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Traditional Knowledge, Genetic Resources, Customary Law and Intellectual Property

A Global Primer

Paul Kuruk

The book examines the national, regional and international frameworks of protection of traditional knowledge in all regions of the world. It also discusses options to enhance the existing legal regimes including the use of customary laws and protocols; the adoption of mutual recognition agreements premised on the principle of reciprocity; and the disclosure of source or country of origin of traditional knowledge in intellectual property applications.
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Index

Paul Kuruk

Aboriginal arts and craft industry 258–259

Aboriginal people 15

Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders

concerns of 243–248

access and benefit sharing 98–127, 405–407

acknowledgement of source of folklore 402, 404

Afghanistan 317

Africa

customary law 141–147, 350–354

recognition of customary law 350–354

religious beliefs 146–147

rights and obligations 141–147

sanctions 146–148

social groups 141–142

African Group 60, 236–37, 444–447, 458

African Model Law 191–200, 347, 348, 349, 350, 445, 464–465

African Regional Intellectual Property Organization see ARIPO

Agenda (21) 117

Aginam, Obijiofor 16

Albania 286

Algeria 65, 152

Allott, Antony 343, 350, 378, 382

Amegatcher, Andrew Ofoe 160

American Folklife Center 212

Americas

national laws on cultural heritage 299–302

regional laws on cultural heritage 298–299

Andean Community 290–293

Community Decision (486) 293

customary law 363–365

recognition of customary law 363–365

Anderson, Jane E. 255

Angola 155

anthropologists 381–382

Antigua and Barbuda 294

Anton, Robert 19

Anyangwe, Carlson 351

Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. 25

Arezzo, Emanuela 28

Argentina 297, 302, 441

Argumedo, Alejandro 393

ARIPO 173–184

Arusha Protocol 176–177

Banjul Protocol 176

Harare Protocol 175

Swakopmund Protocol 177–184

Armenia 317

Arup, Christopher 337

Asante, Samuel K.B. 376

Asia

cultural heritage 318–320

Asiedu-Akrofi, Derek 389

Austin, Justice Raymond D. 201

Australia Law Reform Commission 255, 257, 261–262

Australia

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 253–254

Ah Chee v. South Australia 263

Apetyarr v. Northern Territory of Australia 263

Bulun Bulun v. R & T Textiles Pty Ltd. 367

Committee of Inquiry into Folklife 257–258

Copyright Act 248

cultural heritage 252–254

Fejo v. Northern Territory of Australia 369

Foster v. Mountford 251, 363, 370

government commissions on enquiry 255–262

intellectual property laws 248–250

Lovett v. State of Victoria 263

M*, Payunka, Marika v Indofurn Pty. Ltd. 244

Mabo v. State of Queensland (No 2) 368

Maralinga Tjarutja Land Rights Act 362

Milpurrurru v. Indofurn Pty Ltd 250, 366

Native Title Act 255

Patent Act 249

Phyball v. A–G 263

Pitjantjatjara Council v. Lowe and Bender 370

Plant Breeders Act 249

Protection of Movable Cultural Heritage 254

R. v. Anunga 363

R. v. Williams 363

recognition of customary law 360–363

Smith v. State of Queensland 263

Starkey v South Australia 263

stopping the rip–offs 259

Trade Practices Act 250

Trademark Act 249–250

unfair trade practice and trade secrets laws 250–252

Watson v. State of Western Australia (No. 6) 263

Western Australia v Ward 263

Wik Peoples v. State of Queensland 368

Working Party on Folklore 255–257

Yumbulul v. Reserve Bank of Australia 366

ayahuasca 399–400

Azerbaijan 314–315

Bacher, Bryan 24

Bagley, Margo A. 36

Bahrain 322

Balick, Michael J. 7, 17

Bannon, John Thomas 222

Barbados 294

Bascom, William 3

basmati rice 397–398

Bastida-Munoz, Mindahi Crescencio 48

Bayard, Thomas O. 438

Becker, Lawrence C. 437

Beeson, Ann E. 222

Beijing treaty 57

Belarus 286

Belgium 284

Bell, Dianne 342

Bello, Judith H. 440

benefit sharing 98, 103–105, 107, 109, 110–111, 118, 120, 179–180, 192, 230, 311, 336, 349, 406

