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Evolutionary Spatial Economics

Understanding Economic Geography and Location Over Time

Miroslav N. Jovanovic

A crucial question in contemporary economics concerns where economic activities will locate and relocate themselves in the future. This comprehensive, innovative book applies an evolutionary framework to spatial economics, arguing against the prevailing neoclassical equilibrium model, providing important concrete and theoretical insights, and illuminating areas of future enquiry.
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Index

Miroslav N. Jovanovic

3D printing 265267, 377, 446, 648
3D printing machines 343
3M 43, 158, 311, 547, 637
Absolut Vodka 441
absolute advantage 35, 231232, 467, 565
abuse of a dominant position 380
abuse of market power 279
ACB 307
Accetturo, A. 244
accountability 279, 344, 398, 418, 423, 452, 456, 481, 528
accounting 3334, 137, 157, 270, 341, 344, 369, 378, 386, 404, 407, 554, 558, 653
accumulation of knowledge 144, 336, 340
long-term accumulation of knowledge 145
active regional policy 570, 589
actual economic impact 430
actual new regional policies 614
adaptive evolutionary system 645
adaptive walk 9597, 102, 123
additive manufacturing 265267, 377, 648
Adidas 221, 266
adjustment costs 55, 80, 191192, 347, 349, 413, 436, 581582, 592, 652
adjustment process 109, 191, 571, 582, 590, 641
administrative costs 407409, 479
advantages of cheap labour 265
advantages of the new system 100
advertising 58, 77, 104, 108, 138, 148, 160, 181, 192, 227, 291, 299300, 316, 345, 347, 353, 364, 375, 378, 441, 468, 475, 625
aeronautics 51, 161, 341, 629
Aérospatiale 532
Africa 29, 39, 41, 46, 64, 86, 147, 173, 232, 247, 263, 275, 327, 373, 427, 442, 465, 472474, 476, 494, 560, 624, 654
FDI see FDI in Africa
South Africa 40, 207, 270, 332, 384, 469
TNC see TNCs in Africa
after-sales service 77, 241, 315316, 347, 363, 504
ageing population 72, 434, 562
Agenda 2000 580, 604605
agglomeration 4, 67, 1112, 14, 34, 36, 4244, 46, 49, 52, 54, 77, 81, 103, 106107, 128, 132, 134, 143, 153, 155, 162, 165167, 173179, 182, 192, 197198, 232, 299, 307, 364, 480, 564, 571, 574, 583, 585588, 593595, 613, 616, 620, 635, 637, 639, 648, 650
agglomeration effects 129131, 158159, 485486
agglomeration forces 4041, 92, 121122, 129131, 136138, 170, 486487, 566567
agriculture 87, 94, 105, 123, 152, 170, 190, 192, 255, 403, 437, 456, 574576, 588, 597598, 601603, 615, 632
location of production 37
trade in 37, 400
AIDS 72, 428, 469, 562
air transport 355, 435, 443444, 466
Airbus 104, 243, 320, 343344, 358, 435, 454, 500, 506, 520
Aixtron 458, 503, 539
Akademgorodok 149150
AKZO 380
Al Ghazali 323
Albania 48
Albany 578
Alchian, A. 53, 73, 79
Alden, E. 373, 396
Aldi 439
Algeria 35
Alibaba 64, 125, 131, 195, 306, 308, 316
Allen, K. 63, 169, 221, 248
Allentown 169
alliance capitalism 132
Amazon 64, 138, 176, 210, 214, 230, 243, 286, 289, 293, 300, 306, 308, 316, 356, 535
AMD 365
America 15, 38, 44, 48, 55, 5859, 79, 106, 108, 131, 138, 142143, 160, 162163, 169, 193, 199, 206207, 211, 216, 227, 229, 234, 243244, 252253, 264, 280, 282, 284, 286, 289290, 295, 300, 314, 327, 329330, 335, 339340, 343344, 348, 350351, 355358, 372373, 380, 386, 396, 400, 402, 405, 417, 419, 423, 425426, 428, 431432, 439441, 446, 452, 457459, 464, 467, 471, 473474, 482483, 485, 488489, 500, 506, 515, 519, 522, 527, 529, 537, 540541, 547549, 551, 559561, 567, 574, 590, 646
American Committee on Foreign Investment 539
American War of Independence 37
Latin America 2122, 56, 85, 183, 187, 247, 322, 421, 427, 434, 442, 454456, 465, 487, 490, 523, 554, 627628
Latin American economies 627
North America 52, 130, 146, 168, 184, 217, 240, 268269, 275, 346, 349, 359, 395, 411, 430, 438, 445, 476, 502, 521, 553, 580, 584, 626629
Amiti, M. 40, 587588
Ampex 342344
Amsterdam 13, 46, 157, 161, 184, 186
ancient China 332
Ancona 8788, 193194
Andean Pact 523
Anderson, R. 50, 206, 290, 456, 471
Ando, K. 34, 141, 489, 547, 550, 559560
Andreessen, Mark 149
Angola 469
antidumping duties 39, 380, 395, 397
antidumping tariff 394
Antwerp 144, 157, 161, 185186, 197
apartheid 391
Apple 42, 54, 64, 100102, 106, 108, 111, 117, 122, 130, 175, 230, 243, 248249, 252253, 256, 258, 263, 273, 280, 286, 293, 296, 307, 309, 316318, 330, 343, 362, 365, 379380, 430431, 437, 472473, 488, 535, 650, 653, 657
application of policy recommendation 655
Arab countries 445
Aragon 398
arbitrary events 115
Argentina 198, 230, 384, 421, 434, 505, 523, 554, 627
Armani, Giorgio 294
Armington, P. 351
Armitage, J. 494
Armstrong, H. 588589, 591, 616
Arnold, M. 50
Arsenale di Venezia 429
Arthur, Brian 65, 89, 334, 658
artificial intelligence 257, 261262, 265, 275, 310, 377, 474, 648, 657
Arzignano 194, 207
ASEAN 407409, 476
Asia 3839, 47, 55, 59, 72, 93, 106, 108, 115, 157, 180, 187, 217, 237238, 240, 243, 246247, 251252, 258259, 262263, 271, 273275, 282, 288, 300, 327, 330, 333, 336337, 346, 356357, 385, 404, 411, 421, 430, 434, 436, 442443, 445447, 454456, 465, 470473, 475476, 480, 490491, 494, 497, 502, 505506, 509, 512, 526527, 529, 531, 534, 539, 541, 555, 559, 561, 571, 576, 584585, 591, 594, 629, 641, 654
Asian financial crisis 229, 446, 471, 505, 646
east Asia 22, 4142, 117, 330, 407
Southeast Asia 4142
ASML 139140
Associazione Prosciutto di Parma 383
asymmetric information 58, 292, 466
Atkins, R. 148, 206, 490
attractiveness of a city life 170
Audretsch, D. 34, 106, 139, 141, 143
Australia 22, 40, 48, 213, 234, 247, 250, 270, 321, 327, 349, 356, 395396, 407, 427, 438, 440441, 445, 527, 539, 569, 591, 597, 599
Austria 8687, 89, 144, 151, 174, 227, 232, 324, 332, 386, 391, 482, 488489, 520, 539, 584, 588, 595, 602
GDP per capita in 599
specialisation in 243
Authers, J. 36
automatic market 570
average cost 174, 283, 300, 363, 376377, 473
Bachtler, J. 590, 603, 621, 636637
Baden-Württemberg 639
BAE Systems 493
Baidu 131
bailouts 286
balance of payments 57, 399, 454
Balassa, B. 349
Baldwin, C. 122, 237, 244, 247, 408, 411, 443, 447, 487, 518, 567, 589, 656
Bangalore 161, 585
Bangemann, Martin 285
Bangladesh 3941, 91, 247, 337, 399, 452, 473, 509510
Bank of England 142, 256
banking cluster 156
bankruptcy laws 369
banks 6, 31, 33, 57, 64, 104, 153, 177, 185, 209, 212213, 274, 282, 285287, 365366, 375, 415, 417418, 424, 445447, 459, 462463, 482, 489490, 494, 515
central 288289, 576577
common 257, 358, 487488, 523
regional development 523, 602
Banyan 292
barriers 13, 20, 47, 58, 76, 130, 135, 137, 148, 160161, 209, 238, 242, 256, 264, 278, 280281, 284, 310, 314, 316, 338, 341, 344, 346349, 359, 362, 367, 371, 381382, 388, 390, 392393, 395, 397, 399401, 403, 405, 407, 409, 411, 425, 438439, 444, 448, 463464, 497500, 503504, 546548, 552, 561, 580, 583, 585, 619, 630, 647, 653
entry and exit 75, 192, 374375, 377378, 554555
migration 594, 641
Barroso, Jose Manuel 285286
Bartik, T. 485486
BASF 355, 365, 547
basic principles of Darwin 23
basic research 309, 520521
Basle 161, 164, 179, 218220, 458, 467, 586, 647
Bastiat, Frederic 25
Battistelli, B. 321
Bavaria 50, 192193, 221, 482, 527
Bay Area 85, 130131
Beckett, Wendy 26, 326
behaviour of systems 197
behaviour of the economy 71, 199
behavioural approach 20
Beijing Kunlun Tech 540
Beinhocker, E. 2, 65, 6770, 72, 9598, 101102, 117, 120, 139, 288, 528, 651
Belarus 547
Belderbos, R. 259, 395
Belfast 123
Belgium 43, 161, 174, 198, 221, 224, 250, 385386, 477, 483, 488489, 517, 547, 584
GDP per capita in 599
specialisation in 243
Bell Labs 288
Bendix 343
Benetton, Luciano 294, 355, 375, 458
Berkey 343344
Berkun, S. 122, 125, 312, 323
Berlin 29, 46, 179, 188, 193194, 221, 227228, 424
Berlusconi, Silvio 332
Bernstein, J. 20
best ideas 306
best instruments of protection 36
best outcome 100
best practice 152, 158, 251, 400, 411, 510, 621
best universities 133, 343
Betamax 99101, 342, 380
Bhagwati, J. 423, 429
Biden, Joe 331
bifurcation 93, 106, 117, 199201, 207, 209, 566
big Chinese cities 138, 439
big firms 284, 418, 640
big pharma companies 291
big shopping centres 147
biggest world economy 332
biological evolution 118, 200, 649, 651
Birmingham 180, 655
Bisson, P. 657
black market 188
Blanc, Francois 87
block exemption 361
Blomström, M. 511, 537, 557
Boca Ratton 106
Boeing 111, 150, 225, 242243, 289, 320, 343, 357358, 431, 435, 506, 520, 533
Bog, Manfred 390
Bohr, Niels 645
Boldrin, M. 317, 615
Bolivia 541
bonds 18, 144, 209, 287, 490, 505, 612613
Bonhams 223
border controls 388, 400
border investment activities of firms 496
border tax adjustment 480
Boschma, R. 34, 80, 85, 108109, 135, 143144, 154, 166, 181
Boston 110, 118, 133, 135, 149, 156, 160, 164, 177, 201, 306, 483
Botswana 650
Boulding, K. 135, 200
Bower, T. 286, 494
Bowers, S. 494
Brady, Nicholas 213214
brain drain 21, 321, 328, 499
Brakman, H. 1213, 47, 188, 211, 432, 620
Brasilia 176177, 373
Bratislava 50, 618
Brazil 40, 71, 86, 117, 176, 214, 250, 344, 373, 384, 421, 423, 455, 458, 476, 523, 541, 554, 569, 627
Brazil Cotton Institute 373
Brescia 144, 194
Bretton Woods system 554
