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Certification and Collective Marks

Law and Practice

Jeffrey Belson

Certification and Collective Marks is a thoroughly updated and augmented edition of Certification Marks, first published in 2002. This comprehensive study forms a wide-ranging inquiry, with comparisons of the certification and collective mark systems of the UK, EU and US, whilst also referring to other systems. In addition to the laws and policies impacting ownership and use of these marks, also addressed are their historical development, registration and protection, certifiers’ liability, legal and commercial significance, use in regulatory and technical standardization frameworks, and emergent sui generis forms of certification, namely ecolabels and electronic authentication marks in digital content. This publication is especially timely in light of the advent of the EU certification mark and the controversial EU proposals to extend the Geographical Indications system to include non-agri-food products.
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INDEX

Jeffrey Belson

accreditation bodies

EU 3.58, 3.62, 6.50

national 3.583.61, 6.516.53

UK 6.526.53

advertisements 3.92, 5.03, 6.77, 7.64

advertising standards

environmental claims 7.50, 7.607.63

UK, in 7.507.53

US, in 7.567.65

apparent manufacturer doctrine 4.824.89

appellations of origin 1.16, 3.373.38

see also geographical indications

assay marks 2.11

association marks 1.07, 2.572.58, 3.31, 3.32

Australia 3.24, 3.413.42, 3.44, 3.86, 7.16

authentication 8.02, 8.22

authentication marks 8.068.07, 8.49

Brundtland Commission 1987 7.05

Canada 3.01, 3.44

CE mark 6.03, 6.33, 6.35, 6.476.48, 6.546.55

CEN 6.566.62

CENELEC 6.566.63

certification 2.04

common law rights 2.442.47

competence 3.703.71

contractual interpretation 5.215.25

costs, recovery 4.04

descriptions, and 5.225.25

digital signatures 8.198.20

environmental 7.17

fees 3.873.88

franchises, compared 5.605.61

implied terms 5.225.25

negligent certification 4.424.44, 4.524.60

practicalities 3.703.71

quality implications 5.225.25

rights development 2.442.54

certification marks

see also infringement; registration

accessibility 3.833.85

characteristics 3.083.12, 3.093.12, 3.513.54

collective marks, similarities 3.263.30, 3.1333.136, 3.139

definitions 3.12, 3.72, 5.05, 5.07

EU law, under 2.362.38

collective marks, as 3.293.30

conformity assessment 3.583.62

dispute resolution 3.17, 3.193.20

exclusions 3.153.16

geographical origins 3.10, 3.153.16

guarantees, as 5.06

infringement actions 3.20

introduction 3.143.20

recognition 3.01

refusal, grounds for 3.18

regulations governing use 3.17

geographical origins 3.10, 3.153.16, 3.33

historical development 1.01, 1.061.07, 2.012.03, 2.062.14, 2.13

legal personality 4.21

legal treatment 1.03, 3.1333.136

limitations 1.03, 1.14, 3.793.80

ownership 3.07

purpose 3.053.06, 5.055.08, 8.04, 8.47

quality standards, as 2.47, 3.08, 3.11, 4.18

regulations governing use 3.17, 3.753.76

regulatory instruments, as 3.583.68

standards, as 6.75

technical regulations, as 6.03

trademarks, compared 3.08, 5.315.33

UK law, under

assignment 3.107

competence to certify 3.703.71

descriptive-use defences 3.91

development 3.32

disclaimers 3.793.80

dispute resolution 3.17

distinctiveness 3.773.78, 5.82

fees 3.873.88

geographical names as 3.513.52, 5.82

guarantees, as 5.055.07

infringement 3.893.93

limitations 3.793.80

own use restriction 3.81, 3.139, 5.47, 5.58, 8.06

refusal 3.54, 3.74, 3.833.85, 5.100

registration 3.523.53, 3.733.74, 3.76, 5.465.47

trademarks, compared 3.138, 5.83

US law, under

accredited third-party testing 3.643.68

co-branding 5.115

conformity assessment 3.583.62, 3.633.68

descriptive-use defences 3.95

geographical indications 5.111

geographical names 3.553.57

infringement 3.943.99

marketing guidelines 5.03

no-challenge clauses 3.1033.105

nominative fair use defences 3.953.99

own use restriction 3.82, 3.139, 5.58

registration 3.25, 3.76

revocation 3.82

self-certification 3.68

standard-setting 3.66

statutory definitions 1.12, 3.12

trade association ownership 4.744.75

warranties, as 5.345.42

CERTIFIED GENUINE IDAHO POTATOES GROWN IN IDAHO 3.56

certifiers

defect detector, as 4.194.20

