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Regulatory Autonomy in International Economic Law

The Evolution of Australian Policy on Trade and Investment

Andrew D. Mitchell, Elizabeth Sheargold and Tania Voon

Regulatory Autonomy in International Economic Law provides the first extensive legal analysis of Australia’s trade and investment treaties in the context of their impact on national regulatory autonomy. This thought-provoking study offers compelling lessons for not only Australia but also countries around the globe in relation to pressing current problems, including the uncertain future of the World Trade Organization and widespread concerns about the legitimacy of investor–State dispute settlement.
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Table of Cases

The Evolution of Australian Policy on Trade and Investment

Andrew D. Mitchell, Elizabeth Sheargold and Tania Voon

INVESTOR–STATE ARBITRATIONS

Short title

Full citation

Al Tamimi v Oman, Award

Adel a Hamadi al Tamimi v Sultanate of Oman, ICSID Case No ARB/11/33, Award (3 November 2015) 203

Allard v Barbados, Award

Peter A Allard v Government of Barbados, PCA Case No 2012-06, UNCITRAL, Award (27 June 2016) 240–41, 243

APR Energy v Australia, Notice of Dispute

Power Rental Asset Co Two, LLC; Power Rental Op Co Australia LLC; APR Energy, LLC and affiliates v Australia, Notice of Dispute (30 November 2016) 163

Bear Creek Mining v Peru, Respondent’s Counter-Memorial

Bear Creek Mining Corporation v Republic of Peru, ICSID Case No ARB/14/21, Respondent’s Counter-Memorial on the Merits and Memorial on Jurisdiction (6 October 2015) 203

BSG v Guinea, Procedural Order

BSG Resources Ltd v Republic of Guinea, ICSID Case No ARB/14/22, Procedural Order No 2: Transparency (17 September 2015) 186

Burlington Resources v Ecuador, Decision on Counterclaims

Burlington Resources Inc v Republic of Ecuador, ICSID Case No ARB/08/5, Decision on Counterclaims (7 February 2017) 242

Burlington Resources v Ecuador, Decision on Reconsideration and Award

Burlington Resources Inc v Republic of Ecuador, ICSID Case No ARB/08/5, Decision on Reconsideration and Award (7 February 2017) 240, 242–3

Cargill v Mexico, Award

Cargill Inc v Mexico, ICSID Case No ARB(AF)/05/2, Award (13 August 2009) 136

Chemtura v Canada, Award

Chemtura Corporation v Canada, UNCITRAL, Award (2 August 2010) 208, 213–15, 225

Clayton and Bilcon v Canada, Award

William Ralph Clayton, William Richard Clayton, Douglas Clayton, Daniel Clayton and Bilcon of Delaware Inc v Canada, PCA Case No 2009-04, UNCITRAL, Award on Jurisdiction and Liability (17 March 2015) 135, 207, 222–4

Clayton and Bilcon v Canada, Dissent

William Ralph Clayton, William Richard Clayton, Douglas Clayton, Daniel Clayton and Bilcon of Delaware Inc v Canada, PCA Case No 2009-04, UNCITRAL, Dissenting Opinion of Professor Donald McRae (10 March 2015) 223

Copper Mesa Mining v Ecuador, Award

Copper Mesa Mining Corporation v Republic of Ecuador, PCA Case No 2012-2, UNCITRAL, Award (15 March 2016) 203

Electrabel v Hungary, Award

Electrabel SA v Hungary, ICSID Case No ARB/07/19, Award (25 November 2015) 135, 136

Eli Lilly v Canada, Final Award

Eli Lilly & Company v Canada, UNCITRAL Case No UNCT/14/2, NAFTA ch 11, Final Award (16 March 2017) 58

Emmis v Hungary, Award

Emmis International Holding BV, Emmis Radio Operating BV and Mem Magyar Electronic Media Kereskedelmi és Szolgáltató KFT, ICSID Case No ARB/12/2, Award (16 April 2014) 146

Ethyl Corporation v Canada, Decision on Jurisdiction

Ethyl Corporation v Government of Canada, UNCITRAL, NAFTA ch 11, Award on Jurisdiction (24 June 1998) 215

GEA v Ukraine, Award

GEA Group Aktiengesellschaft v Ukraine, ICSID Case No ARB/08/16, Award (31 March 2011) 146

Glamis Gold v US, Award

Glamis Gold Ltd v United States, UNCTRAL, Award (14 May 2009) 136, 208, 211–13, 214, 215, 219, 225, 226

