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The Protection of Intellectual Property Rights in Outer Space Activities

Tosaporn Leepuengtham

This book considers the intellectual property issues which are raised by space activities. While outer space itself remains out of reach for most of us, the results of space activities and developments from space technology are becoming ever-more integrated in our daily lives. Despite this, there is often little understanding of the importance of space technologies, how existing legal rules may apply in terms of protecting the technology, or whether legal protection, such as copyright, may be enforced if the unauthorised use takes place beyond conventional territorial borders in outer space.
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Index

Tosaporn Leepuengtham

Aalmuhammed v. Lee135

Actavis Group HF v. Eli Lilly and Company171

airspace

sovereignty 11–12

Akro Corp. v. Ken Luker152

Allarcom Pay TV Ltd. v. Gen Instrument Corp.142–3

animal varieties 80

Antarctica 23, 193–4, 199

applicable law see choice of law

Asahi Metal Industry Co. v. Superior Court152–3

Australia

definition of outer space 9

Baltimore Orioles v. Major League Baseball Players122, 125

Beattie v. United States193, 194, 198, 204, 216

benefit sharing see equitable sharing of benefits

Berne Convention (1886) 35, 36, 40, 110, 127, 135–7

choice of law 178, 180, 182, 197

duration 137, 139

fixation 122

infringement 140

national treatment 35, 48, 51

originality 112, 118

subject matter 102

territoriality 35, 45

Bogsch theory 188, 189

Bridgeman Art Inc. v. Corel Inc.180–181

broadcasting see satellite broadcasting

Brown v. Duchesne46

Brussels Satellite Convention 37, 110

burden of proof

copyright 142

Burger King Corp. v. Rudzewicz152

Burnham v. Superior Court151

Burrow-Giles Lithographic Co. v. Sarony119, 121, 127

Canada 94, 105

China 1

Moon Agreement 19, 21

choice of law 15, 41, 84, 134, 138, 148, 177–200, 207, 215–16

de minimis rule 190–191

duration of copyright 140

enforcement and recognition of foreign judgments 204–5

EU Satellite and Cable Directive 38–9, 189

hypothetical cases: work created 184–99

on earth and infringed in outer space 191–6, 204–5

in outer space but infringed on earth 184–91

in outer space and infringed in outer space and on earth 196–9

infringement 181–3, 186–7, 199, 200

hypothetical cases 184–99

lex contractus179, 194

lex fori179, 183, 193, 194, 195, 199, 200, 204, 207

lex loci delicti186–7

lex loci protectionis178–9, 181–2, 183, 184, 185–6, 215–16

outer space activities 184, 187, 188, 189–90, 191, 192, 194, 196–200

lex originis179, 180, 181, 183, 216

outer space activities 192–3, 194–5, 196, 197, 199, 200

national treatment 48

nationality 179, 180, 197, 200

proposals on 199–200, 207, 216–17

proprietary matters of IP rights 179–81, 199

Rome II Regulation 178–9, 182–3

civil law countries 134, 203

see also individual countries

Code of Conduct for ISS crew 71, 72

Coin Controls v. Suzo International et al.171

common heritage of mankind 209, 210, 211, 217

application to outer space activities 27–31

developing and developed states 24–5

Moon 14, 21–2, 23–6

province of all mankind and 25–6

common law countries 134, 180

see also individual countries

companies and copyright

authorship of work 128

duration 139

compensation

Liability Convention (1972) 15

see also damages

computer programs see software

confidentiality agreements 53, 70, 71–2, 99, 213

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 24

copyright 4–5, 32, 33, 101–48, 156, 211–12, 214–15, 217

application to space activities 40–42

Berne Convention (1886) 35, 36, 40, 110, 127, 135–7

choice of law 178, 180, 182, 197

duration 137, 139

fixation 122

infringement 140

national treatment 35, 48, 51

originality 112, 118

subject matter 102

territoriality 35, 45

Brussels Satellite Convention 37, 110

choice of law 177–8

hypothetical cases 188–99, 204–5

infringement 182

proprietary matters of IP rights 179–81, 200

co-authors 134–5

duration 137–40

employer/employee 111, 132–4

European Union

Database Directive 39

Information Society (InfoSoc) Directive 39–40

Satellite and Cable Directive 38–9, 142, 189

Software Directive 39, 144

exceptions 141–2, 146–8

incidental uses 147–8

private uses 142, 146

public uses 147

hypothetical cases 140–141, 172–7, 188–200

astronauts’ works created and infringed in outer space 145–6

copying software games while on spacecraft in outer space 144–5

satellite images from remote sensing or Hubble Space Telescope 141–2

transmission of sounds and images of Mars to Earth by astronauts 142–4

infringement 134, 140–141

exceptions 141–2, 146–8

hypothetical cases 141–6

joint authors 134–5, 138, 139

ownership 132

photographs 106, 113, 116–17, 118, 123, 128, 130, 214

duration 137, 138

qualifying conditions 135–7

requirements 111–12

authorship of work 127–31

fixation 122–7, 143, 212

originality 112–22

Rome Convention (1961) 36–7, 40–41

definition of broadcasting 109, 110

duration 137–8

national treatment 36, 48, 50–51, 126

territoriality 36–7, 45

subject matter 102–3

excluded work 111

general works 111

space-related works 103–10

TRIPS Agreement 38, 41, 112, 126, 139

WIPO Copyright Treaty (1996) 35–6

WIPO Performance and Phonograms Treaty (1996) 37, 109–10

works created in outer space 42

Creative Technology Ltd v. Aztech Sys PTE182