manufacturers as 4.044.07

certifiers' liability 4.01

see also product liability

apparent manufacturer doctrine 4.824.89

case trends 4.91

causation 4.094.10

defamation, and 4.644.65

duty of care 4.404.44

implied 4.60

inspection duties 4.424.44

negligence 4.39

reasonable foreseeability 4.09, 4.41

skill and judgment, reliance on 4.60

third-parties 4.44, 4.90

wrongful denial of approval 4.63

economic loss 4.384.39, 4.614.62

EU, in 4.534.59

immunity 4.48, 4.94

mistake 5.21

setting aside of certificate 5.21

shipping inspections 4.454.51

silicone gel breast implant cases 4.534.59

strict liability 4.11

fairness and utility 4.134.21

product liability 4.274.32

third-party certifiers, and 4.12

tortious liability 4.91

burden of proof 4.37

economic loss 4.384.39, 4.614.62

unfair commercial practices 5.18

US, in 4.664.70, 4.91

duty of care 4.424.44

inspection duties 4.234.24, 4.424.44

Chartered Trading Standards Institute 5.57

checkoffs 5.115

circumvention

access control devices 8.41

anti-circumvention measures

copyright treaty provisions 8.27

EU law, under 8.288.37

US law, under 8.388.41

definitions 8.39

legality 8.338.37

permitted exceptions 8.38

classification societies

criminal prosecution 4.46

duties of care 4.484.49

immunity 4.48, 4.94

limitations 4.47

national variations 4.484.51

purpose 4.45, 4.924.93

shipping inspections 4.454.51

co-branding schemes 5.1125.113

codes of practice 5.54

definitions 5.555.56

E-commerce, for 6.806.81

misleading actions 5.56

official symbols 5.57

ownership 5.525.55

standardization 6.276.29

collective marks 1.02

accrual of rights 3.109

certification marks, similarities 3.263.30, 3.1333.136, 3.139

churches and charities 3.115

co-branding, as 5.1125.113

commercial necessity 5.1015.104

confusion, likelihood of 3.45, 3.111, 3.115, 3.121, 5.1005.104

definitions 2.33, 3.21, 3.263.27, 3.1083.109, 3.126, 3.128, 5.99, 5.105

ecolabels, as 7.46

EU law, under 2.29, 2.312.35, 3.127

certification marks, as 3.293.30

definition 3.127

domestic regimes, interaction with 3.473.50

eligibility 3.46, 5.895.93

exclusions 5.94

geographical indications, as 5.945.97

infringement proceedings 3.132

limitations 5.94

purpose 3.45, 3.1283.131

refusal, grounds for 3.45

registration 3.21, 3.453.46, 3.1273.131

signs 5.95

geographical indications, and 2.34, 3.333.35, 5.945.97

historical development 2.29

international protection 3.21, 3.31, 3.333.40, 3.137

legal personality, and 3.131, 5.895.93

legal treatment 1.03, 3.21, 3.1333.136, 5.88

limitations 1.03, 2.35, 3.01, 3.223.23

own use restriction 5.87

proprietors 3.110, 5.87

purpose 2.59, 5.865.87

quality, recognition of 3.273.29

refusal, grounds for 3.31, 5.88, 5.100

revocation 3.1183.120, 5.99

symbols 3.26

trade associations, and 3.1133.114

trademarks, compared 3.1113.112, 5.1015.104

UK law, under

accrual of rights 3.109

churches or charities 3.115

co-branding 5.113

definitions 3.1083.109, 5.99

development 3.32

eligibility standards 3.1163.117

infringement 3.121

infringement proceedings by authorized users 3.1233.124

registration 3.1133.115, 5.98

regulations governing use 5.99, 7.46

revocation 3.1183.120, 5.99

trade associations or professions 3.1133.114

trademarks, compared 3.111, 3.138

uses of 3.111

US law, under

co-branding 5.115

collective membership marks 5.1065.107

definitions 3.126, 5.105

development 3.1253.126

eligibility 5.108

geographical indications 5.111

geographical names 3.553.57

ownership 5.108, 5.110

registration 3.25, 3.1253.126, 5.105

regulations governing use 5.109, 7.46

trademarks, compared 3.112

uses of 3.112

collective membership marks 3.25, 5.1065.107

colour, use of 7.387.41

Community Trade Marks 3.293.30, 5.97

competition

abuse of dominant position 6.786.79

anti-competitive practices 5.53, 6.74, 6.786.79

certification, accessibility 6.756.77

patent ambush 6.74

positive effects 6.73

UK law, under 6.786.79

conformity

certification marks 5.505.51

conformity assessment systems

anti-competitive practices 6.76

EU, in 3.583.62, 6.31, 6.426.43

US, in 3.633.68

false indications of 5.505.51

mutual conformity assessments 6.126.14, 6.206.21, 6.31, 6.826.83

technical barriers to trade, as 6.06, 6.206.21

conformity assessment bodies (CABs)

