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Reshaping India in the New Global Context

Subhash C. Jain and Ben L. Kedia

This book traces the history of India’s progress since its independence in 1947 and advances strategies for continuing economic growth. Insiders and outsiders that have criticized India for slow economic growth fail to recognize all it has achieved in the last seven decades, including handling the migration of over 8 million people from Pakistan, integrating over 600 princely states into the union, managing a multi-language population into one nation and resolving the food problem. The end result is a democratic country with a strong institutional foundation. Following the growth strategies outlined in the book and with a strong leadership, India has the potential to stand out as the third largest economy in the world in the next 25 to 30 years.
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Index

Subhash C. Jain and Ben L. Kedia

3M Company 91
Aadhaar project – unique identification cards (UID) 100101, 111, 159
Aakash (tablet computer) 106
accountability 170
administrative burden 85
Administrative Service (IAS) 20, 34, 99
administrative setup 34
Africa 83, 108
agriculture 3, 45, 47, 60, 95, 136, 145
credit, access to 98
crop insurance 97
crop yields 95, 96, 97
decline 79
economic growth path 122
extension network 98
farm plot size 95
farm productivity enhancement 959
feudalism 72
five-year plans 46
government institutions 98
industry pattern 123
innovation 109
key role 81
land consolidation 98
national output share 1589
new technology 98
policies 978
price information 97
price-supports 97
private sector involvement 97, 98
subsidies 95, 97
tube wells 97
Uttar Pradesh (UP) 14
Air India 11617
air pollution 163
airline industry 99, 11617
Amazon 136, 147
Ambedkar, B.R. 10
American Express 54
ancient India contributions 26
ancient knowledge 256
Anderson, Perry 166
apps economy 147
Aravind Eye Care 1067, 120
Arcelor Mittal 67
army, role of 345
Art of Living Foundation 133
Aryabhatta 26, 27, 28
Asia 108
Asian Development Bank 53
Aspiring Minds NGO 103
Aston Martin 51
astronomy contributions 29
Atomic Energy Commission 62
Auchinleck, Claude 910
Australia 96, 147, 148
authoritarianism 116
Ayurveda 26
Azad, Maulana 10
balance-of-payments crisis (1991) 60, 65
Bangladesh 624, 83, 123
bankruptcy
code 125
reform 142
Bhagwati, J. 1
Bhalla, Surjit S. 1478
Bharat Forge 50, 67
Bharti Janta Party (BJP) 31
Bharti Walmart 129
Bhaskaracharya 28
Bhaskaracharya II 26, 27, 28
billionaires 68
biofuel 100
biometric identity cards 100101, 111, 159
Blue Ribbon Commissions 104
Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) 38
Bodhidharma 29
Bose, Satyendranth 30
Bose, Sir Jagdish Chandra 30
Boston Consulting Group Top 50 Most Innovative Companies list 106
Boudhayana 27
Brahmagupta 27
branding India 9091
Brazil 82, 96, 149, 150
British India 9
Buddhism 8, 21, 41
Business Standard newspaper 148
Cadence Design Systems 52
call centres 84
Cambodia 83
Canada: Global Manufacturing Competitive Index (GMCI) 82
Canon 106
capital 115
industry pattern 122
reforms 125
capitalism 5, 11819, 120, 158, 166
Cariappa, R.M. 35
caste system 9, 10, 21, 41, 42, 43, 44
Dalits 31, 1323
Tribals 31
untouchability 1619, 256
Chak de India (film) 37
Chandrasekhar, Subramanyan 30
Charaka 26
Chawla, Kalpana 53
Chawla, Rajiv 124
China 73, 151, 154, 158, 159
agriculture 95, 96
education 108, 109
five-year plan 823
GDP at market exchange rates 150