Brexit 29, 63, 84, 175, 187, 236, 262, 264265, 285286, 346, 415, 446, 448, 457, 547, 560, 562, 599, 640641, 644
bribery 493494, 558
Bridges Weekly 373
British Aerospace 532
British Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs 389
British Dominions 60
British East India Company 210
British Museum of Natural History 24
British National Farmers’ Union 389
Broadcom 253, 539
Bronzini, R. 559
Brülhart, M. 5152, 162, 349, 565, 587, 589, 618
Bruno, Giordano 325
Brussels 158, 174, 189, 296, 318, 321, 332, 384, 386, 388, 390, 400, 411, 425, 448, 464, 467, 483, 487, 496, 539, 592, 600, 608609, 616, 641
Bryan, Lowell 80
BSE 93, 402
Buck, T. 295, 386, 474, 539, 561, 654
Budapest 555, 618
budget 58, 108109, 191, 251, 290, 305, 355, 489, 525, 527, 536, 610
deficits 64, 287, 377, 419
EU 64, 287, 377, 574, 597, 599, 601602, 604605, 608, 616, 621626, 634, 636, 641
Buenos Aires 627
Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show 117
Buigues, P. 560
Bulgaria 575, 598599, 619, 622623
Bulletin Quotidien Europe 358, 454, 536
Bush, Jeb 199
business community 88, 199, 358, 450451, 537, 544
business concentration 156, 213, 353
business cycles 215, 355, 367
Business Europe 501
business model 200, 240, 243, 273, 282, 292, 440, 554
business opportunities 47, 123, 155, 177, 320
business organisation 67, 87, 107, 136, 204, 354, 356, 467, 581
business process 453
Business Week 291
butterfly 18, 53, 185, 487, 567, 656
Byrd Amendment 396
Cadore 144, 193
California 27, 55, 58, 105, 109, 123, 133, 137139, 150, 160, 204, 227, 264, 350, 395, 406, 454, 471, 490, 520, 566567, 609
Camagni, R. 126, 612, 617618, 637
Cambodia 4041, 88, 169, 179, 263, 406, 472, 561
Cambridge 57, 72, 150152, 213, 519
Camdessus 213
Canada 24, 52, 123, 125, 267269, 282, 321, 346, 395396, 400, 403, 405407, 444445, 474, 518, 531, 536539, 580, 591, 599, 626627, 629631
Cancun 373
Cannes 8687
Canon 139140, 395
Canova, F. 591, 615
CAP 33, 366, 496
Cape Verde Islands 86
Capello, R. 612, 617618, 637
capital accounts 555
capital accumulation 198
capital flight 487, 489
capital flows 422, 427, 432, 618
capital market 1618, 30, 32, 357, 359, 433, 435, 510511, 552, 558
car assembly factory 50
Caracas 627
Carlaw, K. 70, 79
Carlson 123124
Carolina, S. 41, 150, 160, 485, 500, 520, 535
Carrefour 243, 439
Carrington, A. 616
Carroll, Lewis 210
cars 18, 37, 50, 55, 59, 72, 105, 114115, 118, 127, 137, 160, 172, 184185, 193194, 208209, 217, 231, 240, 244, 249, 253, 264, 273, 305306, 309310, 316, 327, 342, 345346, 350, 352, 354, 357, 366, 371, 400401, 405, 410, 417418, 429, 443, 452, 465, 473, 475, 477479, 498, 501, 504, 533, 536, 547, 550, 560, 631, 647, 655
racing cars 226227
cartels 365
Casio 343
Cassis de Dijon case 383
Castelfidardo 8788, 194
Castellacci, F. 191, 509
catastrophe 31, 54, 91, 124, 200, 203, 290, 328, 346, 487, 567, 615, 651, 656
Caterpillar 225, 518
Cavendish Laboratory 213
CE mark 387
Cecil Court 223
Celler, Emmanuel 524
CEN 319, 386, 477, 481, 493
Central Europe 50, 240, 624
centrifugal forces 129, 170
centripetal forces 14, 51, 129, 134, 231, 651
CER 326
CFIUS 454, 539541
Chadwick, James 72
Chaffin, J. 101, 181
chairman of the European Central Bank 285
Chamberlain, Neville 118
change offer 197
changes cease 58, 73, 281
Channel Islands 487489
chaos theory 207
Chassany, A. 286, 332
Chattanooga 292
Check Point 540
ChemChina 503, 520
chemical industries 225
Chernobyl 31, 99, 328
Chief World Systems 324
child labour 154, 226, 258, 450451
Chile 109, 406, 523, 627, 650
China 17, 36, 3842, 44, 46, 50, 52, 64, 7173, 88, 94, 99, 105, 115, 131132, 137139, 145, 149150, 164, 173174, 179, 183, 186, 195, 210211, 213, 217, 229, 238240, 246, 252253, 255, 257263, 266270, 272, 274275, 289, 293, 306307, 316317, 319321, 323, 329334, 336, 340, 343344, 350351, 354, 366367, 374, 384386, 392, 395, 397, 399, 406, 416417, 424425, 427, 429431, 433436, 438445, 447, 453456, 458459, 465, 469471, 475476, 492, 494, 496498, 500, 502503, 505506, 512513, 518520, 524527, 531532, 534, 540, 553, 555, 568569, 571, 582, 584585, 591, 595, 630631, 641, 646, 650, 653654
competition from 106107, 110111, 356357, 472474, 560561
institutions in 337339
location of production in 580
Chinese character 43, 526
Chinese government 331, 540
Chinitz, B. 179
Chiquita 364
Christaller, W. 13, 48, 50
Christensen, J. 482
Christian Aid charity 494
Christianity 202, 218, 287, 442, 448
Christie’s 223
Chrysler 57, 207, 346, 354, 501
Chux 343344
Ciba-Geigy 358
Cienski, J. 50, 431
Cillizza, C. 286
Cini, M. 358
Citroën 50, 355, 424, 465
city of Chan Chan 168
Civic Center for New Orleans 335
Clark, K. 13, 237, 512, 557
Clinton, Hillary 286
closed economy models 35
Club of Rome 22, 213
clusters 4, 7, 10, 14, 5152, 69, 85, 89, 107, 109, 121, 128129, 132134, 136, 140, 142144, 146, 148, 152156, 158167, 173, 175, 178, 182, 193194, 196, 221, 226, 231232, 234, 335, 353, 437, 467, 480, 498500, 514, 519, 550, 591, 639, 647, 651
CNOOC 458, 540
Coase, Ronald 239
Coca-Cola 226, 355, 364, 417, 429, 435, 441442, 450, 458
Cohesion Fund 604
cohesion policies 590, 637
Colitt, R. 373
Combes, P. 1314, 47, 162, 178, 184, 189, 427, 453, 586, 620
Commission of the European Communities 384, 600, 608
commodity prices 213214
common external tariff 310, 403404, 409, 463
common markets 461
Community Lisbon Programme 496
comparative advantage 7, 14, 21, 35, 3940, 44, 77, 82, 92, 129, 191, 198199, 230232, 236, 260, 270, 297, 349, 373, 386, 397, 444, 447, 467, 508, 550551, 562, 565, 568, 573, 582583, 593, 649, 654
creation of 340, 374375, 534
competition 7, 16, 2122, 28, 3637, 43, 51, 53, 58, 61, 74, 81, 89, 93, 101, 104, 107, 109110, 129, 147, 159, 164, 169, 179180, 187, 190, 195197, 199201, 203, 207, 209, 211, 217, 219, 221, 223, 226, 237, 258, 286, 289, 302, 305, 309310, 318, 328, 351352, 356, 363364, 371372, 375, 381, 385, 387, 401, 413, 418, 420, 427, 439, 464, 466, 471, 473474, 478, 480, 491492, 495496, 503, 507, 509, 511, 513, 515, 517, 523, 528, 530, 537, 539, 547, 549550, 552, 558, 577, 585, 593, 629, 648
competitive markets 239, 344346
imperfect competition 4, 10, 14, 34, 73, 90, 130, 192, 231, 586, 615, 651
policy 55, 121, 157, 205, 213, 231, 278279, 281283, 291297, 307, 316317, 344347, 358361, 366367, 453, 481483, 486487, 499500, 520, 544546, 561, 564565, 568, 570572, 581582, 600602, 605, 621, 633, 637, 639641, 650653, 656657
perfect competition 4, 10, 1415, 34, 55, 73, 90, 130, 175, 192, 231, 239, 281, 283, 347, 370, 374, 586, 615, 651
problem of harmful tax competition 481
restriction of 192, 281283, 298300
rules 132133, 136, 192, 215, 255, 281283, 292294, 358361, 369370, 382383, 389390, 395, 483484, 499500, 535, 571572, 600601, 605, 621, 639640, 652653
computer models 32
concentrated banking industry 32
concentration of consumers 133
concentration of economic power 280
concentration of industries 6
concentration of production 292, 316, 547, 566, 587, 648
Concorde 534
conditions of genuine uncertainty 71
constant returns to scale 35, 55, 283, 306, 368370, 377
consumer electronics industry 100
consumer needs 214, 266, 499
consumption increase 430
consumption patterns 433, 449
contestable markets 377
contraction of economic activity 627
control of foreign TNCs 453
control of the production process 210
control procedure of the EU 357
control production 21, 453
control technologies 132
Convention Center for Cleveland 335
Cookson, C. 109, 402
Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls 400
Copenhagen 479, 580
Corden, W. 376
core EU countries 591
core–periphery model 472
Corleone, Michael 102
corporate failures 558
corporate governance 511, 554
corporate income tax rates 482
Corradino d 225
corruption 32, 54, 56, 268, 398, 441, 451, 454, 493494, 500, 502, 614, 622, 624, 627, 630, 635, 653
Cortés, Hernán 86, 103, 328
cost minimisation 20, 420, 466, 477
cost of adjustment 413, 571, 652
cost of labour 453, 498
cost of living 22, 131, 565, 633
cost of production 134, 214, 266267, 363, 454
cost of technological progress 372
cost of transport 37, 43, 4546, 51, 59, 128129, 133, 146, 167, 178, 180, 273, 344, 479, 587, 630
Costa Rica 450, 523524, 627
Costa Rican Institute of Technology 524
cost–benefit analysis 294
costly public works 172
cost-reduction effect 376
costs of production 36, 46, 58, 128, 159, 174, 179, 206, 242, 297, 300, 314, 363, 367, 376, 379, 381, 387, 397, 417, 468, 499, 501, 508, 583585
costs of trade 42, 585, 591
cosy urban life 170
Cotonou Agreement 408
Cotton Exchange 133
Cotton Institute 373
Council of Europe 290
Council of Ministers 387, 521
countervailing duties 393, 395, 449
countries trade 48, 298, 374
Cournot, Augustine 61
Court of First Instance 295
Cova, B. 494
creation of cities 170
creation of new regional disequilibria 571
creation of preferential trade areas 411
creative destruction 4, 73, 302, 317
credibility 59, 63, 417, 441
credible governments 157
Crescenzi, R. 605
Crete 322
Crick, Francis 25
criminal organisations 633
Croatia 337, 599
Croes, Neelie 285
Crooks, E. 430
cross-border transactions of goods 429
cross-country comparisons 159
Cuadrado-Roura, J. 618
Cuba 268, 524, 631
Culem, C. 549