EU 3.58, 3.62, 6.446.49, 6.50

national 3.583.61, 3.593.61, 6.516.53

Notified Bodies 6.486.49

confusion, likelihood of

CE mark 6.54

certification marks 3.89, 3.95, 5.47, 5.83

codes of practice, misleading actions 5.56

collective marks 3.11, 3.45, 3.111, 3.115, 3.121, 5.1005.104

consumer protection 5.165.17

EU GIs system, and 5.825.83

trademarks, registration 5.44

Consumer Codes Approval Board 5.57

consumer protection law

certification marks 5.155.18

certifiers' liability 4.284.32

codes of practice 5.545.57

consolidation 5.10

contract of sale, certification by 5.20

definitions 5.01, 5.10

description, matching requirement 5.135.14

ecolabels 7.677.73

express warranties 5.355.36, 5.41

false certification, and 5.165.17

implied terms, breach 5.01, 5.195.20

implied warranties 5.375.42

importance 5.03

information asymmetry 7.69

official symbols 5.57

principles 5.105.15

product liability 4.284.32

remedies 5.15

satisfactory quality 5.115.12, 5.295.30

trustworthiness, and 7.70, 7.80

unfair trading practices, and 5.165.17

US, in 5.34

coopers' marks 2.122.13

copyright

digital representations

anti-circumvention measures 8.278.41

EU law, under 8.288.37, 8.438.44

proportionality 8.338.37

rights management information 8.31, 8.428.46

US law, under 8.388.41, 8.458.46

WIPO Treaty 8.258.46

ecolabels 7.47

information goods 8.07

Copyright Treaty (WIPO) 8.258.26

anti-circumvention measures 8.278.41

definitions 8.27

digital signatures 8.258.26

EU implementation 8.288.37, 8.438.44

rights management information 8.31, 8.428.46

US implementation 8.388.41, 8.458.46

CPA and C.P.A. (Chartered Intitute of Patent Attorneys) marks 3.114

CRADLE TO CRADLE certification 7.31, 7.45

DARJEELING 3.56, 5.94, 5.96, 5.97

defamation 4.644.65

defective products see product liability

descriptions 5.26

certification marks, in 5.275.28

quality, distinction from 5.225.25

digital products 8.01

see also digital signatures; digital watermarks

authentication marks, purpose 8.49

certification marks

authentication marks, differences from 8.068.07

own use restriction 8.06

suitability 8.048.06, 8.47

copyright protection

anti-circumvention measures 8.278.41

EU law, under 8.288.37, 8.438.44

proportionality 8.338.37

rights management information 8.31, 8.428.46

US law, under 8.10, 8.388.41, 8.458.46

WIPO Treaty 8.258.46

encryption 8.148.20

interoperability 8.238.24

digital signatures 8.01, 8.158.20

access control 8.41

certification authorities 8.198.20

EU law, under 8.17, 8.238.24

evidence, as

admissibility 8.248.25

authenticity 8.158.18

interoperability 8.24

removal, unauthorized 8.31

UK law, under 8.18, 8.218.22

digital watermarks 8.01, 8.088.10

access control 8.10, 8.41

creation 8.088.09

encryption 8.13

evaluation 8.12

limitations 8.098.10, 8.13

purpose 8.08, 8.108.11

removal, unauthorized 8.31

statutory measures 8.10

disclaimers 3.793.80

distinctiveness

certification marks 3.773.80, 5.82, 7.73

disclaimers 3.793.80

ecolabels 7.73

Dolphin-Safe (US Dept. of Commerce ecolabel) 6.11, 7.01, 7.74

DOWNMARK 3.30

E-commerce, codes of practice 6.806.81

Eco Options (mark) 7.01, 7.23

ecolabels

accompanying explanations 7.647.65

advertising standards 7.497.52, 7.567.59, 7.64

brand image 7.73

certification marks, as 7.34, 7.42, 7.45

collective marks, as 7.46

composition 7.02, 7.727.74

consumer protection 7.677.73

credibility 7.677.69

definitions 7.01, 7.15–71.7

designation of source 7.427.43

development 7.07, 7.13, 7.15, 7.777.78

distinctiveness 7.73

duality conflicts 7.03, 7.42, 7.44

