Law and Practice
Chapter 5: THE LEGAL AND COMMERCIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF CERTIFICATION AND COLLECTIVE MARKS
This chapter investigates the legal and commercial significance of certification and collective marks, both of which serve as something other than an indication of the individual source of the product. Certification marks are used to certify conformity of one or more product characteristics to particular standards. Where quality is to be certified, certification marks indicate attainment of a minimum quality level; they do not by themselves facilitate differentiation between superior and inferior goods or services from different sources. The statutory object of a collective mark is to attest to membership of the individual source of the goods or services in an association, which owns the mark. Unlike certification marks, which generally are available for use on all products meeting the standard, use of a collective mark on products is confined to the products of the association’s members. Key words: certification mark; collective mark; geographical indication
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