GDP at PPP 149
Global Manufacturing Competitive Index (GMCI) 82
Haier 88
inequality 162
invasion 578, 160
job creation 81
manufacturing 84, 123
motorcycle industry 106
ongoing disputes 161
research and development (R&D) 136
support of Pakistan 63
trading partner 16061
working-age population 157
Christianity 21, 41
Churchill, Winston 42
Cisco 54, 68
Civil Service 20
Clinton, Bill 68
Clive, Robert 25
Coca-Cola 89
Cognizant 67
cold-storage facility (entrepreneurship) 12930
colonial rule 2, 25
company inspections 141
competition 11317
competitive advantage 126
computer literacy 136
Congress party 21, 33, 423, 58, 72
Constituent Assembly 16, 19
Constitution 9, 16, 1920, 31, 42
authority and power, balance of 73
education 102
mobility 37
princes, privileges, abolition of 5960
religion pluralism 32
rule of law 112
technology 38
Constitutional Amendment Bill for Goods and Service Tax (GST) 141
consumption culture 67
Continental Europe 48
Cooper Tyres 51
corporate sector 156
corruption 3, 59, 72, 155, 159, 1612
infrastructure improvements 100101
land records 124
mass demonstrations against 4
reforms 66, 69
rule of law 112
Corruption Perceptions Index (Transparency International) 88
Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) 60
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research 62
cricket 38
cultures 41, 42, 43
currency 33
dairy industry 1634
Dalits 31, 1323
decentralization 11516
Delhi–Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) 867
Dell 54
Deming Excellence Award 52, 82
democracy 20, 21, 22, 31, 41, 1534, 158, 166
demographic profile 41, 61, 70, 745, 157, 166
population growth 120, 163
segmenting population 76
working-age population 81, 157
deprivation 74
see also poverty
Desai, Morarjibhai 19, 59
dialects 41
digitization 135
discrimination (untouchables) 1618
diversity 41
see also Unity in Diversity
Dreze, J. 1
droughts 46
drug industry and branded generics 878
e-commerce 1367, 147
e-government platforms 85
Ease of Doing Business Index (World Bank) 88, 140, 145
East Africa 147
East India Company 13, 89
economic convergence 11820
Economic Freedom Index (Heritage Foundation) 88
economic growth 435, 489, 54, 5960, 66, 69, 122, 1534
annual 70
inputs 72
rate 119
Economic League Table (2050) 1679
economic management 11819
economic mediocrity 7072
economic problems 64
economies of scale 123
economy, vicious circle of 44
education 4, 1025, 109, 111, 11920, 1545, 170
Aspiring Minds NGO 103
Blue Ribbon Commissions 104
contribution to standard of living 71
control measures 104
higher education 1023
in lower classes 1718
monitoring system 104
primary education 102, 155
private foundations 104
Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) survey 102
religious institutions 104
reward and punishment measures 104
Right to Education (RTE) Act (2009) 102
secondary education 1023
strategic levers 139
taught in English 612
and technology 104, 136
tertiary 108
and the vulnerable 74
Egypt 10
Einstein, Albert 29, 30
eKOCool (solar-powered mobile cooler) 89
Election Commission 155
elections 2022, 31
electricity generation 143
“electronic cities” 68
see also “smart cities”
empowered segment of population 74
empowerment line 734
energy sector 71, 92, 99100, 111, 114, 136, 138
electricity generation 143
natural gas 100
solar energy 100
English as official language 4, 1920, 22, 33, 612
entrepreneurial class 11819
entrepreneurial patterns 12734
entrepreneurship 67
environment 138, 163
ethanol 100