Benin 155

Bennett, T.W. 385

Berendt, Kristin E. 228

Berglas, Danuta Szymura 24

Bermann, George A. 461

Berne Convention 52, 454

Berryman, Catherine 80

Bhagwati, Jagdish 438

Bhutan 321

Biber-Klemm, Susette 24

biological resources

sovereignty of the State 192

Biopiracy

Africa 393–396

Americas 399–402

cases of 393–402

definition of 392

India 396–399

Blake, Janet 81

Blakeney, Michael 23, 243, 246

Blakenship, Justin C. 203

Boast, Richard 343

Boateng, Boatema 35

Boer, Ben 89

Bolivia 290, 363, 444, 445

Bonn Guidelines 102–105, 114, 338, 406, 413

development of 101–102

the disclosure requirement 406

provisions 102–105

Bosnia and Herzegovina 287

Botkin, B.A. 3

Botswana 155, 165–166

Brandfon, Fredric 215, 355

Brandt, Elizabeth A. 220

Bratspies, Rebecca M. 17

Brazil 296, 297, 301–302, 408, 441, 445

Brenneman, Elizabeth 206

Brown, Michael F. 211

Brush, Stephen B. 8, 126, 346

Bryne, Alex Byrne 246

Bulgaria 287

Burkina Faso 155

Burundi 4, 65, 155

Busia, Kofi Abrefa 142

Bussey, Alexander 336

Cameroon 4, 65, 155

Canada 299

Cultural Property Export and Import Act 299–300

Cape Verde 155

Caribbean countries 294

Carpenter, Kristen A. 204

Carr, Jonathan 448

Castor, Theodore 3

Cazenave, B. 184

Central African Republic 4, 151

Chad 153

Chanock, Martin 387

Chaves, Antonio 28, 55

checkpoints 111–112

Chile 297

China 441, 423

cultural relics law 318–319

intangible cultural heritage law 319

patent law 313

Clark, Susanna E. 339

Clarke, Trevor J. 17

Cline, William R. 439

Cobo, Jose Martinez 7

codes of conduct 336

Colombia 291, 364, 444

Colson, Elizabeth 142

Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture 125

compensation 161, 162, 171, 180, 191

monetary and non–monetary 103, 107, 127, 171, 183, 235, 272, 311, 349, 378

competent authorities 64, 66, 68, 69, 85, 104, 110, 111, 115, 157, 178–180, 183, 192, 432

Congo 4, 149, 495

conservation of biological diversity 98–99, 110, 118, 125

constitutional issues

American 218–229

contracts 336–339

contracts

limitations 116, 338–339, 391

contractual obligations 406, 415

Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries 138–139

Convention on Biological Diversity 60–62, 84, 98–100, 338, 405

Convention on Intangible Cultural Heritage 84–88

Conway-Jones, Danielle 27

Cook Islands 268

Coombe, Rosemary J. 221

Cooter, Robert 216, 357

copyright law 30, 38–44, 51–59, 148–162

Correa, Carlos M. 349, 463

Correia de Brito, A. 458

Costa Rica 297

Cote d’Ivoire 65, 155

Cotran, E. 343

Cottier, Thomas 24

Cragg, Gordon M. 18, 337

Croatia 287

Cross, Raymond 206

Cuba 408, 445

cultural diversity 91–93

cultural heritage,

see also folklore, traditional knowledge, indigenous knowledge, traditional cultural expressions

cultural heritage 205–213

Asia 318–320

Australia 252–254

definition 9

Europe, national laws 288–290

Europe, regional laws 277–282

intangible 81–90

the Americas, national laws 299–302

the Americas, regional laws 298–299

the Middle East 324–326

UNESCO initiatives 75–90

United States 205–213

cultural property 73, 74, 190–191

Cunningham, Andrew B. 23, 337, 393

customary law communal interests 374–376

customary law courts 351–354

customary law

African 141–147, 350–354

Andean community 363–365

codification 384

collective responsibility 374

definitional issues 387–388

dynamism 343–344

effectiveness 371–391

imprecision and flexibility 385–387

individualism 376

judicial decisions 366–371

kinship relations 342

lack of uniformity 343

limitations 371–391

national systems of enforcement 376–377

nature of 341

New Zealand 357–360

Pacific Island countries 365–366

principles of liability 373–376

principles of protection 346–350

procedures for ascertainment and application 377–385

proof 378

recognition and application 350–371

relevance 341

repugnancy test 378–379

sanctions 373–374

sharing ethic 349

status 371–373

statutory customary law courts 351–354, 372

systems of recognition 350–366

United States 355–357

use of interviews 383–384

use of witnesses 381

Czech Republic 286

Daes, Erica-Irene A. 9–10, 204, 254

Dagne, Teshage W. 32

Dagne, Teshe 336

Danley, Vanessa 336

databases 36–37, 339–340

databases

defensive protection of traditional knowledge 36–37, 339–340

Davis, Theodore L. 440

de Carvalho, Eliana Torelly 37

de Carvalho, Nuno Pires 94, 329, 407, 409

de Werra, Jacques 405

Debelle, Bruce 342

defensive protection

and the disclosure requirement 36, 409–410

traditional knowledge 36–37, 339–340

Delmulle, Luc 19

Denmark 284, 285, 290

Descola, Phillepe 9

disclosure of source 36

Disclosure requirement 406, 407

Africa 162–163

and misappropriation 408–410

Andean community 293

Bonn Guidelines 406

China 313

current proposals 423–425

debates at the WTO 409–412

defensive protection 36, 409–410

draft texts on 425–431

Europe 275–277, 283–285

India 307–311

justification 408–410

Kyrgyzstan 314

legal bases 414–415

origins 402–407

Philippines 307

proposals 407–410

sanctions 416–417

scope 416

triggers 413–414

United States opposition 410–412

WIPO’s work program on 420–431

Diversity Convention 91

Djibouti 155

documentation 339–340

risks 340

domaine public payant 331–333

Dominica 294

Dominican Republic 294, 445

Donovan, Erin 401

Dougherty, Terence 368

Downes, David R. 407

Draft Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of the Heritage of Indigenous Peoples 131–134