eligibility criteria 7.11, 7.187.20, 7.317.34

environmental certification 7.17

environmental claims, as 7.487.55

EU schemes

criticism 7.297.30

eligibility criteria 7.32

management 7.257.28

examples 7.01, 7.23, 7.53

guidance 7.49, 7.577.59, 7.64

intellectual property rights, and 7.03, 7.35, 7.42, 7.47

international regulation 7.747.76

licensed use 7.04, 7.21, 7.24

Life Cycle Analysis 7.09–7.10, 7.187.20, 7.75

limitations 7.08, 7.28, 7.66, 7.77

management 7.21, 7.247.27

ownership 7.01, 7.05, 7.217.23

performance 7.72

private vs. public goods 7.66

promotion 7.26

public interest conflicts 7.05, 7.08

purpose 7.067.09, 7.137.14

reputation 7.71

stakeholder consultation 7.10

standards 7.117.12

Ecolabel Type I 7.08, 7.19, 7.24

Ecolabel Type II 7.19, 7.24

Ecolabel Type III 7.19, 7.24

sustainability, and 7.05

technical barriers to trade, as 7.74, 7.76

tiered schemes 7.31

trademarks 7.22, 7.367.44

transparency 7.12, 7.25, 7.78

trustworthiness 7.707.73, 7.80

UK, in 7.49

understanding, need for 7.67, 7.79

US, in 5.03, 7.08, 7.17

advertising standards 7.567.59, 7.64

certification marks, as 5.03, 7.59, 7.647.65

class actions 7.607.63

enforcement actions 7.56, 7.587.59, 7.647.65

voluntary schemes 7.74

EcoLeaf 7.19

Ecotricity 7.55

EcoWindows 7.517.52

effective technology, definition 8.27, 8.30, 8.40

EN Standards 6.32

ENERGY STAR 5.355.36, 5.38, 7.23, 7.337.34, 7.45

environmental certification 7.17

see also ecolabels

environmental-friendliness

advertising standards 7.507.53

consumer protection, and 7.677.73

ecolabels, claims as 7.487.55

green claims guides 7.49, 7.577.59, 7.64

green (colour) trademarks, and 7.387.41

misrepresentation 7.41, 7.48

environmental protection, generally 7.757.76

EPEAT 7.45

ETSI 6.56, 6.60

EU Flower 7.01, 7.23, 7.32

European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) 6.566.63

European Telecommunications Institute (ETSI) 6.56, 6.60

European Union Ecolabelling Board (EUEB) 7.26

European Union Joint Research Centre (JRC) 7.27

Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

advertising standards 7.567.57, 7.607.65

certification marks 5.03, 7.59, 7.64, 759

ecolabels, and 5.03, 7.17

enforcement actions 7.567.59, 7.647.65

franchises 5.59

certification, compared 5.605.61

franchisor-franchisee relationships 5.595.60

FRAND licensing 6.68, 6.706.72

Frankfurt Agreement 6.63

fraudulent misrepresentation 2.172.18, 2.212.22, 5.49

GATT 1994

most-favoured nation treatment 6.15

national treatment obligations 3.413.42, 5.795.81

no less favourable treatment 3.413.42, 6.21

Uruguay Round reforms 6.20

geographical indications 5.68

certification marks, as 3.513.54, 5.765.77

exclusions 3.10, 3.153.16

US law, under 3.553.57

co-branding 5.114

collective marks, as 2.342.35

compared 5.765.77

EU law, under 5.945.97

protection prohibitions 2.342.35

TRIPS Agreement 3.333.35

concept development 2.44, 3.140

consumer protection 5.16

EU law, under

agricultural products and food 5.625.63, 5.625.64, 5.735.74, 3.40

applications 5.76

certification marks, and 3.10, 3.153.16, 5.755.77

certification scheme 5.645.65

collective marks, and 5.755.77, 5.945.97

confusion, likelihood of 5.825.83

definitions 5.68

generic terms 5.77

guarantees, as 5.67

importance 5.62

infringement 5.78, 5.83

logos, international protection 5.735.74

logos, requirements for 5.62, 5.705.72, 5.84

market surveillance and control 5.66

non-agricultural products 3.433.44, 5.85

Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) 5.63, 5.645.65, 5.685.74, 5.795.81

Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) 5.645.65, 5.685.74, 5.795.81

purpose 5.67, 5.965.97

reform proposals 3.16

registration 5.76

renewal 5.76

Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG) 5.635.65

WTO dispute vs. US 5.795.81

generic terms 5.77

limitations 1.16

trademarks, and

distinction from 2.45

as guarantees of 5.06

TRIPS Agreement 3.333.39

definitions 5.68

refusal, grounds for 3.35, 3.39

US vs. EU dispute 5.795.81

UK law, under 5.73

US law, under

agricultural products and food certification marks 3.56

distinctiveness 5.111

non-agricultural products certification marks 3.57

trademark system coverage 3.44, 3.553.57

wines and spirits, special protections 3.363.37

WTO disputes

US and Australia vs. EU 3.413.42

US vs. EU 5.795.81

geographical names

certification marks, as 3.513.54, 5.82

collective marks, as 3.553.57

Germany 3.61

goldsmiths' marks 2.102.11

green (colour), use 7.387.41

Green Claims Guidance (UK) 7.49

Green Electronics Council 7.23

Green Guides (FTC) 7.577.59, 7.64

Green Leaf Label 7.12, 7.23

guarantees 5.05

see also warranties

certification marks, as 5.055.09

EU GIs, as 5.67

trademarks, and 5.06

guild marks see mediaeval guilds

HALLOUMI 3.473.48, 5.114,

HARRIS TWEED 1.01

historical development

certification marks 1.01, 1.061.07, 2.13

enforcement 2.07, 2.092.13

industrialization, and 2.03, 2.57

mediaeval guild marks 2.01, 2.062.08

post-mediaeval marks 2.02, 2.14

collective marks 2.29

regulation, generally 2.092.10, 2.14

tort law 2.172.22

trademarks 2.152.16

EU, in 2.292.38

UK, in 2.242.29

US, in 2.392.43

trading standards 2.092.10

infringement

certification marks

advertisements 3.92

compensation 3.93

conformity, false indications 5.505.51

criminal sanctions 5.48

criteria for 3.90, 3.94

descriptive-use defences 3.91, 3.95

no-challenge clauses 3.1033.105

nominative fair use defences 3.953.99

proprietors' rights 5.445.45

registration, false representations 5.49

UK, in 3.893.93

US, in 3.943.99

collective marks 3.121

authorized users, proceedings by 3.1233.124, 3.132

intellectual property rights, generally

see also copyright; trademarks

Ecolabels, attached to 7.03, 7.47

FRAND licensing terms 6.68, 6.706.72

standards, incorporation in 6.706.72

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 6.22, 6.256.26, 6.63

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 6.226.24, 6.616.62

see also ecolabels

international treaties 3.21, 3.31, 3.137

TRIPS Agreement 3.333.40

interoperability standards 6.046.05

Intertek 7.12, 7.23

Ireland 3.593.60

ITMA and I.T.M.A (Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys) marks 3.114