İçkale v Turkmenistan, Award

İçkale İnşaat Ltd Şirketi v Turkmenistan, ICSID Case No ARB/10/24, Award (8 March 2016) 141

Maffezini v Spain, Jurisdictional Decision

Emilio Agustín Maffezini v Spain, ICSID Case No ARB/97/7, Decision on Objections to Jurisdiction (25 January 2000) 127, 128

Metalclad v Mexico, Award

Metalclad Corporation v Mexico, ICSID Case No ARB(AF)/97/1, Award (30 August 2000) 31, 134, 220–21, 224, 225, 226

Metalclad v Mexico, Review by Supreme Court of BC

Metalclad Corporation v Mexico, ICSID Case No ARB(AF)/97/1, Review by the Supreme Court of British Columbia (2 May 2001) 222

Methanex v US, Final Award

Methanex Corporation v United States, UNCITRAL, Final Award on Jurisdiction and Merits (3 August 2005) 208–11, 213, 214, 215, 217, 225, 226

Mondev v US, Award

Mondev International Ltd v United States, ICSID Case No ARB(AF)/99/2, Award (11 October 2002) 134

Murphy v Ecuador, Partial Award

Murphy Exploration & Production Company – International v Ecuador, PCA Case No 2012-16, UNCITRAL, Partial Final Award (6 May 2016) 136

Neer v Mexico, Opinion

LFH Neer and Pauline Neer (USA) v Mexico, Mexico–United States Claims Commission, Opinion of Commissioners (15 October 1926) 133, 134, 212

Philip Morris v Australia, Jurisdictional Decision

Philip Morris Asia Ltd v Australia, PCA Case No 2012-12, UNCITRAL, Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility (17 December 2015) 8, 33, 63, 123

Philip Morris v Australia, Notice of Arbitration

Philip Morris Asia Ltd v Australia, Notice of Arbitration (21 November 2011) 177

Philip Morris v Australia, Notice of Claim

Philip Morris Asia Ltd v Australia, Written Notification of Claim (15 July 2011) 63, 137, 177

Philip Morris v Australia, Procedural Order 8

Philip Morris Asia Ltd v Australia, PCA Case No 2012-12, UNCITRAL, Procedural Order No 8 Regarding Bifurcation of the Procedure (14 April 2014) 137

Philip Morris v Uruguay, Award

Philip Morris Brands Sàrl, Philip Morris Products SA and Abal Hermanos SA v Uruguay, ICSID Case No ARB/10/7, Award (8 July 2016) 63, 64, 136, 137, 150, 192

Philip Morris v Uruguay, Jurisdictional Decision

Philip Morris Brands Sàrl, Philip Morris Products SA and Abal Hermanos SA v Uruguay, ICSID Case No ARB/10/7, Decision on Jurisdiction (2 July 2013) 192

Planet Mining v Indonesia, Application for Annulment

Planet Mining v Indonesia, Award

Planet Mining v Indonesia, Jurisdictional Decision

Pope & Talbot v Canada, Damages Award

Churchill Mining PLC and Planet Mining Pty Ltd v Indonesia, ICSID Case No ARB/12/14, ARB 12/40, Application for Annulment (31 March 2017) 168

Churchill Mining PLC and Planet Mining Pty Ltd v Indonesia, ICSID Case No ARB/12/14, ARB 12/40, Award (6 December 2016) 168

Planet Mining Pty Ltd v Indonesia, ICSID Case No ARB/12/14, ARB/12/40, Decision on Jurisdiction (24 February 2014) 167, 168, 170

Pope & Talbot Inc v Canada, NAFTA ch 11, Award in Respect of Damages (31 May 2002) 134

Pope & Talbot v Canada, Interim Award

Pope & Talbot Inc v Canada, NAFTA ch 11, Interim Award (26 June 2000) 219, 224, 225

Pope & Talbot v Canada, Merits Award Phase 2

Pope & Talbot Inc v Canada, NAFTA ch 11, Award on the Merits of Phase 2 (10 April 2001) 133, 207, 218–20, 225

Roussalis v Romania, Award

Spyridon Roussalis v Romania, ICSID Case No. ARB/06/1, Award (7 December 2011) 242

Saipem v Bangladesh, Award

Saipem SpA v Bangladesh, ICSID Case No ARB/05/7, Award (6 June 2009) 146

Saluka v Czech Republic, Partial Award

Saluka Investments BV (Netherlands) v Czech Republic, UNCITRAL, Partial Award (17 March 2006) 136

SD Myers v Canada, Partial Award

SD Myers Inc v Canada, UNCITRAL, First Partial Award and Separate Opinion (13 November 2000) 133, 134, 205, 207, 215–18, 225, 226

