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Certification and Collective Marks

Law and Practice

Jeffrey Belson

Certification and Collective Marks is a thoroughly updated and augmented edition of Certification Marks, first published in 2002. This comprehensive study forms a wide-ranging inquiry, with comparisons of the certification and collective mark systems of the UK, EU and US, whilst also referring to other systems. In addition to the laws and policies impacting ownership and use of these marks, also addressed are their historical development, registration and protection, certifiers’ liability, legal and commercial significance, use in regulatory and technical standardization frameworks, and emergent sui generis forms of certification, namely ecolabels and electronic authentication marks in digital content. This publication is especially timely in light of the advent of the EU certification mark and the controversial EU proposals to extend the Geographical Indications system to include non-agri-food products.
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TABLE OF LEGISLATION

Jeffrey Belson

European Union

Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No. 664/2014 of 18 December 2013 supplementing Regulation (EU) No. 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the establishment of the Union symbols for protected designations of origin, protected geographical indications and traditional specialities guaranteed and with regard to certain rules on sourcing, certain procedural rules and certain additional transitional rules. O.J. L. 179/17, 19.6.2014 5.72

Annex 5.72

Commission Regulation 1726/98 of 22 July 1998 amending Regulation 2037/93 laying down detailed rules for the application of Council Regulation 2081/92 on the protection of geographical indications and designations of origin for agricultural products and foodstuffs. O.J. L. 224, 11.08.1998 5.67, 5.70, 5.71, 5.72

art. 5 5.67

art. 10 5.72

Annex II 5.67

Council Decision 93/465/EEC of 22 July 1993 concerning the modules for the various phases of the conformity assessment procedures and the rules for the affixing and use of the CE conformity marking, which are intended to be used in the technical harmonization directives. O.J. L. 220/23, 30.8.1993 6.54

Council Directive 83/189/EEC of 28 March 1983 laying down a procedure for the provision of information in the field of technical standards and regulations. O.J. L. 109/8, 26.4.1983 6.36, 6.41

art. 1(1), (5) 6.38

Council Directive 85/337/EEC of 27 June 1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment. O.J. L. 175/40, 5.7.1985 7.18

Council Directive 85/374/EEC of 25 July 1985 on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States concerning liability for defective products. O.J. L. 210/29, 7.8.1985 4.28, 4.30, 4.58

art. 1 4.28

Council Directive 89/104/EEC of 21 December 1988 to approximate the laws of the Member States relating to trade marks. O.J. L. 40/1, 11.2.1989 2.29, 2.30, 3.13

art. 6 3.91

Council Directive 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices. O.J. L. 169/1, 12.7.1993 4.53, 4.58

Council Regulation (EEC) 2081/92 of 14 July 1992 on the protection of geographical indications and designations of origin for agricultural products and foodstuffs. O.J. L. 208/1, 24.7.1992 3.40, 5.69, 5.79

Council Regulation (EC) No 40/94 of 20 December 1993 on the Community trademark (CTM). O.J. L. 11/1, 14.01.1994 2.29, 2.31

Council Regulation (EC) No 509/2006 of 20 March 2006 on agricultural products and foodstuffs as traditional specialities guaranteed. O.J. L. 93/1, 31.3.2006

art. 2(1)(b) 5.63

Council Regulation (EC) No 510/2006 of 20 March 2006 on the protection of geographical indications and designations of origin for agricultural products and foodstuffs. O.J. L. 93/12, 31.3.2006 5.74

Council Regulation (EC) No 207/2009 of 26 February 2009 on the Community Trade Mark. O.J. L. 78/1, 24.3.2009 2.31, 3.49, 5.93, 5.97

art. 7(1) 3.49

art. 7(1)(b) 3.48

art. 7(1)(c) 2.34, 3.46, 3.48

art. 7(2) 3.48

art. 66(1) 5.92, 5.97

art. 66(2) 5.97

art. 67 5.91

Council Resolution of December 21 1989 on a global approach to conformity assessment. O.J. C. 10/1, 16.01.1990 6.31

Decision EC/2008/768 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 July 2008 on a common framework for the marketing of products. O.J. L. 218/82, 13.8.2008 6.49

Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases. O.J. L. 77/20, 27.3.1996 8.31

