2667, 273, 2756, 285, 404
pipelines 21120
Sub-Saharan migration 448
see also individual countries
Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) 332
agriculture 37, 430
aims of EU energy policy 268, 1045
Albania 294, 298, 299, 303, 317, 319, 348, 397, 400
Algeria 31, 32, 34, 70, 71, 112, 11920, 1334, 303, 357
EMEP 400, 402, 403
EU–Algerian Association Agreement 119, 120, 306
Alison-Madueke, Diezani 137
Amin, Adnan 82
Anderson, Kevin 426
Andorra 308
APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) 78, 88, 321, 322, 323
Arab Gas Pipeline (AGP) Project 21115, 21820
arbitrage, regulatory 239
arbitration
ECT: Model HGA 179
Kirkuk–Ceyhan Pipeline IGA 2045
South Caucasus Pipeline Project HGAs 179
TAPI Pipeline IGA 202
Yukos case 145, 3689
Arctic 118
Argentina 84
MERCOSUR 88, 1057
Arias Cañete, Miguel 385
Armenia 29, 70, 114, 360, 3623, 398
see also Eurasian Customs Union
ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) 88, 10712, 147, 448
Council of Petroleum (ASCOPE) 110
Free Trade Area (AFTA) 10910
Asia 68, 141, 231, 232, 237, 341
-Pacific Economic Cooperation 78, 88, 321, 322, 323
East 284
IRENA 83
see also individual countries
Asian Development Bank 191, 198
Australia 77, 140, 240, 321, 341, 3423, 373
Austria 39, 40, 334, 338, 377, 405
see also Nabucco Pipeline Project
Azerbaijan 70, 115, 1224, 148, 347, 350, 357, 362, 363
EU-Central Asia Strategy 125, 126
PCA with EU 122, 123
Trans-Anatolian Pipeline (TANAP) 135, 20711, 327, 3456, 349, 350, 355, 404
see also Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline Project; South Caucasus Pipeline Project
Azevêdo, Roberto 78
background to EU energy policy 1416
competences see separate entry
consumption 328
dependent and undiversified 3032
energy policy and its complications 2630, 168
energy pricing 40
energy production 389
Bahrain 130
Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline Project 169, 1756, 181, 1878, 362
commonalities and regional specificities 175
Nabucco Pipeline, South Caucasus and BTC IGAs 16972
South Caucasus and BTC HGAs 1725
Georgia and BTC Pipeline Co agreement 173, 1867
HGAs
Azerbaijan 174, 1835
Georgia 173, 174, 1835
South Caucasus and BTC 1725
Turkey 1835
IGA 1813
Nabucco, South Caucasus and BTC 16972
Turnkey Agreement: BOTAŞ Petroleum Pipeline Corp and investor consortium 1856, 189
Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan 4056
Baltic States 14, 334, 336, 33940, 343, 440
see also individual countries
Bangladesh 83
Barcelona Transit Convention (1921) 74, 152
Barroso, José Manuel 367, 426
BASF/Wintershall 367
Belarus 29, 70, 114, 352, 360, 363, 366, 373
Single Economic Space (SES) 357, 360
see also Eurasian Customs Union
Belgium 40, 116, 225, 329, 334, 339, 387, 405, 442
bilateral energy trade governance: EU 11213, 1478
Algeria 11920
Caspian alternatives
Azerbaijan 1224
Iran 12630
Kazakhstan 1245
Turkmenistan 1256
Libya 1212
Norway 11719
Persian Gulf alternatives 130131
Iraq 1345
Qatar 1324
Saudi Arabia 1312
Russia 11317
sub-Saharan Africa alternative: Nigeria 1357
United States
TTIP see Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership
biofuels 4, 267, 295
biomass 84
Bolivia 71, 105
Borten Moe, Ola 118
Bosnia and Herzegovina 294, 298, 303, 317, 318, 319, 397, 400
bottom-up approach 11213, 3335, 337
Brazil 69, 83, 88, 1057
Breakthrough Energy Coalition 4378
Brundtland Report 2467
Brunei 108
building sector 417, 418
Bulgaria 39, 116, 117, 225, 334, 338, 352, 377
see also Nabucco Pipeline Project
Burma 108, 109
Buzek, Jerzy 384
Cambodia 108
Cameroon 313
Canada 17, 77, 224, 227, 231, 319, 321
CETA 316, 3223
NAFTA 5, 43, 88, 928, 146
Canada – Certain Measures Relating toPeriodicals59
carbon capture and storage 269, 432
carbon leakage 228, 229
Cárdenas, Lázaro 95
Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM) 309
Central America 30910
see also individual countries
Central Asia 29, 67, 191, 235, 344, 349
EU-Central Asia Strategy 125, 126
see also individual countries
Central and Eastern Europe 86, 335, 3389, 377, 379, 401, 440, 442
see also individual countries
Central and South-Eastern Europe 336, 3489, 351, 406
certification of green electricity 288
challenge
governance of international trade in energy 1012
sovereignty over natural resources 1214, 66, 71
Chile 87, 105, 310, 322
China 35, 37, 54, 126, 127, 167, 232, 240, 321, 342
climate change 423, 425, 429, 438
ECT 373
EGA 77
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) 217
IEA 68, 69
renewable energy 83, 84, 85, 255
Russia 11415, 231, 235, 236, 353
shale gas 2346, 238
Turkmenistan 350
China – Publications and AudiovisualProducts60
Chinese Taipei 77, 321, 438
choice of law 17980, 186, 219
Clean Energy Network: EU-GCC 130
clean energy technology 77, 247, 266, 420, 438
climate change 13, 234, 334, 823, 272, 274, 286, 313, 320
decarbonization 2, 27, 28, 411, 412, 415, 41935, 447
balance between industrial competitiveness and 4236, 429
greenhouse gas emissions reduction 430435
Paris Agreement on Climate Change 42730
definition 246
ECT: recommendations 206
EU–Chile PTA 310
EU–Moldova PTA 300
EU–Overseas Countries and Territories PTA 312
EU–Ukraine PTA 301
Kyoto Protocol 301, 429
migration 448
petrol and diesel fuels 265
preferential trade agreements (PTAs) 50
renewable energy, energy security and 251, 2534, 255, 279, 410
shale gas 2279, 238, 239
towards mitigation of 2468, 316, 319, 324, 385, 411, 4378
decarbonization see above
difficulties 24850
coal 2, 34, 60, 144, 234
EU 14, 28, 32, 33, 98, 269, 421
-produced energy 389, 424
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) 100102, 329, 387
shale gas 223, 226, 228
Colombia 105, 320, 322
COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) 87
Commission 1, 10, 26, 49, 301, 32930, 429, 445
definition of energy security 7
diversifying natural gas supply sources 120, 1412, 339, 340342, 344, 346, 3489
Energy 2020 strategy 393, 421
energy efficiency 34, 385, 417, 418, 419, 425
energy or fuel poverty 386
ETS 4323
European Energy Union 381, 3846, 397, 3989, 400, 401, 402, 403, 406, 409, 410, 412, 41314, 415, 417, 418, 419, 425, 426, 4324, 441, 444, 445
Green Paper (2000) 24
Green Paper (2006) 27980
infringement proceedings 263, 333
internal energy market 330331, 333, 334, 335, 336
LNG terminals 1412, 339, 341
renewable energy 33, 248, 256, 2578, 263, 264, 265, 269, 27980, 425
certification of green electricity 288
obstacles 285
common commercial policy (CCP) 383, 38996
Common Foreign and Security Policy 36970
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 70, 357
see also individual countries
competences 910, 12, 13, 15, 289, 104, 3289
allocation between EU and Member States 1623, 3878, 394
Lisbon Treaty 20, 245, 388
prior to Lisbon Treaty 234
CJEU 390391
common commercial policy 38996, 445
containment of 20
shared 18, 2021, 24, 28, 389, 391, 3956, 445
competition law 441, 442
competition and LNG 338
Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) 407, 408, 409, 411, 446
consumer protection 332
consumption of energy 417
EU vis-à-vis global 328
renewable share 2545, 257, 259, 263, 265, 2912
Convention on the Law of the Sea 152
Convention Relative to the Transmission in Transit of Electric Power 73
cooperation, duty of 3926, 4456
corruption 218
Costa Rica 77, 321
Costa v Enel62
Côte d’Ivoire 313
Cotonou Agreement 135
Council 21, 223, 25, 127
Council of Europe 361
Court of Justice of EFTA States 293
Court of Justice of European Union (CJEU) 2923, 371, 390391, 392, 395, 439
Croatia 117, 340
crowding-out effect 229
Cuba 84
custom unions (CUs) 281, 308
GATT and 90, 91
cyber security 436
Cyprus 19, 38, 39, 40, 3478, 401
Czech Republic 39, 40, 338, 377, 405
data sharing: IEA 69
databases
EU–Algeria Association Agreement 120
decarbonization 2, 27, 28, 411, 412, 415, 41935, 447
balance between industrial competitiveness and 4236, 429
greenhouse gas emissions reduction 430435
Paris Agreement on Climate Change 42730
defective products 62
definitions
climate change 246
energy security 3, 610
global 36
global energy governance 3
rule of law 439
sustainable development 247
transit 154
transparency 443
Delors, Jacques 384
democracy 68, 109, 125, 126
Denmark 19, 37, 39, 40, 328, 334, 405, 406
deserts 273
developing/emerging countries 250, 266, 2789, 2867, 427, 428, 438, 448
development aid 234
discrimination 440
Energy Community 295
GATS Art V: EIAs 91
PTAs 89, 276, 279
see also non-discrimination
dispute resolution
Arab Gas Pipeline Project 215
Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline Project 173, 185, 187
climate change 4289
ECT 66, 154, 156, 15960, 161, 172, 240, 319, 372
Energy Community 297
Iraq–Jordan Agreement 219
Kirkuk–Ceyhan Pipeline 197, 2045
MERCOSUR 106
Nabucco Pipeline IGA 172, 181
NAFTA 92
Qatar–UAE Agreement 220
South Caucasus Pipeline Project 173, 17980
Azerbaijan–Turkey IGA 178
TAPI Pipeline 197, 202
WTO 5960, 139
diversifying EU energy supply 49, 148, 3268, 3378, 377, 378, 402, 4034
Algeria 120, 1334, 402
Azerbaijan 115, 1224, 148, 347
gas 100, 120, 129, 217, 238, 401
liquefied natural gas (LNG) seebelow
Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) seeseparate entry
Iran 115, 12930, 148, 342
Iraq 115, 135, 148, 343, 347
Kazakhstan 115, 148
liquefied natural gas (LNG) 327, 33843, 404
infrastructure 141, 148, 238, 2423, 327, 332, 338, 33940, 341, 343, 379, 404, 408
Iran 129, 342, 404
Nigeria 1367
Qatar 1324, 137, 217, 338, 341, 3423
US 79, 1334, 137, 140145, 146, 148, 2324, 236, 242, 327, 338, 341, 342, 404
Nigeria 115, 1367, 148
North Africa 100
Norway 100
pipelines and energy routes, construction of alternative 34357, 365, 379, 404
rationale 343
Russian Projects 3517
Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) seeseparate entry
Qatar 115, 1324, 137, 148, 217, 338, 341, 3423
renewable energy 11516, 251, 2612, 263
Saudi Arabia 115, 132, 148
Turkmenistan 115, 1256, 148
US 100, 144, 223
LNG from 79, 1334, 137, 140145, 146, 148, 2324, 236, 242, 327, 338, 341, 342, 404
TTIP 140145, 148, 233, 242, 342
Doha Round 88, 241, 301, 320321
Dolphin Gas Pipeline Project 21517, 220
due process 62
Eastern Europe 29, 284, 302, 361, 363, 3646, 403, 426, 432
Central and 86, 335, 3389, 377, 379, 401, 440, 442
Economic sanction see sanctions
economies of scale 50
ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) 327, 377, 378
Ecuador 84, 105
EFTA Court 293
Egypt 71, 21819, 303, 306, 400
Arab Gas Pipeline (AGP) Project 21115, 21820
electricity 2, 153, 271, 334
Energy Community 295, 302
EU 1415, 19, 38, 39, 2567, 330, 331, 332, 404, 405, 410412, 415
certification of green 288
cross-border trade 336
linking grids 336
market reform 417
prices 335
renewable energy 249, 2645, 288
Russia 100
Santa Llogaia–Baixàs power line 409
GATT rules 6062
IEM 10, 22, 27
MedRing project 276
MERCOSUR 107
MFN principle 64
Nord Pool 334
power lines 723
prices 40
projects of common interest (PCI) 408
Saudi Arabia 131
United States 226
Emissions Trading System (ETS) 430, 4323, 435, 447
employment
energy efficiency 416
European green sector 80, 251, 255, 421
Libya 122
renewable energy 82, 83, 251, 252, 255, 273, 2745
Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) 304, 305
Russian energy companies 365
Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) 5, 1314, 29, 49, 657, 88, 15363, 166, 23940, 31819