culture 13, 15, 19, 23, 33, 37, 55, 82, 87, 94, 103, 105, 123, 130131, 135, 138139, 145, 150, 152, 160, 162, 170, 187, 190, 192, 200, 202, 211, 217, 220, 255256, 278, 307, 317, 322, 330332, 349, 353355, 396, 400, 403, 425, 428429, 432, 437, 439443, 456457, 464, 526528, 530, 573576, 588, 597598, 601603, 615, 622, 632633, 658
business culture 156, 419, 453, 500, 609
cumulative causation 29, 75, 174, 192, 196, 198, 207, 218
customs inspection 399
customs revenue 392
customs union 192, 347, 369, 374376, 381, 403404, 409, 478, 579580, 625627
Cyprus 336, 345, 494, 599
Czech Republic 50, 151, 250, 424, 471, 483, 511513, 520, 587, 599, 622624, 641
d’Ascanio, Corradino 225
Daewoo 509510
Daily Telegraph 181, 422
Daimler-Benz 354
DaimlerChrysler 207
Dalberg, John 135
Dallara, Giampaolo 343
Dance, L. 494
Dante 2, 224
Danzig (Gdansk) 334
Darwin, Charles 2324, 27, 7074, 200, 658
data entry 585
data processing 29, 40, 237, 270, 425, 506
de Filippis, F. 605
de Grauwe, P. 455
de Gucht, Karel 285
de Jonquières, G. 39
de Kervenoael, R. 589
death of distance 59, 211, 433, 447, 583
decade of heavy investment 343
decentralisation 154, 161, 467, 529, 577, 634, 640
declining industries 595
deepening of global processes 426
deepening of world markets 131
deeper analysis of 3D production 266
defence 21, 57, 83, 151, 177, 204, 224, 227228, 320, 358, 364, 403, 414, 454, 494, 503
defence firms 494
defensive business policy instruments 356
deflation 287
Delaware 487488, 490
Dell 100, 124, 263, 472, 653
Dell, Michael 124
demand conditions 38, 196, 220
demand curve 283, 376
demand of labour 130
democracy 22, 33, 53, 182, 200, 284, 286, 339, 416, 418, 441, 493, 640
democratic governments 493
democratic process 280, 365, 417, 458459
Denmark 105, 149, 291, 320, 389, 550, 621
GDP per capita in 598599
intra-industry trade in 385
regional policy in 598599
Denso 242
Department of Justice 163, 294, 296
deregulation 47, 196, 345, 358, 417, 554
Desh Garments 509
design of high-quality goods 333
desirable market characteristics 58
Destler, I. 205206, 406
Detroit 110, 143, 160161, 169, 172, 221
Deutsche Telecom 454
Deutschland AG 539
devaluation 117, 237, 270271, 477, 572, 641
developing countries 3840, 6061, 174, 191, 199, 213214, 232, 238239, 243244, 246, 248, 251, 260261, 270, 274, 306, 407408, 411412, 415, 424, 435, 439, 443444, 448, 451, 453, 456, 466, 469470, 472, 482, 488, 495, 505, 510, 517, 522523, 525, 530531, 534535, 537, 542, 544545, 552554, 557, 572, 576, 584585, 650
labour moves 170171
development of a system 18
development of certain technologies 320
development of new economic activities 85
development of new technologies 101, 320, 345
development of the regional policy 598
development path 30, 85, 118, 576
development policy 274, 554555, 570, 626
development route 265
Diesel, Rudolf 212
Dior, Christian 294
direct investment 10, 47, 164, 197, 211, 236, 238, 392, 419, 427, 461463, 465, 467, 469, 471, 473, 475, 477, 479, 481, 483485, 487, 489, 491, 493, 495, 497, 512, 518, 543, 546, 549, 552, 559, 569, 580, 627, 629, 654
direction of economic activity 571
discharge of public duties 493
discrimination 52, 297, 382, 397, 400, 404, 451, 461, 502, 541, 547549, 562
dispute settlement 15, 391, 393, 500, 541542, 562
distinct demand segments 346
distinct phases 112
distribution of potential locations of an industry 121
distribution of US city sizes 183
distribution technologies 408, 507
divergence 6, 24, 129, 191192, 359, 565, 573, 584, 590, 592, 594595, 597, 615, 617619, 626, 635, 652
diversification 6, 110, 229, 273, 355356, 475, 582, 588, 604
division of labour 144, 197, 212, 272, 368
Dodos 25
Doha Round 206, 372, 399, 420, 422
domestic companies 508, 538
domestic economy 514, 520, 532, 559, 571, 585, 644
domestic investment 494, 549
domestic jobs 39
domestic operation 520
domestic policies 474, 581, 611, 630
domestic production of food 265
domestic technology 553
domestic value 252253, 270
dominant position 282, 357, 360, 362365, 380
domino effect 272273
door salesman 210
Dornier, Claude 212
double-use industries 319
Dover 627
DPW 540
Drachten 266
Draghi, Mario 285, 287
Druker, S. 402
Dubai 35, 124125, 207, 458, 528, 540
dumping 39, 188, 380, 393397, 629
Dunning, J. 468, 497, 547, 549
Dusseldorf 319
DVDs 100, 387
dynamic systems 67, 70, 120
EAC 283
Easson, A. 494495
East Germany 359, 634635
East India Company 210, 542
Easterly, William 2, 229
eastern enlargement of the EU 599, 604, 609
EasyJet 355
Ebola 72
eclectic paradigm 468469
ECO 22, 61, 72, 235
e-commerce 195, 255
economic activities 2, 10, 13, 4950, 71, 85, 92, 107, 121, 166, 170, 175, 183, 190, 192, 224, 230, 238, 415, 462, 505, 571, 576, 582, 596, 613, 616, 618, 641, 650
economic adjustment 6, 190, 525, 571, 583, 641
economic benefit 332, 392, 456
economic comparison 160
economic complexity 3
economic crises 431, 584
economic development 2, 4, 5859, 64, 110, 198, 229, 247, 263, 274, 307, 324, 329, 347, 472, 486, 495, 526, 528, 571572, 584, 598, 611, 616617, 635, 637638, 646
economic differences 571, 619
economic dimension 163
economic downturn 343, 431
economic frontiers 533
economic gain 132, 413, 575, 652
economic geography 34, 78, 1011, 1314, 3435, 44, 49, 53, 8081, 130, 166, 170, 192, 229, 231232, 351, 353, 415, 438, 472473, 566, 587, 594, 613, 615, 625, 644, 647649, 657659
economic growth 52, 55, 145, 197, 214215, 229, 271, 301, 303, 305, 310311, 321, 338, 340, 350, 366, 431, 455, 457, 490, 512, 562, 590, 597, 602, 606, 611, 615616, 619, 627, 637639, 646, 649, 653
economic integration 6, 40, 43, 130, 148, 163, 191, 232, 237, 240, 254, 296, 298299, 309, 345, 371, 375, 403404, 406, 416, 431, 436, 449, 453, 461462, 487, 498, 523, 532, 538, 543, 545, 556, 560, 564565, 567568, 571573, 575, 579, 581587, 589, 591593, 595, 597598, 618, 620, 625, 627628, 656
Economic Journal 65, 658
economic landscape changes 3, 14, 79, 281
economic liberalisation 71, 329
economic mechanics’ needs 649
economic model 2, 14, 62, 82, 119120, 275, 306, 314, 431, 480, 552, 582, 634, 645
economic patriotism 388, 539, 541, 553, 562
economic policy 2, 46, 10, 56, 60, 8283, 163, 183, 231, 236, 254, 270271, 357, 367, 369, 394, 424, 433, 486, 495496, 520, 561, 567, 576, 582, 595, 612, 647, 652, 655, 658
economic position 72, 155, 260, 589
economic problems 65, 420
economic regional convergence 588
economic remedies 429
economic sandpile 19
economic space 3, 42, 88, 134, 162, 572, 595, 649
economic structure 13, 64, 73, 116, 169, 189, 302, 434, 544, 562, 575, 588, 592, 604
economic technology 233, 656
economic terms 48, 82, 170, 174, 202, 595, 627
economic theory 23, 14, 5758, 65, 7273, 89, 102, 229, 231, 234, 278, 281, 316, 368369, 505, 567, 571, 638, 646, 648649, 653
economic union 189, 564, 572, 575, 578, 597, 636
economic value 87, 197
economical two-wheel 225
economics 3, 12, 15, 17, 20, 27, 31, 55, 61, 63, 65, 78, 81, 147, 153, 163, 195, 207, 209, 233, 243, 278, 341, 425, 455, 461, 519, 559, 591, 645, 649, 655, 657, 659
spatial see spatial economics
economies of scale 34, 16, 2122, 3738, 41, 4344, 4648, 58, 73, 77, 81, 106, 116, 128129, 134137, 156, 173, 175, 182, 189192, 196198, 232234, 236, 279, 284, 292, 300, 306307, 351, 353356, 360, 362363, 366368, 371, 377378, 380381, 383, 386387, 397, 399, 417, 443, 466, 480, 497, 538, 547, 552, 557, 565566, 568, 573, 583585, 589, 615, 618, 620, 641, 649, 651, 656
and FDI 239, 532534
integration and 543544, 586587
and intra-industry trade 346347, 349
national differences in 36
specialisation and 5051, 104, 166167, 178, 266, 346347, 374375
economies of scope 348, 375
The Economist 38, 50, 55, 64, 81, 94, 106, 130, 140141, 150, 173174, 179, 204, 216, 229, 244, 261, 265, 272, 330, 333, 340, 354356, 358, 422, 424425, 429430, 434, 439, 454, 489490, 541, 594, 623, 651
Economist Intelligence Unit 265
ECS 380
Edgerton, D. 310
Edirne 224
education 2, 37, 4041, 44, 57, 6364, 82, 85, 98, 105, 118, 123, 133, 137, 142, 149150, 156157, 159, 161, 164, 176177, 181, 189, 192193, 198199, 202, 204, 211, 219, 221, 231, 233, 237, 246247, 250, 258260, 263, 267271, 274276, 282, 299, 306, 311, 320, 322, 329330, 335, 367, 424, 436, 441, 443, 449450, 452, 473, 483, 491492, 495, 501, 511, 520521, 527, 531, 537, 550551, 554555, 564, 568569, 586, 592, 596, 602, 604605, 607609, 614, 630, 632, 634, 637638, 640, 645, 649, 652, 656
educational policy 27, 151, 416
low quality of education 469
provision of 154, 576578
support for 574
system of 21, 280, 498499
EEC 388
efficiency 21, 36, 82, 84, 123, 131, 133136, 150, 159, 180, 216, 219, 226, 239, 242, 263, 271272, 274, 278, 281284, 292, 296, 299, 307, 313314, 347, 353354, 358, 364, 366, 371372, 374, 381, 392, 401, 416, 425, 430, 433, 436, 449, 462463, 466, 468, 472, 480, 492, 496497, 499, 511, 529, 531, 543546, 557, 568, 575, 580582, 587, 591, 604, 606607, 609, 614, 619, 634, 637, 640, 645
efficiency spillovers 506, 508509
efficient social technology 280
EFTA 269, 403, 405, 407, 409, 548549, 582
Egypt 94, 178, 315, 322, 339, 345, 450, 524
EIB 596, 601, 603
Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich 313
Einstein, A. 53, 312313, 324, 326, 657