Ch. III, art. 7 8.31

art. 10 8.31

Directive 98/34/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 1998 laying down a procedure for the provision of information in the field of technical standards and regulations and of rules on Information Society services. O.J. L. 204/37, 21.7.1998 6.39, 6.40

art. 1(1) 6.39

art. 3 6.41

arts 23–27 6.41

Directive 1999/93/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 1999 on a Community framework for electronic signatures. O.J. L. 13/12, 19.1.2000 8.17

art. 2(2) 8.17

Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in the internal market. O.J. L. 178/1, 17/07/2000 6.80

art. 8 6.80

art. 16 6.80

Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council

of 22 May 2001on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society. O.J. L. 167/10, 22.6.2001 8.28

recital 48 8.33

art. 6 8.43

art. 6(1) 8.28, 8.30

art. 6(2)(a)–(c) 8.29

art. 7 8.43

art. 7(1) 8.31

art. 7(2) 8.44

art. 12(1) 8.43

Directive 2001/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 December 2001 on general product safety. O.J. L. 11, 15.1.2002 4.33

Directive 2005/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 May 2005 concerning unfair business-to-consumer commercial practices in the internal market and amending Council Directive 84/450/EEC, Directives 97/7/EC, 98/27/EC and 2002/65/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Regulation (EC) No 2006/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council. O.J. L. 149/22, 11.6.2005 5.16

Directive 2006/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 on machinery, amending Directive 95/16/EC. O.J. L. 157/24, 9.6.2006 6.34

art. 5.1 6.34

art. 16 6.34

Directive 2008/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2008 to approximate the laws of the Member States relating to trade marks. O.J. L. 229/25, 8.11.2008 2.30, 5.06

Directive 2012/19/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). O.J. L. 197/38, 24.7.2012 Annex IX 7.16

Directive 2014/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 April 2014 on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States concerning the manufacture, presentation and sale of tobacco and related products and repealing Directive 2001/37/EC. O.J. L. 127/1, 29.4.2014 7.39

recital 53 7.39

Directive (EU) 2015/1535 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 September 2015 laying down a procedure for the provision of information in the field of technical regulations and of rules on Information Society services. O.J. L. 241/1, 17.9.2015 6.36, 6.37

art. 1.1 6.36

Directive (EU) 2015/2436 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2015 to approximate the laws of the Member States relating to trade marks. O.J. L. 336/1, 23.12.2015 3.13, 5.06, 5.95

art. 4(1)(c) 5.95

art. 14 3.91

art. 29(3) 5.95

Regulation (EC) No 1980/2000 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 July 2000 on a revised Community ecolabel award scheme. O.J. L. 237/1, 21.9.2000 7.07

recital 6 7.07

art. 3 7.07

Regulation (EC) No 765/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 July 2008 setting out the requirements for accreditation and market surveillance relating to the marketing of products and repealing Regulation (EEC) No 339/93. O.J. L. 218/30, 3.8.2008 3.58, 3.59, 3.61, 6.50, 6.51

recital 15 6.50

Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on official controls performed to ensure the verification of compliance with feed and food law, animal health and animal welfare rules. O.J. L. 165/1, 30.4.2004

art. 2(5) 5.64

art. 5 5.66

Regulation (EC) No 66/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2009 on the EU Ecolabel. O.J. L.27/1, 30.1.2010

recital 5 7.07, 7.25

Annex I, s. 2 7.32

Regulation (EU) No. 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 November 2012 on quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs. O.J. L. 343/1, 14.12.2012 5.63, 5.67, 5.72

recital 1 5.63

recital 47 5.67

art. 3(3) 5.63

art. 5(1), (2) 5.68

art. 12(2) 5.72

art. 12(3), (6) 5.74

art. 13 5.78

art. 23(2) 5.72

art. 23(3), (6) 5.74

art. 36 5.64, 5.67

art. 37 5.64

arts 38, 39 5.66

art. 45(a) 5.67

art. 51(1) 5.69

art. 59 5.74

Regulation (EU) No 910/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 2014 on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the internal market repealing Directive 1999/93/EC. O.J. L. 257/73, 28.8.2014 8.17, 8.23–8.24

art. 2(1) 8.17

art. 2(2) 8.17

art. 3(25) 8.20

art. 12(8) 8.24

Annex 1 8.20

Regulation (EU) 2015/2424 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2015 amending Council Regulation (EC) No. 207/2009 on the Community trade mark and Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2868/95 implementing Council Regulation (EC) No. 40/94 on the Community trade mark, and repealing Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2869/95 on the fees payable to the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market. O.J. L. 341/21, 24.12.2015 3.13

Regulation (EU) 2017/745 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2017 on medical devices, amending Directive 2001/83/EC, Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 and Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 and repealing Council Directives 90/385/EEC and 93/42/EEC. O.J. L. 117/1, 5.5.2017 4.59

Regulation (EU) 2017/746 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2017 on in vitro diagnostic medical devices and repealing Directive 98/79/EC and Commission Decision 2010/227/EU. O.J. L. 117/176, 5.5.2017 4.59