SGS v Pakistan, Jurisdictional Decision

SGS Société Générale de Surveillance SA v Pakistan, ICSID Case No ARB/01/13, Decision on Objections to Jurisdiction (6 August 2003) 137

SGS v Philippines, Jurisdictional Decision

SGS Société Générale de Surveillance SA v Philippines, ICSID Case No ARB/02/6, Decision on Objections to Jurisdiction and Separate Declaration (29 January 2004) 137

Tecmed v Mexico, Award

Tecnicas Medioambientales Tecmed SA v Mexico, ICSID Case No ARB(AF)/00/2, Award (29 May 2003) 31, 134, 203

Tethyan Copper v Pakistan, Provisional Measures Decision

Tethyan Copper Company Pty Ltd v Pakistan, ICSID Case No ARB/12/1, Decision on Claimant’s Request for Provisional Measures (13 December 2012) 170

Tidewater v Venezuela, Award

Tidewater Investment SRL and Tidewater Caribe CA v Venezuela, ICSID Case No ARB/10/5, Award (13 March 2015) 146

Urbaser v Argentina, Award

Urbaser SA and Consorcio de Aguas Bilbao Bizkaia, Bilbao Biskaia Ur Partzuergoa v Argentina, ICSID Case No ARB/07/26, Award (8 December 2016) 243

Vattenfall v Germany, Notice of Arbitration

Vattenfall AB v Federal Republic of Germany, ICSID Case No ARB/12/12, Notice of Arbitration (31 May 2012) 32, 203

Waste Management v Mexico, Award

Waste Management Inc v Mexico, ICSID Case No ARB(AF)/00/3, Award (30 April 2004) 135, 136

White Industries v India, Award

White Industries Australia Ltd v India, UNCITRAL, Final Award (30 November 2011) 146, 170, 171

WTO CASES

Short title

Full citation

Appellate Body Report, Argentina – Financial Services

Appellate Body Report, Argentina – Measures Relating to Trade in Goods and Services, WTO Doc WT/DS453/AB/R (circulated 14 April 2016, adopted 9 May 2016) 113, 207

Appellate Body Report, Australia – Apples

Appellate Body Report, Australia – Measures Affecting the Importation of Apples from New Zealand, WTO Doc WT/DS367/AB/R (circulated 29 November 2010, adopted 17 December 2010) 142, 200, 201

Panel Report, Australia – Automotive Leather II

Panel Report, Australia – Subsidies Provided to Producers and Exporters of Automotive Leather, WTO Doc WT/DS126/R (circulated 25 May 1999, adopted 16 June 1999) 141

Appellate Body Report, Australia – Salmon

Appellate Body Report, Australia – Measures Affecting Importation of Salmon, WTO Doc WT/DS18/AB/R (circulated 20 October 1998, adopted 6 November 1998) 141, 20

Panel Report, Brazil – Retreaded Tyres

Panel Report, Brazil – Measures Affecting Imports of Retreaded Tyres, WTO Doc WT/DS332/AB/R (circulated 12 June 2007, adopted 17 December 2007) 229

Appellate Body Report, Brazil – Retreaded Tyres

Appellate Body Report, Brazil – Measures Affecting Imports of Retreaded Tyres, WTO Doc WT/DS332/AB/R (circulated 3 December 2007, adopted 17 December 2007) 158, 160, 200, 228, 234

Panel Report, Canada – Pharmaceutical Patents

Panel Report, Canada – Patent Protection of Pharmaceutical Products, WTO Doc WT/DS114/R (circulated 17 March 2000, adopted 7 April 2000) 72

Appellate Body Report, China – Publications and Audiovisual Products

Appellate Body Report, China – Measures Affecting Trading Rights and Distribution Services for Certain Publications and Audiovisual Entertainment Products, WTO Doc WT/DS363/AB/R (circulated 21 December 2009, adopted 19 January 2010) 93

Panel Reports, China – Rare Earths

Panel Reports, China – Measures Related to the Exportation of Rare Earths, Tungsten, and Molybdenum, WTO Docs WT/DS431/R, WT/DS432/R, WT/DS433/R (circulated 26 March 2014, adopted 29 August 2014) 230

Appellate Body Reports, China – Rare Earths

Appellate Body Reports, China – Measures Related to the Exportation of Rare Earths, Tungsten, and Molybdenum, WTO Docs WT/DS431/AB/R, WT/DS432/AB/R, WT/DS433/AB/R (circulated 7 August 2014, adopted 29 August 2014) 230