Drahos, Peter 23

Drescher, Thomas D. 348

Driberg, J.H. 373

dual legal systems 350–354

Dunagan, Meghan 58

Dunn, C.A. 20

Durie, Eddie 343

Dutfield, Graham 16, 23, 74, 128, 200, 395, 397

Dwyer, Lorna 17, 443

Eagen, Sarah 80

ECOSOC 129–134

Ecuador 291, 364, 408, 444, 445

Egypt 155

Eiland, Murray Lee 17

Elias, T.O. 351, 375

Elizabetsky, Elaine 5, 18, 161

Elliott, Kimberly Ann 438

El-Salvador 296

enola bean 400–402

environment and genetic resources 117–121

equitable sharing of benefits 103–105, 107, 109, 110, 118, 179–180, 192, 230, 311, 336, 349, 406

Eritja, Mar Campins 139

Estonia 286

Ethiopia 395

Europe

national laws on cultural heritage 288–290

regional laws on cultural heritage 277–282

European Union 424

cultural heritage laws 277–282

Delphi Convention 280–281

intellectual property laws 273–276

Nicosia Convention 281–282

Regulation on compliance measures for users of Nagoya Protocol 275–277

Expert Mechanism on Rights of Indigenous People 138

exploitation of folklore 16–22

fair and equitable sharing of benefits 98, 99, 103–105, 107, 109, 110, 118, 179–180, 192, 230, 311, 336, 349, 406

Fallers, Lloyd 142

Farah, Paolo D. 336

Farley, Christine Haight 39, 54, 64, 209

farmers rights 123–127, 195–196, 235, 308–309

Farnsworth, Norman 17

Fehr, Ernst 437

Fernando, Dinisha L. 265

Fiji 271, 365

Fikentscher, Wolfgang 216, 357

Finland 287

Fisher, William 49

folklife

Australia 257–258

United States 212

folklore

see also traditional knowledge, cultural heritage, indigenous knowledge, traditional cultural expressions