Regulation (EU) 2017/1001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2017 on the European Union trade mark. O.J. L. 154, 16.6.2017, pp. 1–99 3.01, 3.13, 5.89, 5.94

art. 74(1) 3.46, 3.127, 3.131

art 74(2) 5.89, 5.94

art 75(2) 3.131

art. 83 3.10, 3.18

art. 83(1) 2.36, 3.15

art. 83(2) 2.37, 3.15

art. 84 3.18

art. 84(1) 2.38, 3.17

art. 84(2) 2.38, 3.17

art. 85(1) 3.18

art. 85(2) 3.18, 3.54

art. 90 3.20

art. 90(2) 3.20

art. 151(3) 3.17

art. 170(4) 3.19

Single European Act 1986 2.30

Treaty of Rome 2.30

Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union 6.75, 6.78

art. 26 6.31

arts 28, 29 6.08

arts 28–37 6.31

art. 101 5.53, 6.72, 6.75

art. 102 5.53, 6.68, 6.75

Treaty establishing the European Community

arts 81, 82 6.79

Treaties and Conventions

Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Including Trade in Counterfeit Goods (TRIPS Agreement) 1.16, 3.33–3.40, 3.55, 5.68, 5.79, 5.81

Pt. 2, s. 3 3.33

art. 2.1 3.34

art. 3 5.80

art. 3.1 3.41, 3.42

art. 16 5.80

art. 16.1 5.81

art. 17 5.81

art. 22.1 3.33, 3.56, 5.68

art. 22.2(a) 3.35

art. 23 3.36

art. 23.1, 2 3.36

art. 63 5.80

Benelux Convention on Intellectual Property (Trademarks and Designs) (Convention Benelux en matière de propriété intellectuelle (marques et dessins ou modèles), last amended by the Protocol of 22–07–2010. Publication: Belgium: Moniteur Belge 2013–07–17; The Netherlands: Trb. 2010, 236; Luxembourg: Moniteur A, n° 158, 29.08.2013. Date of entry into force: 01–10–2013 3.26

art. 2.34(1) 3.26

Dresden Agreement 6.61

Frankfurt Agreement 6.61, 6.63

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade dated 30 October 1947, annexed to the Final Act of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment (Havana Conference) (GATT 1947) 6.08, 6.17, 6.18

arts III, XI, XX 6.17

Geneva Act of the Lisbon Agreement on Appellations of Origin and Geographical Indications (as adopted on May 20, 2015) 3.38

International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage 1992 4.50

art. III.4 4.50

Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration, 31 October 1958, as revised 14 July 1967 923 U.N.T.S. 205 3.37, 3.38

Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (1994) 6.08, 6.30

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 (GATT 1994) 3.41, 6.08, 6.22

art. III.4 3.41, 3.42

art. XI 6.10

art. XIX 6.08

Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property of March 20, 1883 as revised at Brussels on December 14, 1900, at Washington on June 2, 1911, at the Hague on November 6, 1925, at London on June 2, 1934, at Lisbon on October 31, 1958, and at Stockholm on July 14, 1967, and as amended on October 2, 1979 2.48, 2.50, 3.31, 3.32, 3.40, 7.46

art.s 1–12 3.34

art. 7bis 2.48, 3.01, 3.25, 3.31, 3.34, 5.88, 5.93, 7.46

art. 7bis(1) 5.88

art. 7bis(2) 3.31, 3.137

art. 7bis(3) 5.88

art. 19 3.34

Treaty between England and Sweden, signed at Uppsala, 11 April 1654 6.16

art. IV 6.16

Treaty of Commerce between Great Britain and Portugal, signed at Lisbon, 27 December 1703 6.16

arts I, II 6.16

Vienna Agreement on Technical Cooperation between the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and CEN, June 1991 6.61, 6.62

WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade 1995 (TBT) 6.08, 6.12, 6.20, 6.22, 6.28, 6.29, 6.82

art. 1 6.20

arts 2–15 6.20

art. 2.2 7.04

art. 2.7 6.12

art. 2.8 6.11

art. 2.11 6.36

art. 4 6.28

art. 5 6.21, 6.29

art. 5.2 6.21

art. 6 6.29

art. 6.1 6.12

art. 6.1.1, 1.2 6.12

art. 8.1 6.29

Annex 1 6.08, 6.20, 6.26, 7.12

Annex 2 6.20

Annex 3 6.20, 6.27

World Copyright Treaty (WCT) Geneva, December 20, 1996 8.25, 8.42

art. 11 8.26, 8.27, 8.28

art. 12 8.26, 8.42, 8.43

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Geneva, December 20, 1996 8.25, 8.38