electricity 49, 104, 113114, 118, 121, 154, 215, 217, 228, 302, 305, 320, 357, 363, 381
electronics industry 100, 258, 404, 471, 511
Elliott, L. 256, 389, 448
Ellison, G. 136, 158
Elsevier 13, 324
Emcore 454
emerging business system 266
EMI 604
Empedocles 23
EMU 589, 600, 641
Encarta 210
end of globalization 438
endogenous change 81, 614
endogenous growth model 71
endowment factors 189
energy sources 33, 446, 609
energy use 113
enforcement 13, 15, 56, 144145, 231, 244, 251, 253, 313, 361, 451, 516, 523, 541, 629, 647
England see UK
English National Opera 223
Enron 157, 344, 356, 417, 558
Ensia 172
entertainment companies 138
entry of new firms 280, 378
environment 23, 10, 17, 2325, 33, 43, 46, 62, 65, 67, 69, 82, 93, 95, 109, 114, 126, 132, 146, 149, 151, 158159, 174, 178179, 181, 184, 191, 199, 201, 208, 211, 221, 233234, 254, 258, 260, 265, 271, 275, 278, 281, 294, 307, 311, 321322, 325, 327, 330, 334335, 339340, 344, 391, 394, 400, 402, 413, 418, 420, 425, 428, 433, 436, 464, 473474, 483, 486, 491, 503, 508, 518, 521522, 526, 530532, 536, 541, 548, 555, 559, 581, 601602, 604, 607608, 610, 622, 626, 629631, 640, 645646, 649650, 653, 656
economic environment 28, 210, 309, 556, 657
evolutionary environment 56, 144
favourable local business environment 85
labour-union-free business environment 524
standards 21, 3435, 5961, 246, 267, 303304, 378, 381382, 387, 438440, 446, 450452, 457, 470, 501
work environment 389
equilibrium outcome 12, 8990
equity 31, 131, 354, 393, 454, 463, 488, 564, 637638
ERDF 598602, 604, 608
ergodic 58, 75, 80, 115116, 132, 192, 419, 480
ERM 193, 498, 612
ESF 546, 604
Essen 63, 109, 194
establishment of the Single European Market 377, 587
Estonia 492, 599
Ethiopia 525
EU 3839, 42, 44, 5053, 63, 84, 94, 108109, 126, 130131, 146, 151152, 158, 161162, 187, 193, 203, 206, 237, 246, 255, 262, 264, 269, 272, 279, 282, 291293, 298, 314, 318319, 321, 328329, 336, 354, 356361, 363367, 371372, 380392, 394396, 398, 400403, 406411, 415416, 418, 424425, 431, 436, 438, 441442, 448, 453455, 458, 461, 463, 471, 476477, 479, 481483, 487491, 494, 501503, 519521, 525, 528, 531537, 539, 546551, 553, 556, 559562, 568570, 582, 629, 631632, 634642, 644
budget 286287, 376377, 573575, 596, 606, 615616, 626627, 634637, 640642
Court of First Instance 295
enlargement of 584585, 593595, 597605, 608610
General Court 296
intra-industry trade in 347348, 384386
location of production in 580
regional policy in 484485, 564565, 597599, 602603, 607609, 617625
euro 27, 29, 51, 78, 203, 279, 285287, 294, 318, 332, 344, 365, 384, 387, 389, 396, 416, 424, 428, 475, 487, 500, 505, 546547, 560561, 584, 587588, 596600, 609610, 612, 621, 625, 635636, 639642
Europe 15, 21, 29, 36, 40, 43, 46, 52, 5455, 60, 8687, 91, 109, 117118, 141, 146147, 156161, 163, 168169, 176177, 179, 183, 185188, 195, 204, 207, 214, 216217, 224, 228, 240, 242, 246, 248, 257258, 262, 264, 272, 274, 280, 284, 286, 288, 290, 301, 303, 308, 323, 325, 327, 330, 332335, 337338, 344345, 348, 350351, 354, 356, 366, 369, 376377, 385, 389, 401, 407, 409, 421422, 424425, 430, 437, 439440, 442445, 447, 451, 457458, 465, 470, 475476, 479480, 483, 485, 491492, 494, 497, 501, 503, 506, 510, 512, 518519, 526, 528, 530, 539541, 550, 561562, 570, 584, 589590, 602, 606, 614, 618, 620, 624, 646647
Eastern Europe 50, 88, 145, 150151, 261, 336, 359, 361, 387, 391, 403, 417, 431, 436, 453, 455, 471, 484, 490, 534, 555, 565, 575, 580581, 587, 594, 597, 617, 640
European Aeronautic Defence 454
European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development 604
European Airbus 343
European Central Bank 285, 287, 448
European Coal and Steel Community 601, 603
European Commission 175, 279, 285, 292, 295296, 318, 328, 357358, 360361, 363365, 380, 386388, 390391, 394396, 398, 400, 402, 411, 418, 464, 467, 484, 487488, 490, 520, 536, 559560, 588, 591, 603605, 607612, 617, 619, 621622, 633
European Commissioners 285
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization 386
European Committee for Standardization 386
European Communities 359, 384, 600, 608
European Competition Network 361
European Council 318, 321, 326, 641
European Council for Nuclear Research 326
European Court of Justice 296, 318, 383, 390, 402, 411
European Economic and Social Committee 390, 609
European Economy 359, 634
European Food Safety Authority 402
European Free Trade Association 269, 403, 548, 582
European Maritime and Fisheries Fund 604
European Parliament 318, 390, 496, 521, 605, 608609, 611, 616
European Patent Office 318320
European Regional Development Fund 598, 604
European Social Fund 573, 604
European Union see EU
European Voice 147, 402, 407
Western Europe 50, 202203, 339, 342, 349, 381, 431, 436, 462, 464, 522, 527, 569
Eurostat 147, 314, 549, 599
eurozone 203, 285, 287, 318, 332, 416, 546547, 560561, 584, 587588, 596, 598599, 610, 612, 621, 625, 636, 641642
Evans, R. 422, 494
Evenett, R. 443
evolution of an industry 117
evolution of clusters 89, 651
evolution of the regional policy of the EU 598
evolutionary biology 7, 23, 72, 74, 208, 651, 658
evolutionary doctrine 23
evolutionary economic geography 34, 78, 53, 80, 166, 192, 229, 232, 648, 657659
evolutionary economic theory 57, 73, 646, 649
evolutionary economics 2, 7, 10, 13, 73, 79, 89, 91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 101, 103, 105, 107, 109, 111, 113, 115, 117, 119, 208, 281, 419, 594, 646, 651
evolutionary framework 4, 81, 83, 98, 213, 654, 656
evolutionary mechanisms 85, 195, 650
evolutionary outcomes 23
evolutionary position 192
evolutionary possibility 196
evolutionary process 23, 2829, 78, 81, 97, 99, 105106, 119, 200, 301, 326, 652
evolutionary reasons 652
evolutionary theories 93
exchange of information 143, 145146, 278, 372, 390, 438, 481, 490491, 562, 591
exchange rate 21, 78, 188, 283, 347, 380, 404, 430, 466467, 469, 477, 480, 500, 503, 510, 546547, 554, 561, 576, 585, 598
exchange rate fluctuations 467
exchange rate
and FDI 477, 554
risks 546547, 561
exclusion contracts 293
exclusive dealerships 362
existence of economies of scale 47, 156
existence of firms 239
existence of labour mobility 183
existence of large firms 74
exogenous changes 55, 306
exorbitant compliance costs 344
expanding knowledge 212
expansion of firms 572
expansion of GVCs 238, 247, 262
experience-rich firms 132
exploitation of host countries 521
export incentives 553
export-led growth 434, 585
exquisite goods 385
external knowledge 508
external shock 28, 65, 104, 108, 180, 202, 543, 581
external top market segments 356
externalities 4, 21, 35, 51, 58, 81, 90, 103, 132133, 144, 146, 155, 166, 175, 179180, 182, 190192, 197, 203, 234, 256, 292293, 306307, 341, 378, 428, 461, 509, 512, 514, 521, 533534, 552, 573, 575, 585, 620, 641, 650
definition of 139140, 506
internalisation of 467
and intervention 583
and location 49, 467, 480
Exxon-Florio 456, 540
Facebook 38, 54, 64, 130131, 204, 214, 286, 289, 300, 309, 418, 437, 459, 653
factor endowments 3637, 75, 77, 298, 349
factor mobility 14, 45, 191, 302, 432, 461, 539, 566, 591, 621
factors of collective behavioural order 144, 335
factors of production 35, 49, 71, 306, 572
fake news 67
Falkenhagen, Hans 72
Falls Church 156
Falun Gong sect 438
family-run firms 226
family-run type of business 144
Fang, L. 292
farming regions 600
Farole, T. 160, 260, 618
favourable economic advantages 71
FDI 10, 47, 164, 197, 211, 236, 238240, 262263, 392, 394, 405, 410411, 419, 427, 433, 441444, 446, 457458, 461467, 469475, 477, 479, 484485, 491495, 504505, 508509, 511514, 518519, 522526, 529535, 537539, 541544, 546549, 556, 559562, 580, 592, 627, 629630, 654
in Africa 453, 455456, 496498, 501502, 552554
determinants of 497501
in the EU 394, 410411, 457458, 477, 501502, 518519, 537538, 546549, 551552, 559562, 592
inflows and outflows 508509
and international economic integration 453
globalisation and 436, 448, 553554
Federal Reserve Board 2
federal Swiss profits tax 483
Feldman, M. 13, 34, 139, 156
Felixstowe 627
Ferguson, Massey 123, 125, 233
Ferrari 56, 226227, 352
Ferrostaal 494
Fiat 146, 207, 261, 353, 465, 488, 535536
Fibonacci, Leonardo 334
film industry 138
film studios 100101
final goods 236, 239, 243, 247248, 250, 266, 352, 409, 522523, 530
final product 40, 81, 236237, 243245, 247248, 251, 254255, 267, 274275, 346, 377, 385, 404, 497, 648
finance programmes 601
financial business 157
financial capital 481
financial markets 31, 157, 217, 329, 357, 510, 539, 626, 644
financial perspective 605
financial products group 426
Financial Times 12, 1719, 32, 36, 39, 50, 52, 63, 82, 87, 92, 94, 101, 108109, 111, 117, 138139, 143, 148, 175, 180181, 187, 200, 206207, 213, 216217, 247, 258259, 262264, 286289, 295, 300, 313314, 318, 321, 328, 330, 332333, 342343, 353355, 357, 371, 373, 385386, 388, 396397, 400, 402, 415, 417, 423424, 426, 429432, 434435, 440, 442, 454, 456, 458, 464465, 471473, 479, 482483, 486491, 493494, 506, 515516, 518519, 529, 539540, 553, 555, 569, 625, 644645
Finger and Yeats 47
Finland 48, 110, 118, 149150, 164, 209, 319, 328, 345, 525, 550, 569, 584, 588, 597, 602, 641
GDP per capita in 599
specialisation in 592