King's Mark 2.10

LEGAL AID (mark) 3.70, 3.78

liability marks 2.07

licensing

FRAND/ RAND terms 6.68, 6.70

intellectual property rights incorporation 6.706.72

no-challenge clauses 3.1033.105

trademarks

apparent manufacturer doctrine 4.824.89

quality control duties 4.794.81

Life Cycle Analysis 7.09–710, 7.187.20, 7.75

Lisbon Agreement 3.373.38

logos

codes of practice, official symbols 5.57

EU GIs, for

content requirements 5.705.72, 5.84

international trademark protection 5.735.74

mandatory nature 5.62, 5.84

express warranties, as 5.355.36, 5.41

MADEIRA 3.130

manufacturers

certifiers, as 4.044.07, 4.19

defect detectors, as 4.194.20

insurers, as 4.22

self-certification 4.064.07

manufacturers' liability see certifiers' liability; product liability

marketing see advertisements; advertising standards

Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property 3.133.14

mediaeval guilds 2.062.07, 2.56

guild marks 2.13

enforcement 2.07, 2.092.13

establishment 2.01, 2.062.08, 2.55

functions 2.092.10, 2.55

post-mediaeval 2.02

Microsoft 6.67

misrepresentation 2.172.18, 2.212.22

environmental-friendliness 7.41, 7.48

most-favoured nation treatment 6.15

MOZZARELLA DI BUFALA CAMPANA 5.105

mutual recognition

agreements (MRA) 6.136.14

electronic identification 8.24

National Accreditation Bodies (NABs) 3.583.61, 6.516.53

National Institute of Science and Technology (US) 4.054.06

national treatment obligations 3.413.42, 5.795.81

Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL) programs 3.643.68

negligence 4.37, 4.91

alleged undertaking 4.69

burden of proof 4.37, 4.52

contributory negligence 4.32

duty of care 4.39

Hedley Byrne principle 4.614.62

implied 4.60

inspection duties 4.424.44

reasonable care 4.67

reasonable foreseeability of harm 4.09, 4.41

skill and judgment, reliance 4.60, 4.67

third-parties 4.44

wrongful denial of approval 4.63

economic loss 4.384.39, 4.614.62

negligent certification

negligent inspections 4.424.44, 4.52

negligent undertakings/ statements 4.52, 4.60

silicone gel breast implant cases 4.534.59

negligent misstatement 4.52, 4.60, 4.644.65

product approvers/ endorsers 4.704.71

product liability 4.27, 4.32

strict liability 4.15

trade associations, of 4.744.76

standard-setting 4.774.78

US, in 4.664.71, 4.744.78

NGOs

practices, standardization 6.286.29

WTO relations with 6.30

NGRS (National Guild of Removers and Storers) marks 5.101–104

no-challenge clauses 3.1033.105

no less favourable treatment 3.413.42, 6.21

Nordic Swan (ecolabel) 7.23, 7.53

Notified Bodies, EU conformity assessment 6.486.49

Organic Farming mark (EU logo) 3.14, 3.29

ownership

see also proprietors

certification marks 3.07, 4.724.73

codes of practice 5.55

collective marks 5.108, 5.110

ecolabels 7.01, 7.05, 7.217.23

trade associations, by 4.724.75

paint 7.53

Paris Convention 3.31, 3.137, 5.91, 7.46

passing off 2.17, 2.20, 2.23, 2.46

patent ambush 6.74

patents, EU common patent policy 6.706.72

police marks 2.07

private goods, definition 7.66

product liability 4.02, 4.33

see also certifiers' liability

apparent manufacturer doctrine 4.824.89

burden of proof 4.22, 4.27, 4.30

choice of forum 4.03

claims 4.08

causation 4.094.10, 4.22

trade associations, against 4.754.76

consumer protection law, and 4.284.32

contributory negligence 4.32

defective products 1.17, 4.11

defect detection 4.194.20

trademark owner liability 4.794.89

defences 4.314.32, 4.36

duties

quality control 4.794.81

statutory 4.254.36, 4.334.36

tests and inspections 4.234.24, 4.424.44

EU law, under 4.30

foreseeability 4.09, 4.41

insurance 4.18, 4.22

manufacturers 4.194.21, 4.234.24, 4.424.44, 4.824.89, 4.93

negligence 4.27, 4.32, 4.374.39

non-compliance penalties 4.08

own brand liability 4.29, 4.83

producers 4.334.34

product safety, distinction from 4.08

sale of goods law, and 4.254.27

satisfactory quality, implied term 4.254.26, 5.295.30

second-hand products 4.33

silicone gel breast implant cases 4.534.59

strict liability 4.12, 4.22, 4.274.32

US law, under 4.03, 4.27, 4.824.89

proprietors 3.02

certification marks 3.07, 4.21

collective marks 3.110, 5.87

own use restriction 3.02, 3.09, 3.813.82, 3.139, 5.47, 5.58, 5.87, 8.06

unincorporated associations 3.110

PROSCIUTTO DI PARMA 3.130

Protected Designation of Origin (PDO)

certification scheme 5.635.65, 5.685.69

eligibility 5.69

logos 5.705.74, 5.84

WTO dispute with US 5.795.81

Protected Geographical Indication (PGI)