Folklore 2, 5, 15

acknowledgement of source 149, 151, 153, 158, 402–404

as national heritage 149, 157, 186

case for protection 22–28

communal rights 39–40

compensation 22–23

dances 143

definition 3–6, 344–345

disclosure of 67

duration 169, 171

examples 143–146

expressions of 57–58

expropriation 23–24

fees for use 64–65, 148–152, 157, 161, 183, 186, 190, 193–194

gaps in protection 38–49

indication of source or origin 67

misappropriation 23–24, 243–248

misrepresentation 25–26

nationality and territoriality 159–161

preservation 27–28, 35

prior consent 67, 68

problems with definition 159

protection on the basis of reciprocity 153, 158

protection under copyright law 40–44

protection under patent law 44–47

protection under trade mark law 47–47

public disclosure 24–25

references in African copyright laws 148–162

religion 15

rights and obligations 141–147

rights resembling intellectual property 143–146

safeguarding of 35

sanctions 67

significance to indigenous and local communities 14–16

time limitation 148, 149, 152, 156, 172

unauthorized disclosure 35–36

Food and Agricultural Organization 123

foreign rights holders

enforcement problems 450–453

jurisdictional issues 450–453

nationality 453–458

protection 454–458

reciprocity 455–458

Fortes, Meyer 39, 141, 142

Fourmile, Henrietta 245, 254

Frame, Alex 358

Gabon 155, 396

Gambia 153, 395

Gangwar, Pradeep Kumar 394

Garcia, Javier 463

Gates, Mari-Elise 267

Gavrilov, E.P 26, 34, 177

Gebru, Aman 457

Genetic resources

access and benefit sharing 98–127, 405–407

access to 98–127

African Model Law 192–200

and biodiversity conservation 98–127

and the environment 117–121

Andean community 290–297

Bhutan 321

biopiracy 392–401

Bonn Guidelines 101–105

China 313

Convention on Biological Diversity 98–100

definition 11

disclosure of origin of 105

dispute settlement 112–113

European Union regulation on compliance 275–277

exploitation 16–28

fair and equitable sharing 107

farmers rights 123–127

global multilateral benefit–sharing mechanism 110

India 307–311

International Undertaking on 123–125

misappropriation of 392–402

monitoring the utilization of 111–112

Nagoya Protocol 105–114

national laws 166–170

Philippines 302–306

plant breeders rights 121–123

prior informed consent 108–109

rights of sovereign rights over 98–99, 126

social and economic value 16

sustainable use of 98–99, 102, 103, 110, 125–126

Swakopmund Protocol 177–184

the disclosure requirement 407–410

treaty on 125–127

UPOV Convention 121

Vietnam 315

WIPO draft texts 425–428

WIPO work on 94–97

geographical indications 10, 31–33, 59

definition 59

Georgia 317

Germany 284

Gershon, Leslie 204

Gervais, Daniel 38, 448

Ghana 3, 65, 146, 148, 352, 423, 451

Copyright Act 3, 5, 148

kente and adinkra 3, 35, 43, 160–161–451–452

misappropriation of folklore 452

National Folklore Board 148, 451

prerogative of chief in cloth–making 146

protection of folklore 148, 452

statutory courts 352

Tallensi 39–40

trans-boundary protection issues 160

Ghosh, Shubha 398

Gibson, Johanna 35, 341

Gluckman Max 142

Godshall, Lauren E. 7

Golvan, Colvin 39

government commissions of enquiry

Australia 255–262

Graham, Lorie 209

Granero, Fernando Santos 158, 387

Grant, Lauryn G. 209

Greaves, Tom 8, 38, 201, 328

Greece 286

Greene, Candace S. 348

Grenada 294

Grimm, Lydia T 225

Guatemala 297

Gubarev, Maxim V. 48

Guinea 65, 155

Haider, Ameera 451

Halewood, Michael 97, 237, 434

Hammer, Craig 16

Hammond, Edward 423

Harding, Sarah 220

Harmon, Mamie 43

Harry, Debra 17

Harvey, Edwin R. 332

Harvey, William Burnett 351

Hastings, Kathleen E. 459

Hayward, Janine 264

Helfer, Laurence R. 29

Hibbert, Michelle 211

Ho, Cynthia M. 63, 448

Holmer, Alan F. 440

Homere, Jean 448

hoodia 394

Horton, Curtis M. 232

Horton, Linda 459, 460

Huft, Michael J. 17

Human rights

civil and political rights128–129

collective rights 128–129, 139

economic, social and cultural rights 128–129

international instruments 128–129

of indigenous peoples 129–139

relevance for protection of traditional knowledge 128–129, 139

self-determination 7, 29–30, 203–204, 305, 462

Hungary 287

Hurtado, Daniel J. 211

India 409, 423, 445

Biological Diversity Act 309

Patents Act 307–308

Plant Varieties Protection and Farmers Right Act 308–309

traditional knowledge digital library 311

indigenous peoples and local communities 99, 117

indigenous heritage 201, 213–217

indigenous knowledge

see also folklore, traditional knowledge, cultural heritage, traditional cultural expressions