FIRA 538
firm A’s profit 170
firm size 183, 587
firm trade 239240, 443444, 466467
firms’ attention 482
firm-specific assets 233, 477
First World War 30, 117, 224225, 228, 305, 342, 421, 446, 529
first-mover advantages 115, 203, 362
fiscal frontiers 478
fisheries 603, 605
fixed costs 75, 90, 128, 167, 192, 468, 507, 552, 581
flat economic landscape 58
flexible economic system 212
Florence 47, 156157, 186188, 193, 222223, 324
flow of funds 225, 481
Flying technologies 212
follow-your-leader 471
Fontoura, M. 512
food 6, 2324, 59, 66, 70, 72, 94, 106, 116, 120, 137138, 147, 161162, 182, 194, 202, 208, 230, 257, 265, 319, 327, 350, 355356, 384, 417, 420, 423, 432, 449, 454, 456, 465, 503, 529, 573, 575, 587588, 632
food and drink industry 359
prices 377, 381, 390391, 645
safety 56, 242, 402403
standards 242, 248, 381, 387, 390391, 438439, 501
subsidies 359, 374
taxes 390391, 501
trade in 275
footloose element of many modern industries 134
Footloose industries 170
footloose production of goods 585
Ford, Henry 57, 82, 90, 115, 118, 141, 164, 221, 244, 294, 308, 316, 346, 350, 429, 506, 547, 550551, 560, 569
foreign consumers 343
foreign direct investment see FDI
foreign exchange 350, 517
reserves 17, 456
foreign firms 38, 61, 357, 398, 439, 451, 463, 466, 495, 504, 509, 511, 525, 540, 544, 553
foreign goods 206, 333, 382
foreign investment 42, 175, 196, 436, 454, 471, 475, 479480, 500, 520, 522, 548, 608
foreign language 655
foreign officials 493
foreign policy 157
foreign production 411
foreign profit diversion’ effect 544
foreign TNC 107, 449, 453, 504, 508, 517518, 523, 532, 534, 540, 544, 547, 553, 561
forestry 162, 574
Fortress Europe 463, 502, 547
Formula Electric 343
Forslid, P. 587, 589
Fort Lauderdale 131
Fortune 146, 335, 354
Foxconn 4142, 54, 106, 252, 330, 429, 535
France 38, 43, 45, 47, 5052, 5455, 60, 8687, 101, 122, 146, 150151, 157, 161, 183185, 195, 200, 203, 227228, 248, 279, 282, 293, 304, 321, 324, 328, 331332, 334, 359, 380, 388389, 399, 402, 410411, 424, 438, 443, 454, 474, 477, 483485, 502, 520, 532535, 539, 547, 550, 560, 567, 569, 572, 578, 586, 588, 595, 602, 605, 625, 639
GDP per capita in 598599
innovation in 319
intra-industry trade in 384385
regional policy in 621
specialisation in 218219
Frank Act 19
Frankfurt 194, 207, 592
Fratianni, M. 157, 427, 632
free access 228, 418
free flow of information 438
free hand 291, 625
free international mobility of labour 585
free market 12, 82, 211, 230, 278, 280282, 287, 289, 306, 417, 419, 441, 458, 515, 533, 541, 572, 574, 595596, 648
free trade 35, 39, 56, 6061, 134, 162, 164, 191, 229230, 269, 298, 337, 346, 369, 381, 403404, 406409, 412, 438, 442, 445, 448, 455, 467, 504, 524, 536, 543, 545, 552, 579, 583, 628630
French army 171
French Court 402, 422
French court 86
French government 51, 331, 385, 399, 424
French Liberal School 25
Frenken, K. 13, 80, 136, 166, 181
Freund, C. 269, 513
Friedman, T. 59, 211, 230, 429, 447, 449
Fry, Arthur 311
FSA 494
Fujita, M. 13, 20, 121, 131, 153, 166, 175, 182, 584
functioning of product markets 496
Fust, Johann 323
future location of jobs 2
future needs of businesses 265
future structure of work 265
Gablinger 343344
Galileo, G. 126, 224, 228, 323325, 658
Galway 148
Garofoli, G. 144, 159
Gates, Bill 64, 82, 101102, 117, 211, 221, 294
Gates, D. 64, 82, 101102, 117, 150, 211, 221, 294, 520
GATS 562
GATT 47, 347, 380, 392, 395, 399400, 412, 437, 582
GE 110, 193, 242, 256, 330, 353, 430, 462, 504, 515, 517, 519, 530, 539, 583, 585, 614
Geely 520
Geigy 312, 358
Geithner, T. 32
Gemayel, Toni 292
General Electric see GE
general equilibrium 49, 61, 65, 67, 73, 80, 468, 480, 506, 650
General Motors 57, 200, 264, 316, 350, 355, 465, 473, 569
general trade liberalisation policy 627
general-purpose policies 613
genetic engineering 304, 322
Geneva 137, 161, 219220, 304, 326, 483
Genoa 157, 186
geographical location 5, 20, 35, 50, 165, 174, 185, 196, 252, 265, 298, 327, 353, 406, 415, 419, 429, 447, 457, 532, 538, 572, 574, 587, 596597
of cities 183
of a firm 4748
geographical space 7, 12, 14, 32, 4849, 59, 83, 85, 90, 128, 167, 197, 316, 417, 438, 447, 480
Georgia 160, 492
Gerlingen 106
German economic center 47
German government 503, 539
German mark 401
Germany 20, 34, 38, 4349, 55, 60, 72, 98, 101, 106, 115, 117, 133134, 140141, 150151, 161162, 181, 183, 188, 193195, 198200, 203, 206207, 217, 219221, 224227, 237, 240, 248, 252, 255, 264, 266267, 282, 293, 300, 321, 324, 332, 334, 341, 349, 351, 353, 359, 384, 386, 388391, 402, 434, 439, 443, 453, 456, 473, 477, 482484, 487, 490, 520, 527, 529, 539, 547, 550, 560, 588, 595, 606, 634635, 639
GDP per capita in 599
innovation in 319
regional policy in 569, 621
reunification of 535
standards in 382383
Geroski, P. 310, 351
Gertler, M. 13
Ghana 172, 465
Giorgione 186, 224
Giti 500
Glaeser, E. 158, 185
global economic crisis 438
global economy 2, 42, 164165, 236, 238, 261, 386, 417, 454455, 505, 647
Global Financial Crisis 19, 29, 31, 57, 63, 80, 103, 108, 196, 238, 262, 275, 280281, 287, 329, 333, 366, 372, 417418, 422, 424, 431, 435, 447, 457, 465, 481, 539, 555, 562, 569, 576, 594595, 609, 619, 628, 634, 644
global institutions 416, 421422, 448
global labour migration 439
global living standards 415
global production 71, 237, 273, 349, 437, 512
global trade 241, 255, 261262, 267, 333, 349, 399, 419420, 423, 447, 647
global warming 6, 303, 657
globalisation 14, 59, 131, 148, 157, 163, 180, 230, 237238, 241, 255, 258, 262, 265266, 275, 282, 377, 415417, 419420, 422439, 441449, 451, 453459, 510, 515, 519, 541, 544, 554555, 571, 585, 646648
GM 116, 146, 264, 316, 327, 336, 346, 355, 371, 381
goal of evolutionary economics 2
gold standard 421, 428
Golden Gateway office 335
Goldman Sachs 285287, 515
Goldwater, Barry 199
Google 104, 106, 125, 130, 178, 200, 203, 210, 214, 230, 256, 286, 289, 292, 296, 300, 308, 311, 317, 357, 362, 364, 418, 437, 459, 483, 488, 535, 653
Görg, H. 508, 511512, 530, 557
Govan, F. 573
government assistance 149
government intervention 136, 190, 428, 504, 533, 552, 568, 581, 583, 637
government policy 33, 58, 82, 90, 154, 161, 204, 219, 375, 574, 649
government subsidies 418, 573
Grabher, G. 107
Gratia, Andre 311
Gray, John 439
Great Depression 19, 199, 244
Great Lakes 169, 176
Greece 147, 176, 203, 285, 332, 337, 377, 451, 494, 502, 509, 569, 574, 588, 602, 606, 610, 612, 617, 624626
GDP per capita in 598599
regional policy in 621
Greek government 494
green cards 151
Greenaway, D. 349, 351, 353, 511512, 557
greenfield investment 354, 529, 556
Greenspan, Alan 2, 215216
Greenwich Village 170
Gresser, E. 399
Grossman, G. 47, 240
Grubel, H. 348
Grubert, H. 485, 514
Guandog Province 272
Guardian 63, 125, 172, 248, 256, 286, 290291, 294, 354, 385, 389, 391, 406, 424, 448, 487488, 493494, 617
Gulf of Mexico 169
Gutenberg 323
Gutfreund, John 104
GVC 10, 14, 31, 35, 38, 41, 46, 75, 131, 134, 159, 192, 231, 233, 236249, 251264, 266276, 346, 366, 377, 408, 410411, 420, 431, 444, 454, 457, 467, 472, 474, 488, 499, 501, 508, 512, 533, 545, 558, 565, 573, 584, 614, 630631, 637, 640641, 647648, 650
Gwadar 337
Hagedoorn, J. 521
Hagen, T. 619
Hägerstrand, T. 34
Haji-Ioannou, Stelios 64, 195, 214, 294
Haller, H. 264
Haloid 124
Hamamatsu 123
Hamburg 194, 197, 319
Handbook of Economic Geography 13
Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics 13
Hanson, G. 511, 557, 627
harmonisation 53, 268, 295, 318, 597
prices 480481
regulation 256, 382383
standards 247, 256, 382383, 387
tax 479481, 486
Harrod, R. 62
Haussmann, Eugène 171172
Havre, Le 399
Hawaii 289
Hayek, Friederich 32, 53, 281, 569
health and safety standards 226
health care 22, 72, 137, 172, 199, 219, 221, 286, 291, 341, 355, 417, 449, 554, 578, 637
Heckscher–Ohlin theory 3638, 195, 236, 349, 351, 353, 543
Heerlen 109
Heidegger, Martin 62, 327
Henry VIII 398
Heppenstall, J. 385
Hern, A. 172
Hewlett 130, 211, 365, 471
Hewlett, Bill 211
HHI 299
high society 86
high-income countries 626
high-income regions 594, 613614
high-technology countries 586
high-technology firms 150, 152, 453, 561
high-technology products 72, 99
Hill, Jonathan 285
Hiroshima 172, 187188
historical accident 46, 5354, 8283, 88, 121122, 153, 155, 195196, 337, 339, 650
Hitler, Adolf 118
HIV 72, 422, 450
Hodgetts, R. 429
Hodgson, G. 74
Hoechst 312
Hoekman, B. 254, 261, 400
Hollande, Francois 285
Home Depot 293
home market effect 4, 36, 4344
homogeneous firms 58
homogeneous production functions 369
Honda, Soichiro 64, 123, 211, 214, 294, 535, 550, 653
Hong Kong 64, 92, 105, 152, 157, 171173, 180, 187, 272, 292, 384, 476, 490491, 494, 591, 654
Hornby, L. 138, 540
hotels 86, 475
House Energy and Commerce Committee 292
housing market 44, 46
Huawei 54, 64, 152, 214, 273, 296, 308, 320321, 331, 437, 454, 458459, 518519, 539540, 653654
Hufbauer, G. 347, 425, 500, 516
Hugo Boss 221
human behaviour 60, 62, 81, 645
human capital 34, 83, 135, 139, 148, 151, 156, 176, 178, 199, 208, 212, 219, 221, 263, 274, 324, 330, 341, 351, 455, 473, 483, 492, 527, 535, 537, 545, 551, 569, 572573, 591, 604, 606, 610, 616, 622623, 632, 654