European Union 87, 108, 147, 150
excluded segment of population 74
family businesses 5, 1245
famine 154
financial sector 136, 170
Insolvency and Bankruptcy Bill (2016) 142
fiscal crisis 65
fiscal deficits 60
five-year plans
1951–56 45
1956–61 456
1961–66 46
1969–74 46
2012–17 46
Flextronics 52
Following the Equator (Twain) 153
food 71, 111
aid 61
self-sufficiency 6061
shortages 12, 58
subsidies 159
see also agriculture
Ford 51
foreign aid, over-dependence on 46
foreign direct investment (FDI) 68, 812, 889, 1456, 170
foreign domination 9
foreign exchange crisis 46
foreign multinationals 54
foreign partnerships 144
foreign service 162
foreign trade transferred to government 59
Foxconn 145
France 48, 57, 149, 150
free movement throughout India 37
fuel subsidies 159
future outlook 14851
Gandhi, Indira 22, 5860, 64
reforms 65, 66
United States visit 61
Gandhi, Mahatma 10, 13, 29
Gandhi, Rajiv 60, 65
Gandhi, Sonia 50
Garibi Hatao (End Poverty) 59
gender equality 66, 137
General Electric (GE) 54, 68
General Motors 87, 145
General Sales Tax 148
geographical factors 43, 79
see also states and territories
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) 53
Germany 82, 144, 148, 149, 150
Gini coefficient 162
Global Manufacturing Competitive Index (GMCI) 82
global ranking of world’s largest economies 149
Goods and Services Act (2017) 85
government services 136
Govindaswami 28
gross domestic product (GDP) 54, 65, 69, 73, 137, 1489, 150
Guha, Ramchandran 22, 39
Gupta, Rajat 11213, 1245
Gupta, S. 74
Haley, Niki 156
Harakata-ul-Jihad-e-Islam (terrorist group) 160
Harappan culture 26
Haryana 59
HCL Technologies 67
health care 50, 71, 74, 111, 11920, 136, 170
Heritage Foundation Economic Freedom Index (2014) 88
heritage, promotion of 11718
Hero Honda 51
Hewlett-Packard 54
Hien Tsang 105
highways 99, 117
Hindalco 67
Hindi cinema 357
Hindi as official language 1920, 22, 33, 58, 61
Hindu rate of growth 65
Hinduism 8, 9, 11, 21, 32, 41, 43
housing 71, 74, 111, 114, 11920
human capital 115
human rights 156
hunger 74
Huxley, Aldous 21
Hyundai India 51
IBM 37, 54, 68
identity of India post-independence 811
impoverished segment of population 74
In-Diya lighting appliance (Schneider Electric) 107
income per capita 60, 74, 166
“Incredible India” campaign 9091
independence 1, 815, 31
first cabinet formation 10
foreign domination 9
identity 811
Instrument of Accession 13
migrations from Pakistan 1012
princely states, integration of 11, 1315
Indian-American elite 156
Indonesia 81, 83, 95, 123, 149, 150, 151
industrial production 145
industry 5051
industry “champions” 80, 878
industry economic growth path 122
industry pattern 1227
inefficiency 155
inflation 72
informal jobs 72, 81
Information Technology (IT) and communications sector 51, 84, 99, 138, 145
Infosys 67
infrastructure 923, 136
build-up 80
development 115, 1423
improvements 99101
innovation 109
and services, lack of 74
Uttar Pradesh (UP) 114
innovation 678, 80, 1059, 112
INSAT 53
Insolvency and Bankruptcy Bill (2016) 142
Institutes of Management (IIMs) 17, 37, 103, 128
Institutes of Technology (IITs) 17, 37, 62, 103, 132
institutional investors 125
Instrument of Accession 13
Intel 52, 54
intellectual capital 100
intellectual property rights 88
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 53
“internet of things” 1267
investment incentives 80
ISRO space program 51
Italy 150
Jainism 8, 21, 41
Jaish-e-Mohammed (terrorist group) 159
Jaitley, Finance Minister 1423
Japan 82, 108, 143, 148, 149, 150, 151