Indigenous knowledge 7

case for protection of 22–28

definition 345

exploitation of 16–22

misappropriation 243–248

indigenous peoples

see also traditional communities, local communities

Indigenous peoples 7–9, 15, 104, 118–119, 129–139, 302–305

Australia 243–248

clan 141–142

collective rights 128–129, 131, 137, 139

heritage of 131–134

kinship relations 141–143

lineage 141–142

Maori 264–268

Pacific Island countries 268–272

Philippines 302–306

right of self determination 129

rights in religion 130, 136, 139

rights to intellectual property 130, 135, 139

rights to land 132, 135, 136, 137, 139

structures 141–143

the Americas 290–297

traditional medicine 130, 135, 136

United States 201–229

indigenous resource rights 7

indigenous

definition 7–9

Indonesia 316

industrial property 51

intangible cultural heritage 81–90

intangible heritage 84–85

intellectual property categories 30–32

intellectual property protection

defensive 35–37

positive 35–37

intellectual property rights and traditional knowledge 143–46

Intellectual property rights

as human rights 139

costs 48–49

duration 48–49

fixation 42

joint works 43

moral rights 30

neighboring rights 30

novelty 42–43

ownership 38

similarities to traditional knowledge 34, 143–146

territoriality principle 452

trade secrets 32

Intellectual property

adequacy for traditional knowledge 38–49

Africa 148–162

and moral rights 30, 36, 53, 57, 58, 80, 148, 172, 188, 271, 291, 329–331

and public domain 54, 331–333

Andean community 290–293

Asia 302–318

Berne Convention 52–54

Caribbean countries 294

certification marks 31

copyright law 30, 38–44, 51–59, 148–162

definition 30

Europe, national laws 283–288

Europe, regional laws 273–277

geographical indications 10, 31–33, 59

international 51–63

justification for 32–33

Meso and South America 294–297

New Zealand 265–268

patents 31, 51, 58–59

plant varieties protection 5, 59–60, 117, 187, 247, 270, 308–309, 316, 321

relevance to traditional knowledge 34–37

service marks 31

the Middle East 321–323

the TRIPs Agreement 58–63

trademarks 31, 51–52

trademarks 31, 51–52

United States 40–48

WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty 56–57

International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants 121

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 128

International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights 128

international intellectual property 51–63

International Labour Office138–139

International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture 125–127

International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources 123–124

Iran 323

Ireland 288

Israel 323, 325–326

Italy 284

Jabbour, Alan 26, 244

Jackson, Moana 342

Jamaica 294

Janke, Terri 7, 244, 348

Janow, Merit E. 481

Japan 423, 424

Ji, Fei 270

Jordan 322

Kadidal, Shayana 393

Kalumbu, Isaac G. 37

Kam, Sarah K. 27

Kanehe, Le’a Malia 17

Kanter, Andrew M. 380

Kate, Kerry ten 17

Kauffmann, C. 458

Kayne, Steven B. 15

Kazakhstan 317

Kelter, Katherine 392

Kenney, Cortelyou C. 24

Kenya 65, 170–173, 351, 495

Khan, Yousaf Ishaq 28

Kibreab, Gaim 375

Korea 423

Kremers, Nancy 205

Kurmenacher, Thomas J. 204

Kuruk, Paul 6, 48, 75, 89, 95–96, 141, 164, 205, 231, 329, 341, 349, 344, 405, 433, 442, 448, 451