Panel Reports, China – Raw Materials

Panel Reports, China – Measures Related to the Exportation of Various Raw Materials, WTO Docs WT/DS394/R, WT/DS395/R, WT/DS398/R (circulated 5 July 2011, adopted 22 February 2012) 230

Panel Reports, EC – Approval and Marketing of Biotech Products

Panel Reports, European Communities – Measures Affecting the Approval and Marketing of Biotech Products, WTO Docs WT/DS291/R, WT/DS292/R, WT/DS293/R (circulated 29 September 2006, adopted 21 November 2006) 200

Appellate Body Report, EC – Bananas III

Appellate Body Report, European Communities – Regime for the Importation, Sale and Distribution of Bananas, WTO Doc WT/DS27/AB/R (circulated 9 September 1997, adopted 25 September 1997) 207

Appellate Body Report, EC – Hormones

Appellate Body Report, European Communities – Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones), WTO Docs WT/DS26/AB/R, WT/DS48/AB/R (circulated 16 January 1998, adopted 13 February 1998) 200

Panel Reports, EC – Seal Products

Panel Reports, European Communities – Measures Prohibiting the Importation and Marketing of Seal Products, WTO Docs WT/DS400/R, WT/DS401/R (circulated 25 November 2013, adopted 18 June 2014) 200

Appellate Body Reports, EC – Seal Products

Appellate Body Reports, European Communities – Measures Prohibiting the Importation and Marketing of Seal Products, WTO Docs WT/DS400/AB/R, WT/DS401/AB/R (circulated 22 May 2014, adopted 18 June 2014) 32, 113, 200

Appellate Body Report, Peru – Agricultural Products

Appellate Body Report, Peru – Additional Duty on Imports of Certain Agricultural Products, WTO Doc WT/DS457/AB/R (circulated 20 July 2015, adopted 31 July 2015) 118

Appellate Body Report, Turkey – Textiles

Appellate Body Report, Turkey – Restrictions on Imports of Textile and Clothing Products, WTO Doc WT/DS34/AB/R (circulated 22 October 1999, adopted 19 November 1999) 117, 118

Appellate Body Report, US – Carbon Steel

Appellate Body Report, United States – Countervailing Duties on Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from Germany, WTO Doc WT/DS213/AB/R (circulated 28 November 2002, adopted 19 December 2002) 41

Appellate Body Report, US – Clove Cigarettes Appellate Body Report,

US – COOL (Article 21.5 – Canada and Mexico)

Appellate Body Report, United States – Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes, WTO Doc WT/DS406/AB/R (circulated 4 April 2012, adopted 24 April 2012) 32, 113, 207

Appellate Body Reports, United States – Certain Country of Origin Labelling (COOL) Requirements – Recourse to Article 21.5 of the DSU by Canada and Mexico, WTO Docs WT/DS384/AB/RW, WT/DS386/AB/RW (circulated 18 May 2015, adopted 29 May 2015) 159

Appellate Body Report, US – Gambling

Appellate Body Report, United States – Measures Affecting the Cross­Border Supply of Gambling and Betting Services, WTO Doc WT/DS285/AB/R (circulated 7 April 2005, adopted 20 April 2005) 160

Panel Report, US – Gasoline

Panel Report, United States – Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, WTO Doc WT/DS2/R (circulated 29 January 1996, adopted 20 May 1996) 230

Appellate Body Report, US – Gasoline

Appellate Body Report, United States – Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, WTO Doc WT/DS2/AB/R (circulated 29 April 1996, adopted 20 May 1996) 41, 200, 228, 230, 234

Panel Report, US – Section 110(5) Copyright Act

Panel Report, United States – Section 110(5) of the US Copyright Act, WTO Doc WT/DS160/R (circulated 15 June 2000, adopted 27 July 2000) 50

Appellate Body Report, US – Shrimp

Appellate Body Report, United States – Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products, WTO Doc WT/DS58/AB/R (circulated 12 October 1998, adopted 6 November 1998) 158, 200, 231, 234

Appellate Body Report, US – Tuna II (Mexico)

Appellate Body Report, United States – Measures Concerning the Importation, Marketing and Sale of Tuna and Tuna Products, WTO Doc WT/DS381/AB/R (circulated 16 May 2012, adopted 13 June 2012) 32, 200

Panel Report, US – Tuna II (Mexico) (Article 21.5)

Panel Report, United States – Measures Concerning the Importation, Marketing and Sale of Tuna and Tuna Products – Recourse to Article 21.5 of the DSU by Mexico, WTO Doc WT/DS381/RW (circulated 14 April 2015, adopted 3 December 2015) 229, 231