certification scheme 5.635.65, 5.685.69

eligibility 5.69

logos 5.705.74, 5.84

US WTO dispute 5.795.81

protectionism 6.06

public goods, definition 7.66

public interest

certification marks 3.86, 3.1043.105

ecolabels 7.05

public key infrastructure (PKI) cryptography 8.148.20

quality

certification marks

conformity requirements 5.505.51

description, distinction from 5.225.25

trademarks, compared 5.315.33

collective marks 3.273.29

contractual meaning 5.26, 5.295.30

Quality Standard Beef marks 3.52

quality standards

certification marks as 2.47, 3.08, 3.11, 4.18

certifier's liability 4.254.26

collective marks, recognition 3.273.29

EU GIs as 5.67

quality marks as 6.75

satisfactory quality

implied term 4.254.26, 5.19, 5.295.30

reasonable person test 5.29

statutory requirement 5.115.12, 5.295.30

trademark licensor duties 4.794.81

REACH dispute 5.90, 5.925.93

reasonable care 4.67

reasonable foreseeability of harm 4.09, 4.41

reasonable person test 5.29

refusal, grounds for

certification marks 2.52, 3.18, 3.54, 3.74, 3.833.85

collective marks 3.31, 5.88, 5.100

registration

certification marks 2.26, 2.38

cancellation 2.54

conditions 5.465.47

development 2.48, 2.50

digital products 8.06

false representation 5.49

geographical names 3.54

integration 2.51

limitations 2.522.53, 5.47

refusal 2.52, 3.18, 3.54, 3.74, 3.833.85

revocation 5.47

trade association role 2.49, 2.57

collective marks 3.213.22, 5.88

development 2.48

eligibility 3.1163.117, 5.895.93

EU law, under 3.21, 3.453.46, 3.1273.131

limitations 3.223.23, 5.88

procedures 5.88

refusal 3.31, 5.88, 5.100

regulations governing use 3.22, 3.24, 5.99, 7.46

UK, in 3.1133.115, 5.98

US, in 3.1253.126, 5.105

regulation, generally

definitions 2.04, 6.08, 6.36

historical development 2.092.10, 2.14

purpose 2.04, 4.05

revocation

certification marks 5.47

collective marks 3.1183.120, 5.99

rights management information

copyright treaty protection 8.42

EU implementation 8.438.44

US implementation 8.458.46

SafeDisc 8.16

sale of goods law 5.01

see also product liability

certifiers' liability 4.254.27

condition, breach of 5.19

contract of sale, certification by 5.20

description, matching requirement 5.135.14

false certification, and 5.165.17

implied term

breach 5.01, 5.195.20

satisfactory quality 4.254.26, 5.19, 5.295.30

remedies 5.15

satisfactory quality requirement 5.115.12, 5.295.30

unfair trading practices, and 5.165.18

US law, under 5.375.42

warranties

breach 5.19

certification marks, as 5.345.42

express 5.355.36, 5.41

implied 5.375.42

seals of approval 6.75, 6.77

self-certification 3.68, 4.064.07

self-regulation see codes of practice

shipping inspections 4.454.51

see also classification societies

signatures 8.18

see also digital signatures

signs and symbols 3.09, 5.57, 5.95

see also logos

standard essential patents (SEPs) 6.68

standardization

codes of practice 6.276.29

competition, and 6.74

economic benefits 6.73

implied association 3.135

international bodies 6.226.26

standardization marks 3.32

standards 6.01

see also codes of practice; quality standards

certification marks, as 6.75

compatibility standards 6.046.05

competition, and 6.726.74

compliance requirements 6.276.29

de facto standards 6.666.67, 6.69

de jure standards 6.646.65

definitions 6.08, 6.38

E-commerce, for 6.806.81, 6.83

EU, in

CE mark 6.03, 6.33, 6.35, 6.476.48, 6.546.55

conformity assessments 3.583.62, 6.31, 6.426.43

EN Standards 6.32

harmonization 6.32, 6.35, 6.81

machinery 6.346.35

minimum standards 6.33, 6.35, 6.426.43

mutual notification of regulations 6.366.42, 6.80

mutual recognition 6.426.43

New Approach 6.316.35, 6.426.43, 6.48, 6.83

standards bodies 6.566.60

IEC 6.22, 6.256.26, 6.63

intellectual property rights incorporation in 6.706.72

ISO 6.226.24, 6.616.62

mutual conformity assessments 6.126.14, 6.206.21, 6.31

mutual recognition agreements 6.136.14

production process basis 6.096.10

proprietary standards 6.666.67, 6.69

quality marks, as 6.75

seals of approval, as 6.75

standard essential patents (SEPs) 6.68

standards-setting bodies

companies 6.646.66

EU, in 6.556.60

international 6.226.26, 6.29

IPR disclosure 6.706.72

trade associations 6.65, 6.75

technical barriers to trade, as 6.066.07

technical cooperation 6.616.63