Kyrgyzstan 313–314

La Voi, Sarah 25, 368

Lahore, James 248

Laird, Sarah A. 17, 336

Langton, Marcia 104

Lapena, Isabel 339

Laurence, Robert 216, 357

Laymon, Lona N. 216, 357

Leach, MacEdward 43

Leach, Maria 2, 43, 344

Lebanon 323

Lee, Shawna 223

Lesotho 151

Lewinski, Silke von 413

Liberia 155

Libya 395

local communities

see also indigenous peoples, traditional communities

local communities 9

clan 141–142

kinship relations 141–143

lineage 141–142

structures 141–143

Longacre, Elizabeth 37

Loving, Paul E. 228

Ludsin, Halli 386

Macedonia 286

Madagascar 155, 393

Malawi 152, 155, 352

Malaysia 316

Maldives 317

Mali 4, 65, 150

Malta 287

Mandelker, Barry Steven, 26, 35

Maori 264–268, 342–343, 357–358

Maori Advisory Committee 266–267

Marshall Islands 365

Maskus, Keith 442

Matlon, Amina Para 356

Maulik, Sonali 332

Mauritius 155

Maxwell, George 385

McCarthy, Robert J. 214

McGonigle, Ian Vincent 19

McGowan, Janet 161, 389, 395

McGown, Jay 395

McIlroy, James 460

McJohn, Stephen 209

McManis, Charles R. 233

Mcneil, Kent 359

Merrill, Richard A. 459

Mesevage, Thomas 440

Meso and South America 294–297

Messenger, John C. 376

Mexico 294, 301

Meyers, Gary D. 232

Mgbeoji, Ikechi 15–16

Micalizzi, Julie 396

Michalopoulos, Constantine 444

Micronesia 365

Middle East

cultural heritage 324–326

Miller, Robert J. 25

misappropriation 34–35, 62, 392, 423, 429

and the disclosure requirement 408–410

genetic resources 392–402

jurisdictional and enforcement issues 450–454

monetary and non–monetary benefits 103, 107, 127

Mongolia 317

Montenegro 286

Mooney, Patrick R. 392

Moorcroft, Heather 246

Moore, Sally Falk 383

Moore, Steven C. 201

moral rights 30, 36, 53, 57, 58, 80, 148, 172, 188, 271, 291, 329–331

Morocco 155

Mould-Iddrisu, Betty Nah-Akuyea 15, 146

Mozambique 155

MRAs on traditional knowledge

access to traditional knowledge conditional 466

acts of misappropriation 466

benefit sharing 465

central agencies 463–465

definitions of traditional knowledge 463–464

enforcement mechanisms 466–467

principles of protection 464–467

scope of protection 463–464

Munzer, Stephen R. 36

Mutual recognition agreements

benefits 461

complementary mechanisms 467–472

definition 458–459

harmonization challenges 461

relevance to traditional knowledge 461–462

use in trade 459

mutually agreed terms 100

Nagan, Winston P. 16, 18

Nagoya Protocol 105–117, 338, 406–407, 450

access and benefit sharing clearing house 111

dispute settlement 112

fair and equitable benefit sharing 107–108

negotiations of 105–107

prior informed consent 108–110

Namibia 423

Naranjo, P. 399

national competent authority 192–193

national focal points and competent national authorities 110

national treatment 51, 53–54, 454–455

Native Americans

Government policy 201–201

self-determination of 203–205, 239

native title 359

Australia 255, 261–263

natural heritage 75–76

Ndoye, Babacar 24

Ndulo, Muna 350, 353

neem tree 377

neighboring rights 55–58

New Zealand

customary law 357–360

Haka Ka Mate Attribution Act 267–268

In re the Lundon & Whitaker Claims Act 359

intellectual property laws 265–267

New Zealand Maori Council v. Attorney–General 265

Patents Act 266–267

Public Trustee v. Loasby 379

recognition of customary law 357–360

Rira Peti v. Ngaraihi Te Paku 358

Trademarks Act 265–266

WAI 262 Claim 265

Wi Parata v. The Bishop of Wellington 358

Newton, Neil Jessup 214, 355

Nicaragua 297, 444

Niedzielska, Marie 3

Niger 154

Nigeria 4, 144, 146, 149, 423

Eshugbayi Eleko v. Government of Nigeria 379

Lewis v. Bankole 344

Re Effiong Okon Ata 379

Salau v. Aderibigbe 379

Nimmer, David 330

Nimmer, Melville B. 42

Norway 283

Ntabgoba, J.H. 173

Nwabueze, Remigius N. 16, 446

O’Brien, Sharon L. 222

OAPI 184–191

First Bangui Agreement 184–187

Revised Bangui Agreement 187–191

Obilade, Akintunde O. 341

Odek, James O. 394

Oguamanam, Chidi 16, 312

Ogwurike, Chigiok 378

Okediji, Ruth 36

Oman 323

Organisation Africaine de la Propriete Intellectuelle see OAPI

Organization of African Unity 191–200

Osei-Tutu, J. Janewa 9, 452

Osi, Carlo 385

Overwalle, Geertrui van 23

Pacific Island countries 268–272

customary law 365–366

national laws 268–272

recognition of customary law 365–366

Pacific Model Law, 271–272, 330, 347, 348, 349, 350

Pager, Sean 25

Palosaari, Naomi 25, 356

Panama 295–296

Papua New Guinea 269, 365

Paraguay 295

Paris Convention 51, 454

Parker, A.E.W 141

Patel, Surendra J. 8, 346

Patent Cooperation Treaty, 176

patent laws

African countries162–163

patents 31, 51, 58–59

Patrick, Geraldine A. 48

Patrick, Hugh T. 438

Pelkmans, J. 458

performers 57–58

Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues 134

Perry, Mark 25

Peru 49, 291–293, 364, 423, 444, 445

Phelan, Marilyn 207

Philippines 302–307

Indigenous Peoples Rights Act 302

Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act 305–306

Philips, Arthur 352

Pimbert, Michel 393

plant breeders rights 31, 121–123, 196

plant varieties protection 5, 59–60, 117, 187, 247, 270, 308–309, 316, 321

Porter, Robert Odawi 357

Portugal 283

Posey, Darrell A. 7, 16, 23, 39, 41, 66, 68, 74, 75, 121, 131, 139, 162, 336, 338, 397

prior informed consent 100, 102, 104, 108–109, 111, 149, 164, 167, 170, 171, 179, 192, 198, 394, 405, 409, 415