Jindal, Bobby 156
job creation 7983, 145
Johnson, Lyndon 61
joint ventures 88
Kalam, Abdul 50
Karnataka 79
Kashmir 1314
Kaur, Raj Kumari Amrit 10
Kent, M. 89
Khan Academy 104, 120
Khan, Amir 37
Khan, Salman 37
Khan, Shah Rukh 37
Khorana, Har Gobind 30
Khosla, Vinod 156
King, Martin Luther Jr 29
knowledge contributions 30
labor 115, 1223, 14041
labor laws 80, 834, 123, 170
Laldenga (Mizo leader) 58
land 122, 1234
land acquisition 80, 845, 115, 140, 170
Land Acquisition Act 140
Land Acquisition Rehabilitation and Resettlement Bill (2013) 85
land brokers, licensed 124
land records digitalization 124
language 8, 9, 10, 1920, 21, 22, 41, 42, 44
dialects 41
Sanskrit 27
and states 334
see also English; Hindi
large enterprises 128
see also multinational enterprises (MNCs)
Lashkar-e-Taiga (terrorist group) 159
Latin America 108
law and order 115
Lee Kuan Yew 42
Lever Brothers 87
liberalism 170
liberalization 60, 64, 656, 128
“license raj” (role of bureaucracy) 65
life expectancy 50, 156
Life Insurance Corporation 125
literacy rate 50, 156
McKinsey Global Institute study 52, 70, 734, 76, 83, 111, 1356, 137
macroeconomic stability 154
Madhavacharya 27
Mahalanobis, P.C. 46, 49
Maharajas/Nawabs 13
Maharashtra 79
Mahindra & Mahindra 86, 107, 165
Lifespaces 120
Subhlabh Services Ltd 98
World City 86
Mahmud, Dr. Syed 39
Mahmud of Ghazni 9
Make in India initiative 145
Malaysia 95, 123
manufacturing 3, 72, 7893, 1445, 155, 165
administrative burden 85
foreign direct investment 889
Global Manufacturing Competitive Index (GMCI) 82
hubs 80
industry “champions” 878
industry pattern 123
infrastructure 923
job creation 7983
labor laws 834
labour-intensive 7980
land acquisition 845
output 159
skill-intensive 7980
skills development 912
support of other industries 9091
tax incentives 856
urban centers 867
market exchange rate (MER) 1489, 150
martial arts contributions 29
mass demonstrations against corruption and violence 4
mathematics contributions 278
Mayavati, Chief Minister 18
mega cities 86
Menon, V.P. 15
Merck 88
Mexican high-yield wheat 60
Mexico 149, 150, 151
MG Rover 51
middle-classes 76
migrations from Pakistan 1012, 44
millionaire households 68
Mizo National Front 22
Mizoram state/Mizo community 212, 58, 63
Modi, Narendra 5, 19, 115, 120, 151
corruption, drive against 69, 113
development agenda 73
entrepreneurial class 119
infrastructure development 143
labor laws 170
labor reform 141
land acquisition reform 140
manufacturing 145
Planning Commission closure 78
policies: assessment 1478
reforms 66, 72
skill development 144
Startup India, Standup India 146
monitored policies 2
Mookerjee, Shyama Prasad 10
Motorola 52
Mountbatten, Lord 15
Mughal Dynasty 9
Muhammad of Ghur 9
multinational corporations (MNCs) 54, 59, 89, 91, 145
multiplicity 22
Munnabhai MBBS (show) 37
Muruganantham, Arunachalam 13032
Muslims 8, 12, 21, 32, 160
Myanmar 83
Nadella, Satya 156
Nagaland 58, 63
Nalanda University 105
Narasima Rao, P.V. 68
national companies 145
National Development Council 115
National e-Government Plan (NeGP) 101
National Emergency 59
National Infrastructure unit 92
national languages
English 4, 1920, 22, 33, 612
Hindi 1920, 22, 33, 58, 61
national security concerns 46
National Skill Development Corporation 144
natural gas 100
Naxalite movement (Maoist insurgents) 161
Nehru, Jawaharlal 8, 10, 13, 2021, 22, 412, 43, 64
army, role of 345
death 19, 39, 58
economic strategy 49
five-year plans 45
public sector 47
new products and processes 67