definition of transit 154
draft Transit Protocol 1568, 220221
Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline 1756, 1813, 184, 185, 186, 1878
Kirkuk–Ceyhan Pipeline 199, 202, 203, 204, 205, 207
Nabucco Pipeline 1756, 180181, 1878
recommendations 1889, 2067
South Caucasus Pipeline 1756, 1778, 179, 180
TAPI Pipeline 199202
Trans-Anatolian Pipeline 210
Host Government Agreement (Model HGA) 149, 153, 15863, 175, 220221
Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline 1756, 1838
MENA gas pipelines 219, 220
recommendations 1889, 206
South Caucasus Pipeline 1756, 1789, 1879
land rights 158, 1613
members 49, 66, 191, 207, 208, 220221, 240, 268, 319, 327, 373, 3745, 377, 378, 379
Model Agreements and Nabucco, BTC and South Caucasus agreements 17588
Model Intergovernmental Agreement (Model IGA) 149, 153, 15862, 163, 175, 220221
Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline 1756, 1813, 1878
Kirkuk–Ceyhan Pipeline 199, 2025, 207
MENA gas pipelines 214, 21920
Nabucco Pipeline 1756, 180181, 1878
recommendations 1889, 2067
South Caucasus Pipeline 1756, 17780, 1878
TAPI Pipeline 193, 199202
Trans-Anatolian Pipeline 210
non-discrimination 66, 153, 155, 157, 160161, 175, 239, 372
recommendations 1889, 2057, 210211, 220, 23940, 3278
renewable energy 268
right of non-interruption 1556, 161
right of transit 155, 160161
role of 3725
Yukos case 145, 369
Energy Community (EnC) 1, 9, 12, 29
EU PTAs with EnC’s Member States and Georgia 294303, 317
European Energy Union 396400, 446
energy efficiency 250, 253, 274
ECT 65
EGA 78
EU 27, 34, 35, 100, 112, 253, 255, 256, 337, 385
EnC 295, 302
ETS 432
European Energy Union 41519, 421, 4223, 425, 432, 442, 447
EU–CARIFORUM States PTA 309
EU–Central America PTA 309, 310
EU–Mexico PTA 311
EU–Norway Energy Dialogue 118
EU–Ukraine PTA 301
funding 407, 410
TTIP 138
Saudi Arabia 131
energy transit see transit, energy
environment 144, 145, 146, 187, 238, 277, 289, 309, 313, 335
Arab Gas Pipeline Project 215
ASEAN 109
Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline Project 1845
Georgia and BTC Pipeline Co Agreement 173, 186
IGA 170, 182
climate change see separate entry
Dolphin Gas Pipeline Project 216, 220
ECT 240, 372
Model IGA 163, 170
recommendations 188, 206
Egypt 218
Energy Community 295, 296
energy security and 39, 411, 415
EU–Central America PTA 30910
EU–Serbia PTA 300
EU–South Africa PTA 312
EU–Ukraine PTA 301
Iraq–Jordan Agreement 219
Kirkuk–Ceyhan Pipeline 205
liability rules 65
Lisbon Treaty 20
Nabucco Pipeline IGA 170, 181, 188
shale gas 238, 239
ecological viability 2269
South Caucasus Pipeline Project 170, 173, 180
Georgia–Azerbaijan IGA 177
TAPI Pipeline 1923, 200201, 205
Trans-Anatolian Pipeline 209, 210211
WTO 166
environmental goods see green/ environmental goods
Environmental Goods Agreement 7581, 146, 321, 322, 323
EON Ruhrgas 3667
equality 253, 439, 442
see also non-discrimination
Equatorial Guinea 71
Estonia 38, 39, 338, 340, 377, 406
EU energy policy 98105
background to see separate entry
Eurasian Customs Union 114, 147, 35760, 361, 3623, 365
Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) 29, 114, 360361, 362, 364
EURATOM (European Atomic Energy Community) 1023, 392
Euro-Mediterranean Energy Partnership (EMEP) 400403, 446
Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (Euromed) free trade zone 122
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) 100102, 329, 387
European Communities – Regimefor the Importation, Sale andDistribution of Bananas5960
European Council 263, 384, 4245
European Economic Area (EEA) 5, 117, 11819, 166, 290
EEA Agreement and EU PTAs with EFTA Member States 2913, 317, 323
European Energy Union 1, 2, 44, 327, 330, 379, 3813, 4448
Energy Community (EnC) 396400, 446
institutional and legal framework 38496
duty of cooperation 3926, 4456
example of CCP 38996, 445
pillars 396
decarbonization 411, 412, 415, 41935, 447
energy efficiency 41519, 421, 4223, 425, 432, 442, 447
energy security 396404
finalization of IEM 40415, 417
technologies, research and innovation 399, 4368
rule of law 399, 439, 448
equality and non-discrimination 43943
transparency 4434
European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI) 413, 414
European Innovation Union 1
European Investment Bank (EIB) 142, 407, 413, 446
European Neighbourhood Policy 122
European Parliament 34, 3845, 413, 425
European Structural and Investment Funds 383, 407, 413, 446
expropriation 95
external and security policy 1920
Facebook 443
Faroe Islands 313
feasibility study 198
Fiji 313, 322
financial crisis
Asian (1997–1998) 109
global (2008) 106, 382, 385, 412, 426
Finland 334, 406
food security 4
force majeure173, 180, 181, 185, 204, 219
foreign direct investment (FDI) 124, 284, 311, 394
Fourth Corridor see Southern Gas Corridor (SGC)
fracking 116, 143, 2236, 227, 232
France 127, 166, 308, 329, 333, 334, 339, 342, 387, 405, 442
Biscay Bay PCI 409
energy production 38, 39
fracking 116, 225, 227
nuclear power 416
Santa Llogaia–Baixàs power line 409
shale gas 116, 148
Francis, Pope 429
Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) 88
free trade areas and GATT 90, 91
Friendship/Iran–Iraq–Syria Gas Pipeline 21718
G7 361
gas 1, 2, 7, 11, 220, 222, 334, 343, 400
Armenia 363
Central and Eastern Europe 335
Cyprus 3478, 401
ECT 66
Egypt 21819
Energy Community 295, 302
EU 14, 33, 99, 120, 230231, 330, 3323, 404, 406, 410412
-produced energy 38, 39
Baltic States 336, 33940, 343
cross-border trade 336
energy efficiency 418
imports 3032, 34, 75, 100, 117, 119, 123, 124, 1334, 269, 3389, 340341, 3645, 377, 440443