Pritchard, Sarah 128

protocols 336

public domain 54, 331–333

free access to information 218–221

Puri, Kamal 15, 54, 243, 329

Qatar 323

Rai, M. 397

RaoRane, Meghana 342

Raustiala, Kal 36

reciprocity argument

application in trade 438–442

need for concessions 449–450

reciprocity principle 455–458

recognition by UNESCO 457

recognition by WIPO 456–457

arguments by the United States 438–442

Reciprocity 29, 348, 349, 433, 436

basis for protection of folklore 68

basis of benefit sharing 39, 348–349

definition 437

equity and fairness 446–447

invoking the principle in the WTO 444–449

national laws 153, 158

WIPO Model Provisions 68, 433

recognition of customary law

Africa 350–354

Andean community 363–365

Australia 360–363

New Zealand 357–360

Pacific island countries 365–366

United States 355–357

recognition of foreign rights

national treatment 454–455

reciprocity principle 455–458

recognition of interests of foreign rights holders 450–53

registers 167, 178, 254, 339

Reid, John 37

Repatriation

of traditional knowledge 131, 136, 210, 245, 300, 304, 324, 467

return of indigenous property 210

rights and obligations

under African customary law 141–147

Riley, Angela R. 24, 25, 44, 347

Roberts, Jason C. 206

Roberts, Simon 383

Robinson, Daniel F. 394

Roht-Arriaza, Naomi 339

Romania 287

Rome Convention 55

Roscoe, John 14, 40, 142

Rosendal, Kristin 233

Rossler, Mechtild 78, 79

rosy periwinkle 393

Rubin, N.N. 343

Rubin, Steven M. 18

Ruiz, Manuel 339

Russia 318

Rwanda 156

Ryser, Rudolph C. 201

Sackville, Justice Ronald 6

Samoa ,269–270, 365

Samuels, Edward 218

San Salvador Convention 298–299

Sanctions

under African customary law 146–148

Sapp, Heather A. 339

Sarbah, John Mensah 385

Sassoon, David 25, 74

Saudi Arabia 322

Schmidt, Klaus M. 437

Schuler, Lindsay 239

Seeger, Anthony 39

Seidemann, Ryan M. 202

self-determination 7, 29–30, 203–204, 305, 462

Sem, Daniel S. 134

Senegal 4, 65, 156

Serafini, Mauro 19

Serbia 285

service marks 31

Seychelles 156

Shabalala, Bafana 356

Sharma, Seemantani 53, 340

Sherkin, Samantha 53

Shiva, Vendana 397

Shroff, Arvin P. 460

Sieghert, Paul 204

Sierra Leone 153, 396

Simpson, Tony 300, 345

Sinitsina, Irina 376

Slovakia 287

Slovenia 286

Smith, Shannon F. 472

Smolczynski, Vincent M. 29

social groups

African 141–142

social organization of indigenous peoples and local communities

clan 141–142

kinship relations 141–143

lineage 141–142

structures 141–143

Sodipo, Bankole 14, 32, 141

Soleri, Daniela 27, 375

Solomon Islands 271, 365

South Africa 162, 354, 394, 423

Alexkor Ltd et al v. Richtersveld Community 369

San people 394–395

South Korea 441

Sovereignty

and cultural property 79, 80, 447

claims by indigenous peoples 70

of the State over biological resources 192, 419

tribal 215, 217

Spangler, Stephanie 340

Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous of Peoples 137–138

Sri Lanka 316

St. Christopher and Nevis 294

Stabinsky, Doreen 8

Steinberg, Richard H. 461

Stevenson, Gelvina Rodriguez 46, 49

Stolzman, Merv 324, 325

Suagee, Dean B. 204

Sudan 152

sui generis laws

Africa 163–173, 177–184, 191–200

protection of traditional knowledge 60, 72, 163, 231, 271, 390

Suthersanen, Uma 128

Swakopmund Protocol 177–184, 330, 341, 348

genetic resources 177–184

Sweden 284

Switzerland 285, 287

Taiwan 441

Tanzania 156

Taubman, Anthony 470

Taylor, Acher 2–3

technology transfer 100, 113, 120, 448

Thailand 315–316, 320, 409, 441, 445

The Middle East 321–326

Thomasson, G.C. 144

Thompson, Cliff 353

Tobin, Brendan 128

Togo 156

Torkornoo, Gertrude 24

trade secrets laws

limitations of 335–336

trademarks 31, 51–52

traditional communities

see also indigenous peoples, local communities

traditional communities 9

traditional cultural expressions 11–13

traditional cultural expressions

see also folklore, traditional knowledge, cultural heritage, indigenous knowledge

traditional knowledge

see also folklore, cultural heritage, indigenous knowledge, traditional cultural expressions

Traditional knowledge rights

basketry 145–146

clothing 143, 160

craft 143

dances 143

designs 143, 146

examples 143–146

musical instruments 145

pottery 145

sculpture 143, 146

song 144–146

Traditional knowledge

agriculture industry 22

and trade secrets laws 335–336

authentication 26

botanical industry 18–20

case for protection 22–29

commercialization 16–17

communal rights 39–40

compensation 22–23

complementary laws and policies 328–430

conservation of biodiversity 28

control of 26–27

cosmetic industry 20–21

definition 10–13, 344–345

entertainment industry 25

environment 27

exceptions and limitations 154, 182, 188

exploitation 16–22

expropriation 23–24

gaps in protection 38–49

healthcare 15–16

markets 22

misrepresentation 25–26

nationalism 28

pharmaceutical industry 17–18

preservation 27–28, 35

proposals at the WTO 442–449

protection under copyright law 40–44

protection under patent law 44–47

protection under trade mark law 47–47

public disclosure 24–25

reciprocity 29

religion 15

repatriation of 131, 136, 210, 245, 300, 304, 324, 467

rights and obligations 141–147

rights resembling intellectual property 143–146

safeguarding of 35

secret knowledge 24–25

significance to indigenous and local communities 14–16

unauthorized disclosure 35–36

transboundary cooperation 110

trans-boundary protection issues

Ghana 160

Tremolada, Ricardo 336

tribal courts 213–217

Indian 355–357

tribal sovereignty 215, 217

Trinidad and Tobago 294

TRIPs Agreement 58–63, 409, 412, 442–444

disclosure of traditional knowledge 62

perceived inequities 447–449

requests for review 445–447

review of 59–63

TRIPs Council 446

Tsosie, Rebecca 203

Tunis Model Law 64

Tunisia 65, 156

Turkey 323–325

Turmenistan 317

turmeric 396

Tuvalu 366

Ubink, Janine 352

Udeinya, Iroka 161, 389, 395

Uganda 145, 146, 156

Ukraine 286, 287

UNESCO and WIPO Plan of Action on Folklore 71–72

UNESCO Illicit Trade Convention 73

UNESCO proclamation on masterpieces 82

UNESCO Recommendation on the Safeguarding of Traditional Culture and Folklore 70–71