technical regulations 6.03, 6.086.10, 6.126.14

Standards Code 6.176.19

STEP 2000 8.12

STILTON and STILTON CHEESE 5.69

strict liability

defective products 4.20

fairness and utility 4.134.21

fault-based liability, compared 4.14

negligence, and 4.15

third-party certifiers, and 4.12

sustainability 7.05, 7.13

symbols see logos; signs

technical barriers to trade

ecolabels, as 7.74, 7.76

standards, as 6.066.07, 6.19

technical regulations, as 6.17

WTO TBT Agreement

mutual conformity assessments 6.126.14, 6.206.21, 6.826.83

mutual recognition agreements 6.136.14

overview 6.086.09, 6.20

technical measures and regulations 6.03

barriers to trade, as 6.17

definitions 6.08, 6.36, 8.27, 8.30, 8.39

mutual conformity assessments 6.126.14, 6.206.21, 6.31

mutual notification

EU procedure 6.366.37, 6.80

judicial interpretation 6.386.42

mutual recognition agreements 6.136.14

production process basis 6.096.10

proportionality 8.338.37

protection measures

anti-circumvention 8.278.41

rights management information 8.428.46

TIRE FACTORY 5.105

tort law 2.17

see also certifiers' liability; negligence; product liability

damages 2.20

defamation 4.644.65

misrepresentation 2.172.18, 2.212.21

passing off 2.17, 2.20, 2.23, 2.46

trade agreements

see also GATT; WTO

bilateral agreements 6.156.16

import prohibitions 6.16

most-favoured nation treatment 6.15

national treatment obligations 3.413.42, 5.795.81

no less favourable treatment 3.413.42, 6.21

trade associations

anti-competitive practices 5.53, 6.786.79

certification marks

ownership 4.724.73

US, in 4.744.75

codes of practice 5.525.54

collective marks 3.1133.114, 5.91

role of 2.49, 2.57, 4.72

self-regulation 5.54

standard-setting 4.73, 6.65, 6.75

competition law, and 6.786.79

negligence 4.74, 4.774.78

trade descriptions 5.02

trade union marks 3.12, 3.69

trademark law

historical development

EU, in 2.292.38

UK, in 2.242.29

US, in 2.392.43

trademarks

certification marks, compared 3.08, 5.315.33, 5.82

collective marks, compared 3.1113.112, 5.1015.104

colour, use in 7.387.41

confusion, likelihood of 5.44

definition 2.242.25, 2.27, 2.33

designation of source 7.427.43

distinctiveness 7.367.37

ecolabels as 7.03, 7.22, 7.367.44

EU, in

certification marks 2.362.38

collective marks 2.29, 2.312.35

Community Trademarks 2.312.32

development 2.292.32

harmonization 2.31, 3.1, 3.13

false representation 5.49

GIs, compared 2.45, 5.06, 5.755.76

green trademarks 7.387.40

infringement 5.48

licensing 2.28, 2.43, 4.79

quality, and 4.79, 5.315.33

suggestive marks 7.37

UK, in 2.242.29

US, in 2.41

certification marks 2.462.47

development 2.392.43

distinctiveness 7.37

incontestability 2.42

licensor quality control duty 4.804.81

limitations 2.40

service marks 2.41

suggestive marks 7.37

trademark licensing 2.43

union marks/ labels 3.12, 3.69

trading standards 2.092.10

Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG) 5.635.65

transparency 6.06

ecolabels 7.12, 7.25, 7.78

TRIPS Agreement

certification marks 3.333.40

collective marks 3.333.40

geographical indications 3.333.39

definitions 5.68

US vs. EU dispute 5.795.81

national treatment obligations 3.413.42, 5.795.81

no less favourable treatment 3.413.42, 6.21

refusal, grounds for 3.35, 3.39

wines and spirits special protections 3.363.37

trust 5.43, 7.707.73, 7.80

UKAS 6.526.53

Underwriters Laboratories 7.12

unfair commercial practices

false certification 5.165.17

false indication of conformity 5.505.51

false representations of registration 5.49

statutory protections 5.165.18

unilateralism 6.06

union labels 3.12, 3.69

use, definition 3.90

videogames 8.328.37

Vienna Agreement 6.62

VINEYARD 3.1193.120

warranties

certification marks, as 5.345.42

express 5.345.37, 5.41

implied 5.375.42

Washington Conference 2.50, 3.31

wines and spirits 3.363.37, 5.114

WOOLMARK 3.136

WTO

see also GATT; technical barriers to trade

ecolabels, voluntary schemes 7.74

NGOs, relations with 6.30

regime development 6.076.08

standard-setting

code of practice 6.27

IEC 6.22, 6.256.26, 6.63

ISO 6.226.24, 6.616.62

technical cooperation agreements 6.616.62

trade disputes

US/ Australia vs. EU 3.413.42

US Shrimp imports case 6.10

US Tuna case 6.11, 7.74

US vs. EU GIs 3.413.42, 5.795.81