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Traditional Knowledge, Genetic Resources, Customary Law and Intellectual Property

A Global Primer

Paul Kuruk

The book examines the national, regional and international frameworks of protection of traditional knowledge in all regions of the world. It also discusses options to enhance the existing legal regimes including the use of customary laws and protocols; the adoption of mutual recognition agreements premised on the principle of reciprocity; and the disclosure of source or country of origin of traditional knowledge in intellectual property applications.
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Contents

Paul Kuruk

Acknowledgements

Introduction

PART I   NATURE OF SUBJECT MATTER AND COMMUNITY EXPECTATIONS

1     Terminology

1. Folklore 

2. Indigenous cultural and intellectual property or cultural heritage 

3. Traditional knowledge 

2     Exploitation of traditional knowledge of indigenous and local communities 

1. Interests in traditional knowledge 

2. The case for protection 

3     Traditional knowledge and intellectual property rights 

1. Intellectual property rights 

2. Relevance of intellectual property to the protection of traditional knowledge 

3. Gaps in the protection of traditional knowledge under intellectual property law 

PART II   INTERNATIONAL INITIATIVES

4     International intellectual property law 

1. Paris Convention 

2. Berne Convention 

3. Universal Copyright Convention 

4. Rome Convention 

5. WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty 

6. Beijing Treaty 

7. The TRIPs Agreement 

5     Folklore, cultural heritage and traditional knowledge 

1. Folklore 

2. Cultural heritage 

3. Traditional knowledge 

6     Genetic resources and biodiversity conservation 

1. Access and benefit sharing 

2. Protecting the environment 

3. Plant breeders’ and farmers’ rights 

7     Human rights and indigenous peoples 

1. International human rights instruments 

2. United Nations Economic and Social Council 

3. United Nations Human Rights Council 

4. International Labour Office 

PART III   REGIONAL AND NATIONAL MEASURES

8     Emerging trends of protection in Africa 

1. Rights under African customary law 

2. Protection under national intellectual property laws 

3. Regional arrangements 

9     Perspectives from the United States 

1. Protection of Native American heritage 

2. Constitutional issues in the quest for better protection of Native American cultural heritage 

3. United States international policy on traditional knowledge 

10   Views from Oceania 

1. Australia 

2. New Zealand 

3. Pacific Island countries 

11   Developments in other regions 

1. Europe 

2. The Americas 

3. Asia 

4. The Middle East 

PART IV   IN SEARCH OF SOLUTIONS

12   Complementary laws and policies 

1. Moral rights 

2. Public domain and domaine public payant 

3. Unfair competition laws 

4. Trade secrets laws 

5. Protocols and contracts 

6. Documentation and databases 

13   The customary law option 

1. The relevance of customary law 

2. Recognition and application of customary law 

3. Effectiveness of customary law as an enforcementmechanism 

4. Observations 

14   Preventing misappropriation: the disclosure requirement 

1. The problem of biopiracy 

2. Obligation to disclose as a policy response  

3. WIPO’s work program on the disclosure requirement 

15   Reciprocity and mutual recognition agreements 

1. Reciprocity as the basis of claims to redress wrongs 

2. Reciprocity as a principle for the recognition of theinterests of foreign rights holders 

3. Reciprocity as the cornerstone of mutual recognitionagreements 

Index