UNESCO World Heritage Convention 75

ICH Intergovernmental Committee 86

UNESCO 5, 64, 65

Illicit Trade Convention 457

initiatives on cultural heritage 75–90

living human treasures program 81

recognition of reciprocity principle 457

regional consultations 72

world heritage committee 77

world heritage list 77

unfair competition laws

limitations 334–335

UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects 75

United Arab Emirates 322–323

United Kingdom 288

Attorney General of New Zealand v. Ortiz 289

National Heritage Act 288

Waverly report 288

United Nations Charter 130

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification 119

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 134–137

United Nations Economic and Social Council see ECOSOC

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization see UNESCO

United Nations Human Rights Council 134–138

United States constitution

and trademark law 228

first amendment 221–229

free exercise clause 221–224

free speech 228–228

freedom of religion 227–228

the establishment clause 225–227

United States 410, 422, 423, 424

United States

aggressive unilateralism 438

American Folklife Preservation Act 212

Antiquities Act 205

Archaeological Resources Protection Act 209

Attaki v. United States 227

Badoni v. Higginson 222, 227

Bear Lodge Multiple Use Association v. Babbitt 226–227

Chilkat Indian Village v. Johnson 216, 369

City of Albuquerque v. Browner 227

Code of Indian offenses 214

Conservation Law Found. v. FERC 228

Copyright Act 41–43

cultural heritage 205–313

customary law 355–357

Dennis v. Pitner 45–46

Estate of Thornton v. Caldor, Inc. 225

Federal Trade Commission Act 334

Harjo v. ProFootball, Inc. 227–228

Havasupai Tribe v. U.S. 150

Historic Sites, Buildings and Antiquities Act 206

Hornell Brewing Co. v. Rosebud Sioux Tribal Court 368

Huakina Development Trust v. Waikato Valley Authority 378–379

Indian Appropriation Act 213

Indian Arts and Crafts Act 208

Indian Reorganization Act 214, 356

international obligations 229–230

Iowa Mut. Ins. Co. v. LaPlante 215, 356

Lanham Act 47

Lee v. Weisman 225

Lockhart v. Kenops 231

Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Ass'n 224, 228

Marsh v. Chambers 225

Matal v. Tam 229

National Historic Preservation Act 207

National Stolen Property Act 213

Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act 210

Patent Act 44–46

Peyote Way Church of God v. Thornburgh 222

policy at FAO 235

policy at the WTO 235–237

policy at UNEP 232–235

policy at UNESCO 230–231

policy at WIPO 237–242

policy in international fora 230–242

Pollock v. Marshall 222

reciprocity argument 439

recognition of customary law 355–357

Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez 215

section 301439–442

Sequoyah v. Tennessee Valley Authority 223

Sherbert v. Verner 222

Trade Act of 1974439–440

Uniform Deceptive Trade Practices Act 334

United States v. Abeyta 222

United States v. Dion 222

United States v. Top Sky 222

Wallace v. Jaffree 226

Wilson v. Block 227

Wisconsin v. Yoder 222

Zorach v. Clauson 225

Universal Copyright Convention 54

Universal Declaration of Human Rights 128

UPOV Convention 121–123

Upton, Brian 203

Uruguay 297

Uzbekistan 317

Vanuatu 270–271, 365–366

Varadarajan, Deepa 36

Venezuela 297, 409, 445

Vermeulen, T. 385

Vietnam 315

Vogt, David B., Esq. 16

Voyce, Malcolm 358

Waitangi treaty 264, 360

principles 264–265

Waitangi Tribunal 264

Wanda, Boyce B. 353

Wassel, Deborah 147

Weiner, Janice G. 54, 443

West Africa

Angu v. Attah 378

Bonsi v. Adjena 378

Re Adadevoh 379

Western Samoa 365

Westmoreland, Chante 336

Whitfield, Bruce 385

Wilkinson, Charles 206

Williams, David 357

Williams, Robert A 216

WIPO Draft Treaty for Protection of Expressions of Folklore 68–70

WIPO fact–finding missions 93–94

WIPO Model Provisions 5–6, 66–68, 330, 403–405, 431–434

reciprocity 68, 433

WIPO Performances and Phonograms treaty 56

WIPO 5, 10–13, 64, 65

agenda on genetic resources 94–97, 418–431

draft negotiating texts 422, 429–430

draft text on cultural expressions 422, 454

draft text on genetic resources 421–422, 425–428

draft text on traditional knowledge 422, 429

draft treaty on folklore 68–70, 330, 402–403, 431–434

General Assembly 420–421

Global Intellectual Property Issues Division 93

Intergovernmental Committee 73, 94–97, 418–420

mandate 417–418

Phuket conference 71–73

regional consultations 72

work program on the disclosure requirement 420–431

Wiser, Glenn 399

Wood, Mary Christina 222

Woodman, Gordon R. 381

Woodmanse, Martha 42

Working Group on Access and Benefit Sharing 101

Working Group on Indigenous Populations 129–130

World Intellectual Property Organization see WIPO

World Summit on Sustainable Development 105–106

WTO 59–63

debates on the disclosure requirement 409–412

ministerial conferences 61

Wynberg, Rachel 394

Yamin, Farhana 39, 66, 139

Yang, Chih–Chieh 374

Yassine, Julie 40

Younging, Gregory 343

Yu, Peter K 25

Zaire 65

Zambia 166–170, 352, 409

Zimbabwe 145, 154, 409

Zweig, Jennifer Lynn 203