infrastructure for LNG 141, 148, 238, 2423, 327, 332, 338, 33940, 341, 343, 379, 404, 408
LNG from Qatar 1324, 137, 217, 338, 341, 3423
LNG from US 79, 1334, 137, 140145, 146, 148, 2324, 236, 242, 327, 338, 341, 342, 404
long-term contracts 230231, 2334
prices 335, 339, 341
shale gas see separate entry
solidarity 440443
Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) see separate entry
transit via Ukraine 150
transparency 444
GATT rules 60
Gazprom 168, 244, 351, 354, 355, 3658, 371
GECF 71, 215
IEM 10, 22, 27
India 191
Iran 129, 342, 404
Iraq 134, 135, 343, 347
Israel 3478, 401
Jordan 213
liquefied natural (LNG) 129, 1324, 136, 137, 148, 231, 237, 327, 332, 352, 357, 379, 404
ecological viability 228
EGA 79, 146
increasing imports of 33843
Qatar 1324, 137, 217, 232, 338, 341, 3423
transaction costs 230
US 79, 1334, 137, 140145, 146, 148, 2324, 236, 242, 327, 338, 341, 342, 404
MERCOSUR 106
Mexico 96
MFN principle 64
Nigeria 1367, 357
Norway 31, 32, 34, 117
pipelines (including planned) 75, 230, 2423, 251, 327, 338, 365, 366
Arab Gas Pipeline (AGP) Project 21115, 21820
Dolphin Gas Pipeline Project 21517, 220
Iran–Iraq–Syria Gas Pipeline 21718
Nabucco Pipeline Project seeseparate entry
Qatar–Turkey Gas Pipeline 217
South Caucasus Pipeline Project see separate entry
South Stream Pipeline Project 348, 349, 3512, 353, 367
Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) seeseparate entry
TAPI (Turkmenistan–
Afghanistan–Pakistan–India) Gas Pipeline see separateentry
Trans-Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) 7, 327, 34650, 351, 355, 379, 404
Trans-Anatolian Pipeline (TANAP) 135, 20711, 327, 3456, 349, 350, 355, 404
Trans-ASEAN Gas Pipeline (TAGP) 110
Trans-Caspian Pipeline (TCP) Project 350351, 355
Trans-Saharan Gas Pipeline 327, 349, 404
Turkish Stream Pipeline Project 349, 3527, 404
projects of common interest (PCI) 408
Russia–Ukraine gas disputes 31, 74, 114, 150, 171, 244, 251, 351, 3645, 366
Saudi Arabia 131
shale see separate entry
Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) seeseparate entry
Turkmenistan 126, 191, 350
Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF) 71, 215
GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) 567, 139, 3956
energy transportation 73
exceptions to applicability 634
overlap with GATT 5962
regional trade agreements 91
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) 1112, 556, 58, 623, 757, 139, 395
energy transportation 735
OPEC 70
overlap with GATS 5962
PTAs 8991, 279, 285
transit rights 152, 153
US energy export restrictions 1434
Gazprom 168, 244, 351, 354, 355, 3658, 371
gender equality 253
Georgia 123, 299, 3013, 317, 319, 323, 363, 398
Russia 171, 3612
see also Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline Project; South Caucasus Pipeline Project
Gerlach & Co. BV102
Germany 15, 17, 40, 127, 334, 336, 342, 405, 406
energy production 38
Nigeria 1367
renewable energy 83, 416, 442
Russia 18, 19
West 329, 387
global economic slump 29
global financial crisis 106, 382, 385, 412, 426
globalization 1667
good faith 160
good governance 1245, 126, 129
governance by design 2, 10
grants see subsidies/support schemes/ grants
Greece 39, 142, 339, 348, 354
green/environmental goods
Environmental Goods Agreement 7581, 146, 321, 322, 323
EU 7980, 313, 320323
PTAs 299300, 301, 303, 311, 312
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) 130131, 215, 217, 240, 306
see also individual countries
Guyana 105
health 270
Hong Kong 77, 321
hostage crisis in Algeria 11920
households 378, 40, 417, 418
human rights 109, 125, 126, 127
energy transit 189, 192, 193, 2067, 210, 220
Hungary 334, 364, 3645
see also Nabucco Pipeline Project
hydroelectric power 62, 117
hydropower 84
hypotheses 456
Iceland 77, 81, 119, 2912, 293, 317, 334, 373
idealism 46
imperialism 166
indemnities 163, 173, 185, 210211
India 35, 54, 190191, 207, 231, 240, 316, 438
IEA 68, 69
renewable energy 83
TAPI Pipeline 18993, 195202, 205, 206, 207
WTO 88
Indonesia 58, 69, 107, 108, 109, 327, 3423, 404
industrial competitiveness and decarbonization 4236, 429
industry 37, 38, 40, 100, 417
information
access to 443
Azerbaijan: exchange of 123
climate change 428
digital exchange of 436
Directive 2009/28/EC 261
duty of cooperation 3923, 395
Investment Portal 414
TAPI Pipeline: IGA 2012
see also transparency
innovation, technologies and innovation 399, 4368
institutional theory 47
intellectual property 92, 392, 394
WTO 166, 390391
TRIPs Agreement 3956
interim agreements and GATT 90, 91
internal energy market 9, 10, 12, 22, 27, 105, 330337, 3789, 393, 395
Energy Community 295, 296, 298, 302
European Energy Union: finalization of 40415, 417
financial support 40615
Norway 117
renewable energy 257, 2878
International Energy Agency (IEA) 679, 84, 137, 270271, 420, 423
International Energy Charter 3278, 3758, 37980, 404
international law 18, 43, 48, 89, 151
International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) 815, 146
international standards
ECT 158, 163
TAPI Pipeline 1923, 200201
Trans-Anatolian Pipeline 209
interpretation: GATT rules 62
Investment Plan for Europe 383, 4078, 41113, 446
Iran 49, 67, 70, 71, 115, 12630, 148, 327, 342, 350, 404
Iran–Iraq–Syria Gas Pipeline 21718
renewable energy 84
sanctions 1269, 190, 342, 404
Iraq 49, 70, 115, 1345, 148, 193, 207, 343, 347, 357
Arab Gas Pipeline Project 212, 213
Iraq–Jordan Oil and Gas Pipelines Agreement 213, 21415, 21920
Iran–Iraq–Syria Gas Pipeline 21718
Kirkuk–Ceyhan Crude Oil Pipeline see separate entry
PCA with EU (2012) 134, 135
Ireland 39, 40, 336
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) 135