National Legislation

Australia

Trade Marks Act 1995

s. 169 2.53, 8.06

s. 171 3.81

Canada

Trade-marks Act (CTMA) 3.01

s. 23(3) 3.01

s. 30(f) 3.01

Israel

Trade Marks Ordinance 1972

ss. 8(a), 14(b) 3.77

United Kingdom

28 Edw. 2, c.20 (1300) 2.10

37 Edw. 3, c.7 (1363) 2.10

2 Hen. 6, c. 14 (1423) 2.11

9 Hen. 4 (1407–8) 2.12

19 Hen. 7, c.7 (1503) 2.14

Consumer Protection Act 1987 4.27, 4.28–4.32

Pt. 1 4.28–4.32

s. 2(1), (2) 4.28

ss. 4, 6 4.31

s. 6(1) 4.32

Consumer Protection (Amendment) Regulations 2014 (SI 2014/870) 5.17, 5.55

Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 (SI 2008/1277) (CPUTR 2008)     5.16–5.18, 5.50, 5.55

reg. 2(1) 5.55

reg. 4 5.55

reg. 5 5.17, 5.50, 5.56

reg. 5(2)(a) 5.17, 5.50

reg. 5(4) 5.17

reg. 5(4)(b) 5.17

reg. 5(4)(f), (o), (p) 5.17, 5.50

reg. 5(4)(o), (p) 5.17

reg. 5(5)(o) 5.50

Pt. 3 5.55

reg. 9 5.17

reg. 12 5.17

reg. 16, 17 5.18

Part. 4A 5.17

Sch. 1 5.17

Competition Act 1998 5.52, 6.78

Ch. 1 6.79

s. 2 6.78

s. 18 6.78

Consumer Rights Act 2015 5.10–5.15, 5.29, 5.50

s. 2(3) 5.10

s. 9 5.15

s. 9(1), (2) 5.11

s. 9(5), (6) 5.12

s. 11 5.15

s. 11(1), (3) 5.13

Defamation Act 2013

s. 4(1), (4) 4.64

Electronic Communications Act 2000 8.19, 8.21–8.22

Pt 1 8.21

s. 7 8.21

s. 15(1) 8.22

s. 15(2) 8.22

Pt 2 8.21

Electronic Signatures Regulations 2002 (SI 2002/318) 8.19

Enterprise Act 2002

s. 8(1), (2) 5.54

s. 8(4), (6) 5.57

General Product Safety Regulations 2005 (SI 2005/1803) 4.33–4.36

reg. 2 4.33, 4.34

reg. 5(1) 4.34, 4.35

reg. 20(1) 4.35

reg. 29(1), (3) 4.36

Judicature Acts of 1873–75 2.22

Merchandise Marks Act 1887 5.51

Sale and Supply of Goods Act 1994 4.18, 4.25, 5.01, 5.19, 5.29, 5.30

s. 13 5.19

Sale of Goods Act 1893 5.29

Sale of Goods Act 1979 4.18, 4.25–4.27, 5.01, 5.30

s. 2(1) 8.07

s. 11(3) 5.26

ss. 12–14 5.19

s. 13 5.13, 5.14, 5.19

s. 14(2) 4.18, 5.19, 4.29

s. 14(2A) 4.25

s. 14(2B) 4.26, 5.19

s. 14(2C) 5.19

s. 53(2) 4.26

Telecommunications Act 1984 8.22

Trade Descriptions Act 1968 5.50

Trade Marks Act 1905 1.07, 2.25, 2.27, 2.39, 2.53, 2.58, 3.32

s. 3 2.25, 8.48

s. 62 2.26, 2.50, 2.58, 3.32, 8.48

Trade Marks Act 1919 2.27

s. 62 3.71

Trade Marks Act 1937 2.27

Trade Marks Act 1938 2.27, 2.28, 2.29, 3.79, 5.07

s. 28 2.28

s. 37(1) 2.53

Sch. 1, para. 4–1a 3.71

Trade Marks Act 1994 (TMA 1994) 2.05, 2.29, 2.53, 2.59, 3.09, 3.24, 3.51, 3.72, 3.76, 3.79, 3.81, 3.106, 3.108, 3.116, 3.118, 5.02, 5.06, 5.07, 5.44, 5.47, 7.22, 7.46