see also innovation
news media 156
Nigeria 149, 150, 151
Nilakanta 28
Nohria, Nitin 156
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 124
Nooi, Indira 124, 156
nuclear power/weapons 143, 155
Ola 146
Omnivore Partners (Godrej Industries initiative) 97
one-stop shops 85
online marketing companies 146
“Paanch Bhai” brand of soap 129
Pakistan 8, 33, 58
creation of 624
immigration from 1012, 44
nuclear capabilities 160
ongoing disputes 161
terrorist groups 15960
Panagariya, A. 1
Panchayati Raj initiatives 155
Pandit, Vikram 125
PARAM Padma terascale supercomputer 53
Parameswaracharya 28
Patel, Vallabhbhai 10, 13, 15, 35
patent law 88
PayPal 1367
Per Capita Hope 128
Phillips 54
philosophy 41
Piacentini, Diego 147
Piramal Healthcare 67
planning 457, 49
see also five-year plans
Planning Commission 457
closure 78
political initiatives 2
political management 11819
political movements of separation 63
pollution 163
population see demographic profile
populism 161
poverty 50, 73, 119
benchmark 70
elimination 76
reforms 67
Praj Industries 100
Prasad, Dr. Rajendra 16
Premji, Azim 32
PriceWaterhouseCoopers report (2015) 14850
prime ministers of India (chronology) 556
princely states, integration of 11, 1315, 44
princes, privileges, abolition of 5960
private sector 47, 146, 170
Procter & Gamble 91
productivity 80
property allocation 12
public sector 478, 146
public–private partnerships 47, 114
public–private sector competition 11317
purchasing power parity (PPP) 1489
Ram, Jagjivan 39
Raman, Sir C.V. 30
Ramanujam, Srinivasa 30
Ramdev, Guru 133
Rang de Basanti (film) 37
reforms 2, 6576
bottom-up mission 736
economic mediocrity 7072
from poverty to empowerment 6970
future prospects 723
impact of 668
pro-business 657
pro-market 657
see also strategic levers
refugee camp (Kurukshetra) 12
refugees resettlement 12
Reimagining India2
Reliance Fresh 129
Reliance Industries 67
religion 8, 9, 10, 22, 42, 43, 44
Buddhism 8, 21, 41
Christianity 21, 41
Hinduism 8, 9, 11, 21, 32, 41, 43
Islam 8, 12, 21, 32, 160
Jainism 8, 21, 41
pluralism 32
Sikhism 8, 10, 11, 21, 32, 41, 589
Zoroastrians 8, 21, 41
research and development (R&D) 109, 136
retail trade 136
rideshare companies 146
Right to Information Act 155
R.N. Podar school 104
rule of law 11213
rural areas 445, 158
Russia 57, 148, 149, 150, 151
defense treaty with India 63
Samsung 87
sanitary pad entrepreneurial business 13032
Sanskrit language 27
savings and investment 70, 72
science contributions 28
secularism 5, 10, 32, 41, 43, 50, 166
SEI CMM Level-5 companies 52
self-reliance 53
Sen, Amartya 1, 30
Sen, Sukumar 2021
Sengupta, H. 128
service sector 3, 65, 81, 11112, 1445
delivery of 111
expansion 79
innovation 107
outlay on 111
Shankar, Sri Sri Ravi 133
Shanmukham Chetty, R.K. 10
Shastri, Lal Bahadur 1920, 58, 60, 61, 64, 65
death 58
Sholay (film) 36
Sikhs 8, 10, 11, 21, 32, 41, 589
Singapore 144
Global Manufacturing Competitive Index (GMCI) 82
Singh Banga, Ajaypal 156
Singh, Dr. Manmohan 68
Singh Insan, Gurmeet Ram Rahim 133
Singh, Manmohan 50, 65
Singh, Tarlok 12
Skeel, David 142
Skill India project 144
skills 136
development 80, 912, 144, 145
small businesses 81, 123, 128, 158
“smart” cities 87, 1389, 1434
smart physical systems 1356
Snap deal 146
social development 153
social security 111
soil degradation 163
solar energy 100
Sony 87
South Korea 82, 87, 136, 148
Spain 144
Sridharacharya 27
standard of living 71, 111
“Startup India, Standup India” for entrepreneurship/innovation 146