Islamic/Iran–Iraq–Syria Gas Pipeline 21718
Israel 77, 81, 212, 218, 303, 3067, 343, 347, 400, 401
Italy 17, 39, 40, 274, 329, 339, 348, 387
Japan 77, 316, 319, 321, 3223
Jordan 213, 218, 303, 307, 400
Arab Gas Pipeline Project 21115, 21820
Iraq–Jordan Oil and Gas Pipelines Agreement 213, 21415, 21920
Kant, I. 17
Kazakhstan 29, 67, 70, 114, 115, 1245, 148, 350, 362
EU-Central Asia Strategy 125, 126
Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) 360
PCA with EU 124, 125
Single Economic Space (SES) 357, 360
see also Eurasian Customs Union
Khodorkovsky, Mikhail 3689
Kirkuk–Ceyhan Crude Oil Pipeline 189, 190, 1935
commonalities and regional specificities 195, 198, 205
common principles 1957
regional specificities 1978
IGA 190, 194, 1957, 198, 199, 2025, 207
security concerns 1945
knowledge transfer 50
knowledge-sharing platform 266
Kopacz, Ewa 141
Korea 77, 311, 321, 322
Kosovo 294, 298, 317, 397
Kuwait 58, 130, 132
Kyrgyzstan 29, 70, 114, 360, 362
see also Eurasian Customs Union
labelling, energy 418
labour standards 175, 180, 185, 205, 220, 277, 289
ECT: recommendation 1889, 2067
land rights 158, 1613
Arab Gas Pipeline 214
Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline 182
Kirkuk–Ceyhan Pipeline 2034
TAPI Pipeline 200
Laos 108
Latin America 67, 234
see also individual countries
Latvia 39, 116, 226, 338, 340, 377, 406
least developed countries (LDCs) 287
Lebanon 90, 303, 307, 400
Arab Gas Pipeline (AGP) Project 21115, 21820
Libya 32, 34, 71, 112, 1212
Liechtenstein 119, 291, 293, 319, 322
liquefied natural gas (LNG) see under gas
Lisbon Treaty 222, 330, 384, 394
competences 20, 245, 388
sustainable development 20, 138
literal rule 62
Lithuania 39, 338, 339, 340, 377, 406
living agreement 8081
living standards: ASEAN 109
Luxembourg 1415, 39, 40, 329, 334, 387, 405
Macedonia 294, 298, 317, 319, 397
Mahmoud, M. 193
Malaysia 107, 108, 316, 3223, 327, 3423, 404
Maldives 84
Mali 84
Malta 37, 38, 39, 40, 265, 328
Masdar Corporate 305, 306
Mauritania 84, 303, 400
Mediterranean 122, 346, 3478
EU PTAs with Member States of Union for the (UfM) 3038, 31718
Euro-Mediterranean Energy Partnership (EMEP) 400403, 446
MedRing project 276
Medvedev, Dmitry 66, 361
MERCOSUR (Mercado Común del Sur or Southern Common Market) 88, 1057, 448
methane emissions 2278, 229, 239
methodology and research questions 4650
Mexico 69, 87, 93, 947, 311, 322, 438
NAFTA 5, 43, 88, 928, 146
Middle East 67, 112, 190, 232, 236, 327, 344, 349, 373, 377, 378, 402, 404
and North Africa (MENA) pipelines 211
Arab Gas Pipeline (AGP) Project 21115, 21820
commonalities and regional specificities 21819
Dolphin Gas Pipeline Project 21517, 220
future trends 21718
links to Model Agreements 21920
recommendations 220
and North Africa (MENA) and renewable energy 2667, 273, 2756, 285
see also individual countries
migration 448
Mission Innovation 438
Moldova 30, 70, 294, 298, 299300, 317, 319, 323, 363, 397
Transnistria 362
Monaco 303, 308, 400
Montenegro 294, 298, 303, 317, 397, 400
Morocco 303, 307, 316, 318, 400
most-favoured-nation (MFN) 64, 318
crude oil 58
EGA 778
GATS 64
GATT 63
NAFTA 92
Mozambique 341
Mubarak, Hosni 218
multilateral energy trade governance 1467, 286
Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) seeseparate entry
energy transportation 725
Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF) 71, 215
International Energy Agency (IEA) 679, 84, 270271, 420, 423
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 6971, 110, 127, 129, 2378, 240, 241, 319
promotion of regulatory convergence 75
Environmental Goods Agreement 7581, 146, 321, 322, 323
International Renewable Energy Agency 815, 146
World Trade Organization (WTO) see separate entry
Myanmar 108, 109
Nabucco Pipeline Project 218, 327, 3456, 367, 404
Arab Gas Pipeline Project 213
IGA 169, 1756, 180181, 1878
commonalities and regional specificities: BTC IGA, South Caucasus IGAs and 16972, 175
international company 171
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) 5, 43, 88, 928, 146
national renewable energy action plans (NREAPs) 260, 261, 263, 266
Energy Community 298
Iceland and Norway 2912
national treatment 645
ECT 155, 318
GATT 63
NAFTA 92
natural resources, sovereignty over 1214, 66, 71
neo-mercantilism 167
Netherlands 1415, 38, 40, 142, 329, 334, 339, 387, 405, 442
energy production 38, 39
networks 318, 330, 3312, 404
Energy Community 2945
innovation 436
international production 283, 284
pipelines see separate entry
transnational policy (TPN) 365, 375, 378
transportation of renewable energy 2878
WTO rules and 725
New Zealand 77, 321
Nigeria 6, 58, 71, 83, 115, 1357, 148, 357
non-discrimination 249, 276, 279
Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline Project 186
HGAs 172, 184, 185
IGA 1812
Directive 2009/28/EC 260
ECT 66, 153, 155, 239, 372
draft Transit Protocol 157
Model Agreements 160161, 175
European Energy Union 43943
EU–Moldova PTA 299
GATS Art V: EIAs 91
Nabucco Pipeline IGA 180
South Caucasus Pipeline Project Georgia–Azerbaijan IGA 176
HGAs 172, 179
Trans-Anatolian Pipeline IGA 209, 210
TTIP 2412
non-interference principle: ASEAN 1089
non-interruption, right of 1556, 161, 187
Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline Project
HGAs 184
IGA 182
Kirkuk–Ceyhan Pipeline 197, 203
Nabucco Pipeline IGA 180181
South Caucasus Pipeline Project
Georgia–Azerbaijan IGA 176
HGAs 179
TAPI Pipeline 197, 199200
Trans-Anatolian Pipeline 209
Nord Pool 334, 379
Nord Stream Pipeline 233, 352, 3667
North America 228, 231, 237, 240
see also individual countries
Northern Gulf grid 132
Norway 31, 32, 34, 112, 11719, 243, 2912, 293, 317, 377
Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan 406
ECT 373
electricity supply, security of 405
Energy Community (EnC) 398
Environmental Goods Agreement 77, 321, 322
EU–Norway Energy Dialogue 117, 118
Nord Pool 334
nuclear energy 28, 33, 38, 39, 269, 329, 416, 424, 442
EURATOM 1023
Iran 1267, 128, 190, 342
Turkey 349
Obama, Barack 144, 429
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) 67
Oettinger, Günther 118, 426
offshoring 284
oil 7, 11, 54, 60, 222, 236
ASEAN 11112
Denmark 37
Energy Community 295
EU 14, 19, 33, 37, 98, 99, 120, 231, 233, 242
-produced energy 38, 39
imports 3032, 34, 117, 119, 121, 123, 124, 134, 364
sanctions and Iran 127, 128, 129
India 190
Iran 1279, 190
Iraq 134, 193
MERCOSUR 1067
Mexico 93, 967
MFN principle 58, 64
Nigeria 136
Norway 31, 32, 34, 117
OPEC 6971, 110, 127, 2378
pipelines
Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline Project see separate entry
Iraq–Jordan 213, 21415, 21920
Kirkuk–Ceyhan Crude Oil Pipeline see separate entry
prices 567, 119, 190
reserves 167
Rosneft 3689, 3712
Saudi Arabia 131
US crude oil export ban 1424, 233, 242
Yukos case 145, 3689
Oman 130
Dolphin Gas Pipeline Project 21517, 220
OPEC 6971, 110, 127, 129, 2378, 240, 241, 319
OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe) 361
Overseas Countries and Territories– EU PTA 31112
Pakistan 190, 191, 197, 198, 201
TAPI Pipeline 18993, 195202, 205, 206, 207
Palestine 303, 307, 400
Papua New Guinea 313, 322
Paraguay: MERCOSUR 88, 1057
Peña Nieto, Enrique 96
Pentalateral Energy Forum 334, 379, 405
Permanent Court of Arbitration
Yukos case 145, 3689
Peru 105, 320, 322
Petrobart Ltd v. Kyrgyzstan159
Philippines 108
Piebalgs, Andris 118
pipelines
diversification: construction of alternative energy routes 34357, 365, 379, 404
gas see under gas
oil see under oil
piracy 236
Plama Consortium v. Bulgaria159
Poland 14, 19, 38, 3645, 405, 406, 440441
energy efficiency 41516
energy production 38, 39
LNG terminal 141, 340
Qatar 134, 141
shale gas 116, 148
political risk 230, 234
pollution 83, 109
Portugal 40, 116, 226, 333, 334, 339
poverty 250, 253, 273, 375, 386, 448
preferential trade agreements (PTAs) 67, 27780
(dis)advantages 2835
FTAs and CUs 281
integration, shallow or deep 2823
reasons for entering 280281, 284
renewable energy and see renewable energy and EU’s preferential trade agreements
trade effects of 280285
WTO and 8991, 2767, 279, 285
pricing, energy 40, 140, 141, 235, 240, 244, 258, 329, 330, 3345, 442
Armenia 363
Egypt 218
gas prices in Asia 231, 341
LNG 339, 341
oil 567, 119, 190
renewable energy 280
Russia 440
shale gas 22930, 231, 2368, 242
privacy 4367
projects of common interest (PCI) 336, 340, 401, 407, 408, 409
proportionality 20, 260, 439, 440
protectionism 167
Prussia 166
Putin, Vladimir 352, 361, 363, 365, 367, 368, 369
Qatar 58, 71, 115, 130, 141, 148, 237
Dolphin Gas Pipeline Project 21517, 220
India 190191
LNG 1324, 137, 217, 232, 338, 341, 3423
Qatar–Turkey Gas Pipeline 217
quotas 63, 70
rational choice theory 47
realism 46
regime complexes 47
regime theory 46
regional energy trade governance 1467
ASEAN 88, 10712, 147
EU energy policy 98105
MERCOSUR 88, 1057
NAFTA 5, 43, 88, 928, 146
proliferation of RTAs 1467
compatibility between WTO and RTAs 8991
role in energy sector 859
see also preferential trade agreements (PTAs)
regulatory convergence, promotion of 75
Environmental Goods Agreement (EGA) 7581, 146, 321, 322, 323
International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) 815, 146
renewable energy 4, 438
Directive 2009/28/EC (RED) 212, 252, 254, 258, 317, 323
EEA 2913
encouraging trade 2647
Energy Community 2968, 3023
potential for energy independence 25964
PTAs 285, 287, 299, 300, 301
trading with third parties 2678
ECT 268
EGA 77, 78, 80
electricity highways 336
employment 82, 83, 251, 252, 255, 273, 2745, 304, 305
EU 20, 212, 38, 80, 845, 100, 112, 145, 146, 385, 412, 415, 417, 421, 447
-produced energy 38, 39
Algeria 119
Directive 2009/28/EC see above
energy security see below EU energy security strategy
ETS 432
EU-GCC Clean Energy Network 130
European Structural and Investment Funds 407
EU–Norway Energy Dialogue 118
Germany 416
global leader 436, 446
Nigeria 1367
PTAs see renewable energy and EU’s preferential trade agreements
targets 22, 334, 116, 253, 2545, 259, 2626, 269, 410, 422, 423, 4245, 432
transparency 414
EU energy security strategy and 11516, 250252, 27980
barriers 26971
Directive 2009/28/EC see above
importance of renewable energy 2524
looking beyond EU 2736
norm 2713, 325
promotion of renewable energy 2548, 261
funding 834
global energy mix 812, 83
Iceland 2912, 293, 317
International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) 815, 146
MERCOSUR 107
Norway 117, 118, 2912, 293, 317
Saudi Arabia 1312
shale gas 229
gas turbines producing electricity 2267
solar energy see separate entry
wind energy see separate entry
renewable energy and EU’s preferential trade agreements 4950, 2445, 274, 27680
background 28990
conclusion 3235
EEA Agreement and EU PTAs with EFTA Member States 2913
Energy Community’s Member States and Georgia 2949
EU–Georgia PTA 299, 3013, 317, 319, 323
EU–Moldova PTA 299300, 317, 319, 323
EU–Serbia PTA 299, 300301
EU–Ukraine PTA 299, 301, 319
EU–Andorra PTA 308
EU–San Marino PTA 308
EU–Turkey Agreement 290, 306, 3078, 319
further promotion of RE through EU PTAs 31623
non-neighbouring countries and PTAs 30813
trade effects of PTAs 280285
(dis)advantages 2835
one party better off 2813
transportation between countries 2878
UfM Member States 3038, 31718
use of PTAs 2857, 31315
research and development grants/funds 65, 407