human cost of antibiotic resistance 291
human rights 35, 420, 435, 446, 450
Hungary 41, 50, 206, 250, 391, 448, 517, 530, 539, 554555, 587, 599, 618, 623624
IBM 100102, 106, 117, 124, 150, 200, 203, 296, 343, 352, 365, 380, 427, 518, 540
Iceland 366, 403, 457
ICI 67, 93, 104, 115, 378, 514, 547
IIASA 65, 89, 658
IIT index 349
illegal immigrants 629
illicit business 482
Illinois 149, 169, 244, 518
Illinois Brick Co. 244
IMF 32, 5657, 213214, 417, 420423, 429, 448, 456, 479, 491, 493494, 510, 554555, 628, 654
imperfect market 3, 372, 374, 480
Imperial Chemicals Industries 104
import quotas 392
import substitution 182183, 239, 435
income distribution 21, 36, 275, 432, 457, 615
incremental innovation 73
Independent 337, 384, 432, 435, 494, 645
index of intra-industry trade (IIT) 348
India 3942, 44, 60, 71, 90, 92, 107, 111, 144, 150, 160161, 164, 169, 185, 210211, 213, 229, 242, 275, 305, 329, 333334, 337, 339, 369, 384, 397, 399, 424, 435, 440, 442445, 447, 454455, 458, 465, 473, 476, 496, 512513, 518519, 535, 542, 555, 569, 571, 585, 650
Indian Ocean 92, 305, 337
indirect taxes 477
Indonesia 40, 71, 117, 238, 305, 435, 442, 454, 476, 523
industrial countries 398
industrial development certificates 578
industrial espionage 332, 474
industrial output 587
industrial policy 80, 198, 206, 251, 289, 307, 320, 345, 385, 523, 576, 621, 633
industrial revolution 157, 333, 339
industry trade 36, 40, 51, 278, 346349, 351353, 385, 443444, 533, 589, 593
industry value chains 239
infant industries 35, 60, 281, 448, 467, 553
inflation 64, 158, 215216, 256, 287, 366, 510, 525, 546
and unemployment 574
informatics 521
information 17, 20, 2930, 53, 62, 6566, 68, 7374, 76, 79, 82, 95, 108, 115, 154, 176, 209, 254255, 264, 273, 282, 286, 325, 352353, 357358, 361, 380, 386, 388, 400, 407, 431432, 452, 464, 484, 565, 607, 611, 621, 650, 655
asymmetric 58, 292, 466
costs 13, 47, 58, 129, 132135, 138139, 156, 177178, 182, 215216, 229231, 252, 278, 292, 314, 349, 368, 418419, 436, 466, 489490, 508, 578, 581, 591, 647
exchange of 33, 140143, 145147, 278, 372, 390, 438, 481, 489491, 562, 581, 591
technology 37, 56, 132135, 138142, 150, 156, 161, 215216, 222, 228231, 238, 242, 288289, 296, 305, 368, 372, 392, 408409, 411, 418419, 427, 447448, 495, 506, 508, 513514, 518, 521, 523, 531, 534, 539, 568569, 593, 653
technology cluster 156, 495, 513514
ING 89, 256, 267, 285, 368, 378, 394, 514, 516, 554
innovation 24, 8, 10, 15, 17, 2830, 41, 44, 48, 64, 67, 69, 7374, 7779, 8183, 85, 94, 9899, 102, 104, 106, 108109, 128, 131133, 136, 139141, 143144, 155, 157159, 163165, 178, 180181, 191, 196197, 200, 203204, 208209, 211, 213, 215, 231, 234, 243244, 252, 258259, 263, 271, 278, 284, 288, 292, 294, 297, 299323, 325, 328332, 334337, 339343, 345, 362, 365366, 372, 397, 417, 430, 465, 470, 472474, 477, 498499, 510, 512, 519520, 527528, 530, 557, 565, 568, 573, 581, 585, 594595, 597, 605, 607610, 612614, 616, 621623, 628, 630631, 634, 637638, 640, 646651, 654655
innovation process 284, 301303, 306, 311, 313, 520
Innovation Union 318, 328, 608, 619
innovative firm 294
institutional barriers 338, 439
institutional bases 441
institution-environment-related approach 21
institutions 24, 1216, 28, 3132, 38, 5354, 5658, 73, 81, 94, 98, 108, 118, 132, 136, 143145, 149, 152, 156157, 163, 165166, 170, 182, 191192, 197, 208, 212213, 231, 271, 282, 285286, 292, 301, 304, 307, 313, 316, 322, 326, 331, 334339, 369, 390, 415417, 419, 421423, 426, 432, 436, 439, 445, 448, 487, 491, 496, 503, 514, 527, 554, 562, 591, 594, 601, 609, 615, 618, 624, 626, 630, 632, 637638, 640, 645646, 649, 653
insurance industry 199, 439
intangible assets 145, 176, 216, 247, 286, 552
Integrated Mediterranean Programme 601
integration of national economies 427, 543
Intel 75, 100, 115, 135, 141, 150, 221, 244, 265, 292, 296, 311, 329330, 342, 365, 424, 523524
intellectual property 217, 241, 243, 252253, 256, 286, 292, 294, 296, 313314, 318319, 373, 378, 384, 418, 466, 474, 507, 519, 577, 627628
intellectual property rights 241, 253, 256, 292, 294, 313314, 373, 378, 384, 418, 466, 507, 519, 627628
interdependence 1718, 189, 207, 218, 426, 429, 432
interest groups 564
interest rates 216, 357, 463, 510, 522, 546, 577, 612
inter-industry trade 347, 443
intermediate goods 14, 40, 44, 131, 178, 231, 236, 238241, 243, 251, 254255, 265, 517, 524, 583, 593, 628, 651
internal costs 239
internal market demand 371
internal markets 371
internal political compromises 615
internalisation 239, 447, 466470, 557, 654
internalisation theory 466
international business globalisation 453
international economic integration 6, 148, 163, 191, 296, 309, 371, 375, 403, 453, 523, 532, 543, 545, 564, 568, 573, 575, 579, 581583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595
international economy 231, 254, 411, 416, 427, 457, 626, 647
international financial market 554
International Herald Tribune 139, 207
international influence 426
international market 34, 40, 128, 211, 225, 238, 342, 371, 375, 436, 453, 492, 497498, 510, 522, 530, 541, 543, 552553, 565, 569, 583
International Monetary Fund 32, 56, 117, 213, 420, 422423, 491, 510, 554, 654
international spread of locations 520
international structural pressures 571
international trade 4, 10, 3435, 47, 236, 239, 253, 261, 346348, 360, 370, 374, 382, 392393, 397, 405, 411, 420421, 427, 437, 442, 470, 478, 541, 543, 572, 594, 647
International Working Group 456
Internet 38, 40, 7172, 7576, 104, 138139, 141, 181, 209210, 215217, 255, 288, 291293, 295, 309310, 320, 326, 340, 353, 355357, 380, 416, 418, 425, 437438, 440, 443444, 585, 606
intra-firm trade 239240, 444, 466467
intra-group trade 297
intra-industry trade 36, 51, 278, 346349, 352353, 385, 533, 589, 593
introduction of a new product 343
introduction of new technologies 144, 573
introduction of the Savings Tax Directive 481
invention 35, 85, 106, 109, 123125, 144, 181, 187, 195, 204, 210, 213, 301305, 311312, 315, 319320, 326, 334, 337338, 341342, 362, 368, 413, 482, 650
investment agreements 541
investment creation 463, 546
investment decisions 198, 214, 411, 456
investment diversion 463
Ioannidis, J. 63
Ipswich 627
Iran 265, 400, 434, 438
Iraq 94, 156, 168, 227, 400
Ireland 48, 110, 123, 148, 164, 175, 229, 250, 328, 479, 481, 483484, 488, 507509, 516, 520, 537, 569, 586588, 592, 612, 615, 617, 626, 632, 641
GDP per capita in 598600
regional policy in 597599
Irish Independent 432
IRS 516517
Isard, W. 34, 208
Islam 29, 31, 321, 323, 328, 337338, 428, 435, 442
isoquants 369370
Israel 152, 212, 221, 230, 319, 407, 520, 540
Italy 55, 62, 8687, 99, 136, 144, 146, 153154, 156, 159, 161, 164, 178, 186, 193, 203, 207, 220, 222, 227, 230, 244, 261, 282, 285, 304, 318319, 325, 332333, 341, 343, 353, 355, 384, 386, 388389, 400, 406, 438, 448, 454, 484, 487, 489, 502503, 508, 524, 527, 529, 539, 547, 558, 565, 569, 602, 606, 612, 617, 624625, 635, 639
GDP per capita in 598600
regional policy in 598599, 632634
wars and 188, 223224
Ivory Coast 465
Jack, A. 6364, 125, 195, 294, 402, 483, 493
Jackson, G. 63
Jacobs, J. 170, 179181, 335, 507
Jaguar 50, 357, 536
Japan 36, 38, 40, 4244, 48, 55, 59, 61, 79, 9394, 101, 106, 109, 123, 139141, 143, 145146, 149, 152, 183184, 188, 198, 207, 214, 217, 230231, 237238, 240, 242243, 250, 252253, 255, 259, 264, 267, 270, 272273, 288, 303, 316, 321, 329, 332, 338, 342344, 349350, 359, 364366, 374, 377, 379, 386, 392, 394396, 399401, 405406, 410, 416, 436, 438442, 450, 455, 457, 463, 470471, 473, 475477, 485, 498499, 502, 504, 511, 518519, 522, 528, 530, 536, 540, 549551, 559, 569, 576, 582, 585, 591, 595, 597, 647
competition from 356, 383384, 560562
competition in 307, 356, 371, 383, 515
imports from 423, 534
innovation in 318319
location of production in 580
specialisation in 546548
Japanese government 400
Javorcik, Smarzynska 511, 557
Jenkins, S. 107, 135, 290291, 494
JEREMIE 604
Jerusalem 26, 244, 462
Jesus 26
Jobs, Steve 64, 105106, 122, 125, 294
Johns Hopkins University 156
Joint European Support for Sustainable Investment 604
joint ventures 358359, 366, 474, 506, 529, 550
Jordan 169
Journal of Economic Geography 13
Journal of Evolutionary Economics 27
Jovanović, M. 13, 233, 254255, 272, 300, 537
JPMorgan Chase 17
Juppé, Alain 332
Jura 161, 220, 452
just-in-time 143, 146, 255, 273, 371
JVC 100, 380
Kaiser Wilhelm II 117, 210
Kalajić, D. 32, 104, 323, 325, 327, 441
Kalashnikov, Mikhail 313
Kangbashi 173
Kanter, Moss 485
Karahan, O. 512, 557
Kauffman Foundation 131
Kawai, M. 43, 408, 411
Kay, J. 12, 19, 34, 53, 82, 84, 87, 92, 95, 104, 112, 122, 142143, 148, 157, 177, 200, 210, 212, 233, 280282, 288, 313, 333, 342344, 423, 426, 434, 454, 468, 491, 494, 644645, 655
Kazakhstan 50
Kellogg 108, 650
Kenya 46, 93, 232, 270, 337, 541
Keynes, Milton 31, 62, 181, 645646
Khrushchev, Nikita 149
Kildall, Gary 117
Kim, S. 52, 61, 177, 259, 417, 516, 559, 586
Kimura, F. 259, 559
King George III 333
King Jayavarman II 88
King Minos 322
King Richard II 494
Kinshasa 171
Kleinknecht, A. 34
knowledge-intensive firms 105
Kodak 124, 147
Kogler, D. 13
Köhler, Horst 421
Kok, Wim 606
Kokko, A. 511, 537, 557