state enterprises 48
states and territories 14, 15, 11315, 154
STMicroelectronics 52
Strachey, Sir John 42
strategic choices 155
strategic levers 13551
bankruptcy reform 142
education 139
foreign direct investment (FDI) reform 1456
future outlook 14851
gender equality 137
infrastructure development 1423
labor reform 14041
land acquisition reform 140
manufacturing 1445
Modi policies: assessment 1478
skill development 144
“smart cities” 1434
“Startup India, Standup India” for entrepreneurship/ innovation 146
tax reform 141
technology 1357
urbanization 1379
strategic thrust 12234
economic growth path 122
entrepreneurial patterns 12734
industry pattern 1227
Subramaniam, B. 61
Subramaniam, C. 6061
subsidies 159
agriculture 95, 97
and corruption 100101
education 139
food 159
fuel 159
Sultante of Delhi 9
Sun Pharmaceuticals 88
Sundararajan, Pichai 156
Sundram Fasteners 67
Supreme Court 155
Surat (Gujarat) 1645
Surya Siddhanta29
Sushruta, Maharshi 28
Suzuki 50
Swades (film) 37
Swaminathan, M.S. 6061
Switzerland: Nestlé 87
Taiwan 57
Global Manufacturing Competitive Index (GMCI) 82
Taro (Israeli drug firm) 88
Tata 67
Consultancy Services 37, 67, 106, 165
Institute of Fundamental Research 62
Motors 161
Indica cars 51
“Mini Cat” 127
Nano car 115
Steel 67
Value Homes 120
tax
Constitutional Amendment Bill for Goods and Service Tax (GST) 141
General Sales Tax 148
incentives 856
reform 141
Taxila (also Takshashila) university 105
technology 389, 52, 62, 125, 1357, 159
digitization 135
education 104
energy management 136
industry pattern 122
smart physical systems 1356
see also Institutes of Technology (IITs)
telecommunications 87, 136
terrorism 15960
Texas Instruments 52, 54
textiles and clothing sector 83, 123, 1256
Thailand 95
tolerance 22
Toshiba Corp Westinghouse Electric 143
total factor productivity (TPP) 98
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Excellence Award 82
total quality management (TQM) 52
tourism 80, 9091, 118
Toyota 87
transparency 155, 170
transportation sector 92, 138
tribal insurgencies 63
Tribals 31
Twain, Mark 24, 153
Uber 126
UN Security Council 578
unanticipated events 5760
Uncertain Glory, An: India and Its Contradictions1
unemployment and underemployment 45
Unilever 91
Union Public Service Commission 155
unique identification cards (UID) – Aadhaar project 100101, 111, 159
United Kingdom 48, 57, 148, 149, 150
United Progressive Alliance (UPA) 147
United States 1718, 48, 68, 73
aerospace industry 87
agriculture 96
and China 57
corruption 112
education 108
FDA-approved plants 52
food aid 61
foreign partnerships 144
GDP at market exchange rates 150
GDP at PPP 149
Global Manufacturing Competitive Index (GMCI) 82
manufacturing 79
partnership with 147
strategic relations 148
support of Pakistan 63
Unity In Diversity 10, 41, 44
universities, ancient 26
untouchability 1619
Upanishads 256
urbanization 867, 120, 1379
Uttar Pradesh (UP) 114
Value & Budget Housing Corporation 120
Vateswaracharya 28
Vedas 25
Vietnam 83, 95
village councils (Gram Panchayats) 112
VTT Technical Research Center (Finland) 126
vunerable segment of population 74
wars 63
Washio, Yasutoshi 52
water and sanitation 71, 74, 111, 163
wealth 68
changing attitude towards display of 66
disparities 162
welfare programs 3, 4
Welspun 1656
Western understanding of India 42
Why Growth Matters1
Wipro 67
women voters 31
World Bank 53, 84, 108
see also Ease of Doing Business Index (World Bank)
Yadav, Akhilesh 114
Zakaria, Fareed 156
Zoroastrian 8, 21, 41