research, technologies and innovation 399, 4368
revolution 218
Rio+20 conference 266
risk aversion 230231
Romania 37, 117, 213, 334, 3645
see also Nabucco Pipeline Project
Rosneft 3689, 3712
rule of law 1245, 126, 129, 239
definition 439
European Energy Union 399, 439, 448
equality and non-discrimination 43943
transparency 4434
rural development: ASEAN 109
Russia 70, 126, 127, 147, 166, 231, 342, 398
Armenia 3623
Azerbaijan supply deal (2010) 123
Caspian Sea 350
China 11415, 231, 235, 236, 353
Crimea 362, 370, 372
ECT 66, 240, 268, 3734, 375, 377
energy companies 365
EU sanctions against 36972
Gazprom 168, 244, 351, 354, 355, 3658, 371
Rosneft 3689, 3712
energy networks and GATT Art V 75
EU 1, 5, 1415, 29, 30, 112, 145, 1478, 223, 319, 343, 394
Azerbaijan-Russia energy supply deal 123
Central and Eastern Europe 3389, 340
China-Russia energy supply deal 11415
gas exports to 31, 32, 34, 75, 100, 251, 3645, 377, 440443
long-term contracts 230231, 2334
Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) 11314, 11617, 371
Qatar 133
Roadmap until 2050, 114
sanctions 353, 36972
shale gas 2334, 2367
solidarity 440443
Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) 360
GECF 71
Georgia 171, 3612
Germany 18
IEA 67, 69
International Energy Charter 375, 376
pipeline projects
South Stream 348, 349, 3512, 353
Turkish Stream 349, 3527, 404
shale gas 2367
Single Economic Space (SES) 357, 360
Turkey 349, 3527, 367
Ukraine 115, 144, 352, 353, 354, 362, 370, 372
gas disputes with 31, 74, 114, 150, 171, 244, 251, 351, 3645, 366
Yukos case 145, 3689
see also Eurasian Customs Union
safety issues 187, 188
Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline Project 173, 182, 184, 205
Dolphin Gas Pipeline Project 216
ECT: Model IGA 163
South Caucasus Pipeline project HGAs 173
TAPI Pipeline 193, 200, 201, 205
Trans-Anatolian Pipeline 209
St Vincent and the Grenadines 84
Salinas, Carlos 95
Samoa 84
San Marino 308
sanctions (economic)
against Iran 1269, 190, 342, 404
against Iraq 134
against Russia 353, 36972
Sargsyan, Serge 363
Saudi Arabia 12, 58, 69, 115, 130, 1312, 148, 376
Šefcovic, Maroš 355, 385, 443
Serbia 294, 298, 299, 300301, 317, 397
services: EU energy consumption 37
shale gas 7, 116, 133, 140145, 148, 222
basics of extraction 2234
ecological viability 2269
estimated recoverable 224, 234
geopolitical impact on EU 22931
China 2346
OPEC 2378
Russia 2367
US 2324, 342
legal situation in the EU 2246
policy recommendations 23843
shale oil 222, 223, 224, 231, 447
Sierra Leone 84
Singapore 77, 87, 108, 316, 321, 3223
Slovakia 39, 334, 338, 377
Slovenia 39
soft law 428
solar energy 83, 84, 132, 226, 228, 238, 251, 254, 257, 2723, 279, 306, 438, 4467
environmental goods 321
Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) 3045
Tunisia 2735
solidarity 330, 331, 3323, 337, 388, 397, 400, 401, 439, 440443
Somalia 236
South Africa 69, 236, 240, 312
South America 236, 240
see also individual countries
South Caucasus Pipeline Project 169, 1756, 1878
commonalities and regional specificities 175
BTC and South Caucasus HGAs 1725
Nabucco Pipeline, BTC and South Caucasus IGAs 16972
HGAs
Azerbaijan 174, 17880
BTC and South Caucasus 1725
Georgia 17880
IGAs
Azerbaijan–Turkey 1712, 1778
Georgia–Azerbaijan 1767
Nabucco Pipeline, BTC and South Caucasus 16972
South-East Europe 33940, 343, 379
Central and 336, 3489, 351, 406
see also Energy Community; individual countries
South Ossetia 361
South Stream Pipeline Project 348, 349, 3512, 353, 367
Southern African Development Community (SADC) EPA 316
Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) 123, 135, 207, 34451, 355, 379
Nabucco Pipeline Project seeseparate entry
Trans-Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) 7, 327, 34650, 351, 355, 379
Trans-Anatolian Pipeline (TANAP) 135, 20711, 327, 3456, 349, 350, 355
Trans-Caspian Pipeline (TCP) Project 350351, 355
sovereign wealth funds 306
sovereignty 1819, 21, 47, 249, 363, 382, 416
ASEAN 1089
energy transit and 155, 161
over natural resources 1214, 66, 71
taxation 435
Soviet Union, fragmentation of former 87
see also individual countries
Spain 40, 166, 333, 334, 339
Biscay Bay PCI 409
fracking 116, 226
renewable energy 83
Santa Llogaia–Baixàs power line 409
spillage from pipelines 163
TAPI Pipeline 193
Trans-Anatolian Pipeline 210
Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan 436, 437
subsidiarity 335, 393, 418, 419
subsidies/support schemes/grants 147, 190, 336, 40615, 419
fossil fuel industry 270, 437
infrastructure 356, 407, 446
renewable energy 84, 254, 2578, 259, 263, 270, 287, 327, 407, 416
research and development 65, 407
supply security point of view 78
Suriname 105
sustainable development 12, 20, 105, 115, 118, 238, 24650, 313, 401
ECT 66
EGA 77, 78, 79
EU–Central America PTA 30910, 320
EU–Georgia PTA 303, 320
EU–Korea PTA 311, 320
EU–Moldova PTA 299300, 320
EU–Overseas Countries and Territories PTA 312, 320
EU–South Africa PTA 312
EU–Ukraine PTA 301, 320
IRENA 815
Lisbon Treaty 20, 138
MERCOSUR 107
Sustainable Energy Trade Agreement initiative 266
TTIP 138
Sweden 38, 39, 40, 265, 334, 405, 406
Switzerland 15, 77, 243, 291, 293, 317, 319, 321, 322, 334
security of electricity supply 405
Syria 90, 121, 303, 306, 3078, 400
Arab Gas Pipeline (AGP) Project 21115, 21820
Iran–Iraq–Syria Gas Pipeline 21718
systems theory 47
Taiwan 77, 321, 438
Tajikistan 70
Tanzania 341
TAPI (Turkmenistan–Afghanistan– Pakistan–India) Gas Pipeline 18990
commonalities and regional specificities 195, 198, 205
common principles 1957
regional specificities 1978
Framework Agreement 18990, 1923, 1956, 198, 199201, 205, 206
IGA 190, 199, 2012, 205, 206, 207