s. 1 2.29

s. 1(1) 5.32

s. 1(2) 3.89, 3.121, 5.48

s. 2(1) 7.22

s. 3(1)(b) 7.36

s. 3(1)(c) 3.09, 3.23

s. 3(3)(a) 5.102

s. 10 3.89, 3.121

s. 10(1) 3.89, 5.44

s. 10 (2) 3.89, 5.44

s. 10(1)–(5) 3.92

s. 10(4) 3.90, 5.44

s. 10(5) 3.106, 3.122

s. 10(6) 3.92

s. 11 3.91

s. 19(2) 3.106, 3.122

s. 22 7.22

s. 39 3.74

s. 46 5.31

s. 46(4) 5.47

s. 49 2.59, 5.98, 5.99, 7.46

s. 49(1) 3.108

s. 50 2.05, 2.59, 3.08, 3.72, 3.84, 5.17, 5.27

s. 57(3) 5.07

s. 89 3.106, 3.122

s. 92 5.48

s. 92(2) 5.48

s. 93(1), (5) 5.48

s. 95 5.49

Sch. 1 3.22, 3.118, 3.121, 5.98, 5.103, 5.104

Sch. 1, para. 3(1), (2) 3.23

Sch. 1, para. 4 3.74, 5.100

Sch. 1, para. 4(1) 3.22, 3.111, 5.103

Sch. 1, para. 5 3.24, 3.116, 5.99, 7.46

Sch. 1, para. 5(1) …5.103

Sch. 1, para. 5(2) … 5.103

Sch. 1, para. 8 3.117

Sch. 1, para. 11 3.122

Sch. 1, para. 12(2)–(4) 3.123

Sch. 1, para. 12(6) 3.124

Sch. 1, para. 13 5.99

Sch. 1, para. 13(a), (b) 3.118, 3.119, 3.120

Sch. 1, para. 13(c) 3.119

Sch. 2 3.73–3.74, 3.84, 3.89

Sch. 2, para. 2 3.73, 3.77

Sch 2, para. 3(1) 3.09

Sch 2, para. 3(2) 3.09, 3.52

Sch. 2, para. 4 2.53, 3.73, 3.81, 5.47

Sch. 2, para. 5 3.54, 5.100

Sch. 2, para. 5(1) 3.74, 5.47

Sch. 2, para. 5(2) 3.74, 5.27

Sch. 2, para. 6 3.73

Sch. 2, para. 6(2) 3.17, 3.75, 3.87

Sch. 2, para. 7(1)(b) 3.70, 3.73

Sch. 2, para. 10 3.75, 5.28

Sch. 2, para. 12 3.73, 3.107

Sch. 2, para. 13 3.106

Sch.2, para. 14 3.93

Sch.2, para. 15 3.73

Sch.2, para. 16 5.47

Trade Marks Registration Act 1875 2.24, 2.27

s. 1 2.24

s. 3 2.24

s. 10 2.24

United States

Audio Home Recording Act 1992 8.10

California Franchise Investment Law 5.59

s. 31005.5 5.59

Digital Millenium Copyright Act 1998 8.38, 8.40, 8.41

s. 1201 8.38

s. 1202 8.38, 8.45, 8.46

Dolphin Protection Consumer Information Act (DPCIA) 6.11

Georgia Tort Reform Act 4.86

National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act 1995 (NTTAA) 3.63

s. 12(b) 3.63

Restatement of Torts 2d 4.34, 4.66

s. 311 4.66, 4.67, 4.68, 4.74

s. 323 4.66, 4.67

s. 324A 4.66, 4.67, 4.68, 4.77

s. 400 4.82

s. 402A 4.34, 4.71, 4.88

Restatement (Third) of Torts 4.83

s. 14 4.83, 4.84, 4.87

Trademark Act 1870 2.39

Trademark Act 1876 2.39

Trademark Act 1905 2.39

Trademark Law Revision Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–667, 102 Stat. 3935 2.39, 3.118

Trademarks Act 1946 (Lanham Act) 2.39, 2.40, 2.43, 3.12, 3.25, 3.28, 3.69, 3.112, 3.126, 3.133, 5.105, 7.34

s. 1(b) 3.76

s. 2(a) 7.41

s. 2(e) 7.41

s. 2.45(a) 3.76

s. 4 3.112, 3.126

s. 5 2.43

s. 14 3.82, 7.34, 7.46

s.14(3) 2.41

s. 14(5) 2.54

s. 15 2.42

s. 32 2.40, 3.94

s. 33(b) 2.42

s. 33(b)(4) 3.95

s. 45 2.41, 2.43, 3.25, 3.126, 5.17

s. 1052(e)(2) 5.111

s. 1054 5.111

Uniform Commercial Code 4.18, 4.24, 5.34

art. 2–314(1) 4.18, 4.24