Konyn, M. 440
Korea 52, 59, 106, 110, 117, 145, 164, 230, 240, 244, 249, 251253, 259, 265, 268, 270, 272, 307, 309, 316, 319, 332, 366, 371, 400, 434435, 438439, 452, 470471, 476, 509, 527, 540541, 567569, 576, 582, 585, 631, 650, 654
Kortrijk 161
Kovacs, I. 617
Koyama, M. 176
Krauss, M. 78, 480
Krenz, A. 588
Krueger, A. 429430
Krugman, P. 37, 43, 49, 51, 90, 134, 139, 159, 162, 173, 178, 189, 195, 197199, 203, 217, 236, 284, 291293, 310, 341, 347, 350, 364, 372, 434, 441, 454, 473, 487, 489, 519, 527, 537, 565566, 585, 647
Kuka 503, 539, 561
Kyocera 364
Kyoto Customs Convention 405
La Roche 365, 518
labour 10, 55, 62, 68, 81, 111, 118, 144, 148150, 156157, 167, 170171, 176177, 179, 192193, 196197, 212, 236237, 239240, 246, 256, 272, 287, 306, 329, 340341, 351, 411, 433434, 453, 468469, 486, 492, 504, 514, 524525, 527, 529531, 536537, 542, 545, 552, 588589, 619, 631, 633, 637638, 648, 652, 656
costs 13, 21, 3536, 38, 4042, 50, 6061, 78, 90, 106, 129130, 133, 135137, 153154, 163164, 174, 189190, 206207, 231232, 242243, 253, 259263, 265271, 367368, 377378, 387388, 395, 420, 429430, 435436, 445446, 464466, 472473, 477, 496498, 502, 508509, 534535, 548, 550551, 555556, 565566, 571574, 576578, 581582, 584586, 613614, 642, 646
market conditions 189190, 571572
market institutions 330332
market terms 616
mobility 38, 4447, 133, 135136, 140, 151153, 162163, 182183, 189190, 299, 301303, 382, 387388, 415416, 435436, 446448, 464465, 480, 498500, 508510, 555557, 564566, 571575, 577578, 584586, 593595, 606607, 609
standards 21, 3436, 6061, 7071, 226227, 242243, 259261, 266271, 274275, 302303, 377378, 382, 387388, 439, 445448, 450452, 561
unions 21, 50, 106107, 153154, 199, 206207, 258262, 284, 331332, 420, 465466, 498500, 556558, 571574, 624
labour-intensive production 573
Lafayette 292
Lafourcade, M. 47, 559
Lamu 337
land rents 45, 129, 143
Larsen, Norm 312
late bloomer 6162
Lattice Semiconductor Corporation 539
Latvia 492, 599
Lausanne School of Economics 62
Laxenburg 89
Leamer, E. 36, 41, 48, 62, 353, 647
learning curve 141, 314, 379, 399, 506
learning process 147149, 198, 513
Lee, K. 304, 334, 485, 555
Legend Computer Company 427
Legnano 224
Lehman Brothers 422
Leibnitz 122, 326
Leicester Square 223
Leijonhufvud, A. 60
Lenovo 365, 427, 540
Leonardi, R. 590, 612
level of regional specialisation 586
Levinsohn, J. 41, 647
Lexus 357
Leyland 231, 647
LG 320, 553, 579
Li & Fung 243, 272
liberal economic policy 2, 10, 561
liberal government 280
liberal market economies 291
Liberia 87
Lidl 439
Liebowitz, S. 99100
Liechtenstein 87, 221, 489
Lima 627
Limao, N. 47
Lin, Yutang 526
Linder, S. 43, 348349, 353
Lipsey, R. E. 512513, 530, 557
Lipsey, R. G. 49, 5758, 60, 6465, 7071, 79, 8284, 112114, 137138, 154155, 195198, 215, 222, 284, 288, 298, 303305, 307, 316, 321, 323, 337338, 340, 345, 351, 369, 407, 416, 430, 439, 441, 477, 506, 510, 521, 538539, 541, 579, 653, 655, 658659
Lipton 343
liqueurs 382
Liquid Crystal Institute 149
liquidity 158, 548
Lisbon 321, 496, 539, 546, 548, 561, 606, 612
Lisbon Agenda 546, 612
literacy 21, 176, 185, 442, 527
Lithuania 492, 511, 599, 623
living standards 50, 191, 215, 278, 319, 415, 425, 636, 641
loan guarantees 574, 577, 639
loans 5758, 157, 197, 288, 366, 417, 421422, 510, 525, 546, 553554, 576, 602603, 610, 612, 621
lobbies 255, 320, 327, 369, 372, 385, 401, 404, 419, 521, 577, 624, 638, 642, 649, 652653
local content rules 76
location of production 21, 3741, 44, 49, 52, 60, 71, 83, 101, 121, 175, 192, 209, 213, 242, 258, 262, 266, 288, 305, 343, 369, 375, 377, 385, 403, 405406, 408409, 411, 419, 443444, 447, 457, 470, 477478, 501, 516, 532, 551, 555, 565, 580, 584585, 588, 641, 648, 654, 657658
cities 201, 626627
clusters 352353, 467
impact of integration on 626627
theory of 3436, 298, 352353, 462, 480
locational advantages 461462, 467
Lockheed 57
lock-in 3, 7, 18, 30, 46, 65, 85, 99100, 103105, 107108, 110, 114, 119120, 128, 143, 145, 158, 166, 196, 207, 213, 231232, 649, 658
Loertscher, R. 348
Lomé 407
London 40, 4647, 86, 131, 142, 154, 157158, 161, 164, 169, 171, 177, 179180, 187, 201, 222223, 319, 342, 385, 399, 426, 439, 462, 467, 482483, 494, 578, 584, 586, 592, 625626, 647
London high society 86
London School of Economics 439
long-term impact of such choices 198
long-term macroeconomic stability 19
long-term policy advices 70
Lord Brougham 86
Lord Macartney, G. 333
Los Angeles 131, 138, 169
Lösch 13, 4950, 644
loss of access 188
loss of US manufacturing jobs 258
Louis XIV 219
low cost 32, 159, 164, 380, 417, 437, 614, 653
low labour costs 253, 260, 262, 266, 472, 502, 534
low local embeddedness 508
low security of data 481
low threshold 398
low-cost manufacturing 38, 265, 330, 471
Lower Hill auditorium 335
low-labour-cost locations 411
low-tariff markets 498
Luddites 256, 284, 423, 430
Lulea 204
Lumezzane 144, 194
Luxembourg 248, 250, 318319, 328, 454, 479, 482483, 487489, 516, 584
GDP per capita in 598599
Ma, Jack 64, 125, 195, 294
Macintosh 100, 102, 106, 380
mad cow disease 384, 402, 629
Maddison, Angus 333
Madrid 50, 176, 186, 474
mainland China 320
major impact 215, 627
make computer chips 139
Malaysia 40, 117, 172, 238, 246, 251, 395, 476, 518
Malta 479, 599
Malthus, Thomas 22
Manchester 133, 180
Manila 585
Mann, D. 67, 98, 257, 319
Mannheim 319
Mantegna 125126, 224
Mantua 223224
manufacturing industries 60, 204, 298, 351, 371, 473, 506, 519, 522, 543, 551, 561, 584, 586587, 618
manufacturing sector 50, 162, 374375, 475, 576, 620, 650
Marcet, A. 591
Marchionne, F. 207, 427
marginal cost 122, 283, 368, 370, 375, 377, 502
marginal revenue 282
Margolis, S. 99100
Marić, Mileva 313
Mariotti, S. 508
market
access 13, 21, 41, 178, 279, 351, 381, 408, 449, 455
change 108, 124, 146, 211, 247248, 255, 261262, 269, 390, 419, 429, 489, 629630, 647
demanders 71
economies 35, 1617, 2021, 3551, 5357, 6365, 7677, 8182, 9294, 128133, 135137, 152, 161164, 166, 174175, 178, 188192, 195199, 203, 229234, 275, 281283, 288289, 291293, 299300, 306310, 332334, 344345, 347352, 359372, 374381, 383388, 398400, 427428, 431433, 453456, 458459, 465469, 480, 496498, 500501, 504506, 509514, 528533, 542547, 551553, 564565, 572574, 580588, 618619
enlargement 5051, 162164, 306308, 546548, 561562, 598600, 609
forces 34, 1113, 5051, 5359, 71, 7374, 9194, 128130, 144145, 161163, 170, 174175, 191192, 200201, 267, 280282, 287288, 308310, 343345, 365367, 393395, 421422, 427428, 573575, 580584, 590591, 615616, 625626, 637638, 656
imperfections 34, 1921, 5559, 190192, 306308, 374376, 421422, 464469, 496497, 503505, 512514, 531533, 542544, 571576, 619620, 637638, 644646, 652653
leader 4344, 117118, 191192, 199201, 315316, 342344, 349351, 423425, 445446, 470471, 498499, 532533, 540542
liberalisation 3436, 237238, 421423, 427428, 432434, 453454, 461462, 497501, 509511, 560562, 569571, 581583, 585587, 618620, 626628
manipulation 7374, 142143, 415, 514515
monopolies 3436, 5759, 7377, 230232, 278279, 288289, 291295, 315317, 362364, 371372, 494
participants 34, 1820, 77, 142143, 250, 468469, 648649
position 67, 4749, 8182, 9495, 127129, 155156, 178, 191192, 278283, 294297, 306308, 356366, 374381, 404, 421422, 463465, 470471, 532533, 538540, 542546, 560562, 580581, 590, 593
power 1112, 3031, 4244, 5359, 7374, 7677, 9092, 9899, 102105, 117118, 142145, 156157, 161162, 174175, 180, 198200, 225226, 237238, 278284, 297300, 332334, 337, 350352, 363365, 367369, 377381, 400402, 417, 433435, 438442, 458459, 463469, 498504, 539549, 595596, 598600
prices 34, 67, 2021, 3436, 4042, 4448, 5559, 6364, 7677, 100101, 174175, 200201, 213215, 231233, 275, 278279, 281283, 287288, 294299, 302304, 315317, 341345, 359369, 376381, 394396, 413, 417, 438440, 461463, 480, 498500, 503505, 513516, 528532, 543545, 561562, 580581, 583587, 598600, 644646, 653654
segments 163164, 219220, 246, 315316, 342344, 355357, 378380
share 4244, 4648, 5456, 131133, 136138, 208210, 239241, 263264, 288289, 291292, 298300, 308310, 342344, 357361, 378380, 400402, 410, 453454, 463464, 473, 501503, 506508, 519521, 547549, 554556, 615616
structure 34, 67, 2021, 3339, 4345, 5051, 5861, 85, 9091, 9395, 111112, 131133, 136138, 155156, 188192, 195201, 216217, 219220, 225226, 229233, 250, 278279, 281284, 297300, 302303, 350353, 355360, 374375, 421422, 433435, 453456, 461471, 473, 484485, 492, 498502, 513515, 522526, 530533, 542546, 549556, 560562, 569575, 584586, 593, 609, 615616, 618620, 625626, 632633, 637638, 644646
system 37, 1620, 3033, 3841, 4951, 5460, 6365, 6869, 71, 7477, 8182, 9294, 98104, 117118, 142145, 156157, 161163, 166, 191192, 195196, 216217, 219220, 229231, 233234, 278283, 291296, 303304, 308310, 316318, 331334, 341342, 344345, 350352, 360363, 371372, 376381, 404, 417, 430435, 440442, 448449, 455456, 480, 496503, 513515, 540542, 552554, 571573, 575577, 580584, 590591, 625626, 648649, 652653
turmoil 3033
Markkula, Mike 122
Markusen, A. 134, 468, 543
Marshall, Alfred 22, 74, 8990, 129, 135136, 163, 166, 179, 203204, 507
Martelange 483
Martin and Sachs 590
Martini, Simone 26
Marx, K. 26, 31, 69, 73, 180, 195, 434
Mary 26, 156
Maskell, P. 148