project 190191
taxation 40, 308
Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline Project 1712, 1745, 184, 185, 187
BTC–Georgia Agreement 187
Turnkey Agreement 186
carbon 4345, 447
Kirkuk–Ceyhan Pipeline 1967, 203
pipeline HGAs 1745, 179, 184, 185, 187
pipeline IGAs 1712, 177, 180, 187, 1967, 203
TAPI Pipeline 1967
technologies, research and innovation 399, 4368
technology transfer 119, 125
telecommunications 104
terrorism
financing 128
hostage crisis in Algeria 11920
South Caucasus Pipeline Project 177
Thailand 108, 316, 3223
top-down approach 11213, 164, 333
trade liberalization 5, 11, 86, 88, 109, 147, 167
ASEAN 109
ECT 372
PTAs and global 67, 2767
TTIP 137
Trans-Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) 7, 327, 34650, 351, 355, 379, 404
Trans-Anatolian Pipeline (TANAP) 135, 20711, 327, 3456, 349, 350, 355, 404
Trans-ASEAN Gas Pipeline (TAGP) 110
Trans-Caspian Pipeline (TCP) Project 350351, 355
Trans-Saharan Gas Pipeline 327, 349, 404
transaction costs 230
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) 1378, 148, 2412, 316, 3223
raw materials and natural resources 13940
secrecy 4434
US shale gas revolution 140145, 233, 342
transit, energy 123, 146, 148, 14950, 372, 398, 402
fundamentals of 150151
ECT regulation 15363
importance of transit 151
international cooperation in energy 1638
legal regime 1523
pipelines
diversification: construction of alternative energy routes 34357, 365, 379, 404
gas see under gas
oil see under oil
transit of goods, networks and WTO rules 725
transnational crime 109
transnational legal order 47
transparency 92, 139, 249, 332, 365
climate change pledges 428
definition 443
Directive 2009/28/EC 260
Egypt 218
European Energy Union 393, 395, 411, 414, 415, 4434
EU–Moldova PTA 299
IEA 69
TTIP 138, 2412
transport 37, 38, 104, 259, 408, 410, 418, 419, 430, 4334, 437, 447
Treaty on European Union (TEU) 104, 370, 392, 393, 395370, 392, 393, 395
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) 22
Art 3, 389
Art 15, 443
Art 114, 23
Art 115, 223
Art 194, 245, 104, 330, 331, 384, 388, 389, 393, 394
Art 207, 25, 389, 394
Treaty of Rome 103
Trinidad and Tobago 71
Tsipras, Alexis 354
TTIP see Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership
Tunisia 2735, 303, 307, 400
Turkey 77, 81, 123, 132, 193, 303, 349, 398
EMEP 400, 402, 403
energy transit 150, 344, 345, 349, 402
Arab Gas Pipeline Project 212
Kirkuk–Ceyhan Crude Oil Pipeline see separate entry
Qatar–Turkey Gas Pipeline 217
Trans-Anatolian Pipeline (TANAP) 135, 20711, 3456, 349
Turkish Stream Pipeline Project 349, 3527, 404
EU–Turkey PTA 290, 306, 3078, 319
Russia 349, 352, 367
Turkish Stream Pipeline Project 349, 3527, 404
see also Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan Pipeline Project; Nabucco Pipeline Project; South Caucasus Pipeline Project
Turkish Stream Pipeline Project 349, 3527, 404
Turkmenistan 70, 115, 1256, 148, 191, 201, 350, 357
EU-Central Asia Strategy 125, 126
Interim Trade Agreement with EU (1998) 125
TAPI Pipeline 18993, 195202, 205, 206, 207
Twitter 443
Ukraine 5, 30, 70, 144, 146, 294, 319, 354, 363, 370, 397
2014 crisis 115, 133, 146, 147, 207, 244, 251, 348, 352, 353, 362, 378, 384
energy transit 150
EU–Ukraine PTA 299, 301, 317
free trade zone with Russia 372
gas disputes with Russia 31, 74, 114, 150, 171, 244, 251, 351, 3645, 366
unconventional fossil fuel sources 222
shale gas see separate entry
Union for the Mediterranean (UfM)
EU PTAs with Member States of 3038, 31718
Euro-Mediterranean Energy Partnership (EMEP) 400403, 446
United Arab Emirates (UAE) 58, 71, 130, 306
Dolphin Gas Pipeline Project 21517, 220
United Kingdom 37, 40, 127, 166, 334, 336, 339, 342, 371, 432
energy efficiency 41516
energy production 38
fracking 116, 226
nuclear power 416
oil dependency 37
United Nations
Charter 4, 19, 89
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 58
Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 152
Environment Programme 247, 273, 274
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 246, 24950, 419, 42730, 438
Security Council 127, 128, 369
United States 15, 17, 54, 87, 166, 231, 345, 353, 361, 439
carbon taxation 435
climate change 423, 425, 429, 438
coal 226, 228
crude oil export ban 1424, 233, 242
ECT 373
EGA 77, 79, 146, 321, 323
Iran 127, 128, 129, 190, 342
LNG 79, 1334, 137, 140145, 146, 148, 2324, 236, 242, 327, 338, 341, 342, 404
infrastructure 232
NAFTA 5, 43, 88, 928, 146
PTAs 277, 28990, 319
TTIP see Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership
renewable energy 83, 255
shale revolution 7, 140145, 223, 227, 228, 2324, 342, 447
China 234, 236
Colorado 225
New York state 224
USTR 79
universalism, peaceful 17
Uruguay: MERCOSUR 88, 1057
Uruguay Round 58, 86
Uzbekistan 70
Venezuela 58, 71
MERCOSUR 88, 1057
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) 157, 159
Vietnam 108, 316, 3223
waste management 78
wind energy 83, 84, 226, 228, 238, 251, 254, 257, 269, 279, 438, 4467
environmental goods 321
Tafila Wind Farm Project (TWFP) 305, 306
World Bank 136
environmental and safety standards 163
World Trade Organization (WTO) 1112, 13, 14, 489, 5565, 139, 146, 442
carbon taxation 434
Central Asia 125
Doha Round 88, 241, 301, 320321
EGA negotiations 7581
energy transportation 725
EU competence regarding 390391, 3956
export restrictions 240
gridlock 88
not specifically focused on energy trade 1656
number of members 87
OPEC 7071
PTAs 2767, 279, 285
compatibility between WTO and RTAs 8991
subsidies 147
sustainable development 247
trade in goods and trade in services 5962
see also GATS; GATT
Xi Jinping 429
Yukos case 145, 3689