Massachusetts General Hospital 135
Mathews, J. 555
Matsushita 343, 518
Mauldin, J. 19, 257259, 289
Mauritius 92
Mazda 535
McCann, P. 34, 142
McDonald 355, 379, 435, 441, 450, 483, 488
McDonnell-Douglas 343, 358
McGowan, L. 358
McGrew, A. 426
McKinsey 80, 116, 240, 260, 354, 525, 657
McKinsey Global Institute 116
McRae, H. 645
McRoss, Evan 286
Mecca 22
mechanical science 336
Media Player 295296
medical technology 306
Medicare 292
Mediterranean 87, 186, 220221, 269, 337, 409, 482, 601602
Mendick, R. 279
Menton 87
Mercedes 226227
Mercedes-Benz 357, 417, 535
Merck 483
Merger Control Regulation 360
mergers and acquisitions 278, 353354, 366, 377, 500, 504
Messerschmitt, Wilhelm 212
metals industry 135
Metternich 87
Metzingen 221
Meulaboh 305306
Mexico 41, 89, 94, 103, 136, 151, 165, 202, 214, 221, 238, 267270, 346, 408, 410, 430, 434435, 450, 497, 522524, 536537, 553, 626631
FDI in 405406, 501, 531532, 561
government 511, 629
location of production in 580
Mexico City 5253, 168, 182, 627
Mezzogiorno 159, 564, 598, 600, 632635, 639
MFN 407, 542
Miami 131, 187, 487, 540
Micron 253
microprocessors 244, 523
Microsoft 3738, 54, 6465, 100102, 104, 117, 150, 165, 200, 203, 210211, 214, 218, 221, 256, 263, 270, 278, 293296, 307308, 317, 357358, 362363, 373, 380, 437, 458, 472, 516, 653, 657658
middle-class consumers 356
Midelfart-Knarvik, H. 162, 586, 588590, 592593, 616
migration of jobs 427
migration of labour 153, 542, 565, 573, 637, 642
in the EU 575, 593
Mikhailova, A. 84, 644
Miline, R. 456
military technology 226
military-related government expenditure 320
Mill, John Stuart 280
Millennium Round 420
Milmo, C. 494
Minder, R. 396, 483
mining 44, 54, 61, 107, 109, 121, 195, 209, 233, 319, 330, 353354, 360, 396, 454, 474, 548, 574, 645
Minsky, Hyman 19
Miroudot, S. 250, 257
Mishkin, S. 429
MIT 306, 364
MITI 364
Mitsubishi 465, 522
Mittal, Arcelor 285
Mittal, Lakshmi 454
mobile phone market 292, 553
mobile phones 38, 60, 72, 126, 209, 230, 255, 288, 304, 309, 345, 362, 374, 438, 657
models of production geography 89
Modena 153, 193194, 220
modern society 170, 415, 456
Mody, A. 196197, 485, 492, 511, 537, 541
Mohl, P. 619
Mokyr, J. 122, 323, 325326
Monaco 56, 87, 287, 489
monetary policy 154, 347, 510, 597
monetary system 59
monetary union 203, 572, 589590, 600, 636, 641
money markets 291
money supply 546
Monfort, P. 618
monopolist TNC 543
monopoly 37, 58, 86, 99, 101, 147, 186, 199, 218219, 279, 282284, 288, 291295, 298299, 307, 309, 325, 362363, 372, 375376, 378, 393, 435, 458, 467, 469, 501, 534, 567, 657
monopsony 363
Moore’s law 216, 342
Moran, E. 239, 241, 454, 458, 495, 501, 512514, 518, 523524, 531, 540, 543, 557, 559, 562
Morita, Akio 64
Morocco 269, 465, 520
Moscow 150, 177, 187, 465, 520
Moses, L. 4647
Moses, Robert 170
Motorola 5960, 263, 450, 472, 518519
Moules, J. 386
Mozambique 524
MS-DOS 101102, 117, 362
Müller, Anton 334, 413
Müller, Paul Hermann 312
Multifibre Agreements 40
Multilateral Agreement on Investment 441, 541
Mumbai 171, 585
Mundell, R. 543
Munich 50, 118, 147, 151, 186, 193194, 212, 227228, 319, 344, 592
Münster 186, 227
Muziris 169
Myanmar 42, 179, 337
Nadvi, K. 226
NAFTA 5253, 268269, 346, 395, 405406, 408, 410411, 521, 531, 580, 626631
Nagasaki 187
Napoleon III 171
national broadband network 539
national champions 281, 358, 534
national economic openness 431, 555
national economic performance 420, 554, 595
national economy 36, 198, 231, 254, 411, 416, 419, 427, 429, 457, 555556, 592, 626, 629, 634, 647, 654
national endowment of primary factors of production 35
national frontiers 436, 442
national funds 600
national interest 314, 383, 546
national level 56, 254, 421, 459, 571, 602, 604
national policies 162, 437, 562, 600, 616, 622
national preferences 348, 386
national rules 399, 436, 461, 553
national security 35, 454, 456, 458, 494, 503, 538541
national treatment 410, 412, 464, 538, 631
nationalisation 254, 466, 502503, 519520, 606
nationalism 434
natural evolution 23
natural laws 23
natural monopolies 288
natural resources 47, 49, 51, 118, 175, 212, 214, 219, 228229, 250, 261, 293, 302303, 350, 429, 441442, 462, 483484, 497, 503, 509, 538, 553
natural sciences 67, 72, 658
natural sequence of production process 113
Nelson, R. 56, 7374, 85, 93, 315, 334, 349
neoclassical economic model 2, 62
neoclassical economics 58
neoclassical equilibrium 23, 7, 12, 22, 54, 5758, 60, 65, 68, 7071, 7374, 7980, 8990, 9293, 98, 100, 102, 120, 167, 190, 192, 196, 201, 229, 232, 234, 278, 306, 369370, 374, 415, 468, 526, 533, 581582, 615, 648649, 653, 657
neoclassical policy-mix advice 554
neoclassical system 58, 65
neoclassical theory 20, 41, 56, 70, 83, 201, 347, 421, 588, 593594, 596
NeoNurture 306
Nepal 399
Nestlé 33, 6768, 93, 127, 212, 289, 451, 515
Netherlands 109, 174, 184, 198, 228, 266, 279, 282, 291, 320, 323, 385, 477, 479, 502, 516
GDP per capita in 599
regional policy in 485
Netscape 149, 295
network effects 421
new 3D manufacturing model 377, 648
New England 109, 589
new materials 105, 521
new Title 601
New York 40, 48, 85, 108, 111, 118, 123, 131, 148149, 157, 160, 177, 179, 181, 199, 201, 222, 225, 244, 291293, 331, 350, 399, 415, 434, 439, 441, 449, 454, 473, 489, 500, 524, 527, 537, 540, 578, 586, 655
New York Times 199, 244, 291293, 331, 350, 415, 434, 441, 449, 454, 473, 489, 500, 527, 537, 655
New Zealand 48, 349, 407, 569, 597
Newton, Isaac 17, 58, 65, 67, 7073, 122, 228, 303, 313, 323326, 334338, 658
NGOs 422423, 435, 446, 451
niche markets 250, 316, 584
Niger 214, 270, 469, 494
Nigeria 214, 270, 469, 494
Nike 207, 243, 252253, 355, 450, 454, 529, 531
Nikkei Asian Review 357
Nikon 41, 139140, 364
Nintendo 344, 362
Nissan 265, 410, 465, 550
Nobel Prize 12, 25, 27, 31, 67, 313, 645
Nokia 64, 80, 150, 273, 308309, 316, 437, 657
Noland, M. 576
non-equity business participation 463
North Carolina 160, 535
North Korea 265, 268, 400, 434, 631
North-east Corridor 106
Northern Rock 158
northern Virginia 156
Norway 46, 250, 403, 456
Norwich 578
Nottingham 256
Novartis 212, 243, 358, 519
NTBs 13, 76, 161, 188, 231, 256, 268, 310, 344, 371, 378, 381, 385, 388, 394395, 401, 405, 410, 443444, 446, 448, 463, 504, 549, 587, 594, 641
classification of 392
removal of 358359, 546547, 560561
nuclear industry 99
O’Connor 417
Oakley, Annie 117, 210
Obama, B. 199, 262, 284, 424, 488, 498, 500
OECD 44, 142, 174, 236, 238, 250253, 257, 263, 266, 384, 408, 427, 439, 472, 481, 484, 490491, 493, 517, 520, 538, 541542, 615617, 622623, 628
Official Journal 398
Official Journal of the European Community 398
Ohlin, P. 34, 3638, 195, 236, 349, 351, 353, 543
oil 24, 3132, 39, 65, 110, 121, 141, 150, 161, 184185, 193, 195, 209, 258259, 273, 279, 281, 284, 288, 305, 315, 327, 329, 337, 356, 368, 400, 426, 445446, 452, 454, 458, 471, 479, 505, 569, 578, 602, 630, 633, 649, 652
pipeline 522
prices 213214, 307, 430, 469, 539540
resources 9394, 177, 213214, 250, 456, 497, 522, 525526
Okubo, T. 122, 589
Oldenski, L. 239, 241, 430, 458, 518, 559
Olesen 364
oligopoly 378
one size 57, 201
open economies 62, 345, 386, 455
open markets 203, 424, 541
open public procurement market 398
operation of GVCs 240, 251, 255256, 264, 269, 273, 275
operation of TNCs 461, 505, 509, 514, 523, 525, 552553
operations of local firms 145
Oppenheimer, A. 454
opportunity costs of these low-productivity firms 122
optimal location-related solutions 85
optimal plant site model 46
orderly spatial distribution of economic activity 571
Ordos 173
Osnabrück 227
Osterloh, Ian 312
Overman, H. 162, 616, 620
Oxford 13, 15, 221, 226, 242, 278, 426, 432, 493
Pacific Partnership 255
Packard, David 130, 211, 365, 471
Padania 144
Pakistan 39, 133, 136, 152, 226, 337
Palmanova 177
Paluzie, E. 559
pan-EU 318, 360, 390, 411, 597, 604
Panić, M. 546, 549
paper manufacturing 359
Pareto, Wilfredo 62, 131
Paris 46, 5051, 87, 122, 161, 171172, 176177, 179, 185186, 189, 200, 315, 319, 334, 342, 344, 424, 462, 490, 539, 572, 578, 592, 625
Parker, G. 321, 388, 487
Parma ham 137, 383384, 389
Parmalat 344, 558
Pasiphae 322
patents 85, 124, 132, 219, 225, 259, 291, 294, 302, 311, 314, 317318, 320, 331, 393, 552, 605
path dependence 34, 7, 80, 89, 99, 108, 118120, 138, 153, 155, 192, 196, 230, 232, 234, 480, 533, 565, 573, 615, 641
path-dependent outcome 115
Patterson, Colin 24
Pavitt, K. 313, 365
Pavlinek, P. 513, 557
Peace of Westphalia 227228
Pearson, S. 429
Pegg, D. 494
pensions 22, 286, 332, 456, 581, 633
Pepsi 429, 435, 441442, 465
Peregrine Systems 157
perfect divisibility of the production process 22
peripheral regions 47, 191, 573, 586587, 597, 616, 620, 622
permanent instability 278
personal computers 138, 310, 312
Peru 168, 627
Peterson Institute for International Economics 41, 263, 472, 474, 500
Peugeot-Citroën 50, 424
Pfann, G. 485
pharmaceuticals 15, 44, 139, 155, 160, 164, 194, 219, 243, 258, 291, 312, 352, 374, 380, 384, 454, 467, 474, 518519, 521, 559, 632
Philadelphia 160, 177, 540
Philip, Morris 217, 343
Philippines 40, 117, 214, 450, 476
Philips 100, 266, 342
photocopiers 263, 315, 395, 472
Piaggio 225
Piaggio, Enrico 225
Pig Veterinary Society 389
Pinch, S.