customary international law

province of all mankind 23

damages 191

European Space Agency (ESA) 97–8

punitive 203

see also compensation

databases 35, 40

EU Database Directive 39

remote sensing 106, 107, 108

sui generis database right 41–2

Deepsouth Packing Co. v. Laitram Corp.84–5

Def Lepp Music v. Stuart-Brown173

default judgments 203

definition and delimitation of outer space 9–12, 211

functional approach 10–11

spatial approach 9–10

Denmark

jurisdiction

hypothetical case 173–5

designs 199

developing states

common heritage of mankind 24–5, 29

DNA technology 62

Duijnstee v. Goderbauer157

Earth Observation Data (EOD) see remote sensing

Edate Advertising v. X161–2

EDF v. Massey194

effect theory 188

electronics industry 3, 9, 27, 31

non-appropriation principle 21

patents 213

novelty 43, 63, 72–3, 213

subject matter 63

emission theory 188, 189, 190, 191

employment

choice of law 181, 185–6

copyright 132–4

government employees 111

patents 80, 82, 186

United States 81, 185–6

enforcement 54–5

foreign judgments: recognition and 200–201, 206

exceptions 202–3

requirements 201–2

space-related activities 204–6

equality

Moon 16

see also non-discrimination

equatorial States 11–12

equitable sharing of benefits 24–5, 26, 210

remote sensing 28–30

satellite telecommunication 30

space-created activities 31

European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 175, 202

European Patent Convention (EPC) 57

choice of law 181, 186

patentability 59, 68, 72

industrial application 77

state of art 66

European Patent Office (EPO) 187

Board of Appeal 70

Guidelines 71

inventive step 75–6

Technical Board 69

European Space Agency (ESA) 6, 94

choice of law 198

copyright 129–30, 136, 144, 145–6, 198

infringement of patents 84, 88, 95

damages 97–8

stay of proceedings 98

jurisdiction 95, 96, 168–9, 176–7

licensing 98

ownership of patents 81

European Union 7, 38, 202

Community Patent Regulation 57, 58, 87

copyright 113–15, 118–19, 139

Copyright Duration Directive 93/98119, 137

Database Directive 39

Information Society (InfoSoc) Directive 39–40

jurisdiction 153

Brussels regime 154–5, 156–7, 158, 160–163, 165–6, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 206

Rome II Regulation 178–9, 182–3

Satellite and Cable Directive 38–9, 142, 189

Software Directive 39, 144

experimental uses 92

extraterritoriality 46–8, 55, 83–8, 96, 145, 148, 169, 182, 211, 212, 213–14

US: inventions in outer space 47, 58, 83–4, 85–6, 100, 213

fair and equitable access for third parties 20

Feist Publications Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co.107, 115–16

flag-state jurisdiction 47, 55, 83, 85, 87–8, 95, 100, 167, 211

forum non conveniens169–70, 171–2

forum shopping 97–8, 140, 163, 195, 200, 216

France

choice of law 191

copyright 122, 130–131, 191

jurisdiction

hypothetical case 173–4

patents

International Space Station 96

freedom of exploration and use of outer space 13, 16–17, 18

fair and equitable access for third parties 20

games see software games

Gardiner v. Howe (1865) 85, 169

GAT v. LuK157

Genentech62

geostationary orbits 11–12, 210

limited natural resource 20

orbital slot: patentable subject matter 43, 59–62

use of natural resources 28

Germany 203

copyright 129–31, 191

extraterritoriality 84, 88, 96

Gulf Oil Corp. v. Gilber172

habitual residence

copyright 135, 136, 212

Hadfield, Chris 42

Handelskwekerij Bier BV v. Mines de Potasse d’Alsace SA160–161

Helicopteros Nacionales de Columbia v. Hall164

Helium-3: nuclear power 9, 27, 28, 31, 59, 209–10

non-appropriation principle 20

patents 213

novelty 43

subject matter 62–3

high seas 23, 83, 85, 169

Hubble Space Telescope

copyright 103, 108

authorship of work 127–31

fixation 123–4

hypothetical case 141–2

originality 116–21

Hughes Aircraft Company v. United States43, 61, 86, 90

Infopaq International A/S v Danske Dagblades Forening113–15

International Shoe Co. v. Washington152

International Space Station (ISS) 6, 42

applicable law 42, 95

choice of law

hypothetical cases 184–7, 195–6, 198

Code of Conduct 71, 72

confidentiality 71–2, 213

copyright 145–6

employer/employee 134

European Space Agency 84, 88, 94, 95, 96, 176–7, 198

damages 97–8

licensing 98

stay of proceedings 98

Intergovernmental Agreement (1998) (IGA) 47, 71, 84, 88, 94–5

cross-waiver of liability 99

damages 97–8

jurisdiction 95–6, 167–9, 176

licensing 98

prior use defense 93

secrecy of inventions 97

temporary presence 91, 98–9

jurisdiction 95–6, 167–9

hypothetical case 175–7

Memoranda of Understanding 94

national treatment 49–50

non-IGA states 99

patents 93–9, 100

infringement 82, 84, 88, 91, 92, 93, 94, 97–8

novelty 65, 69–70, 71–2, 73, 213

prior use defense 93

repairs 92

subject matter 64

temporary presence 91, 98–9

repairs 92

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

Constitution 20

internet 161–2, 163

WIPO Copyright Treaty (1996) 36

Italy

extraterritoriality 96

Itar-Tass Russian News Agency v. Russian Kurier Inc.159, 180, 182

Japan 94

John Walker & Sons Ltd v. Ost173

jurisdiction 5, 100, 134, 148, 150, 206, 215

Antarctica 194

definition and delimitation of outer space 11

European Space Agency (ESA) 95, 96

flag-state 47, 55, 83, 85, 87–8, 95, 100, 167, 211

foreign judgments: recognition and enforcement 202, 205–6

hypothetical cases 172–7

infringement of patents 82–8

International Space Station (ISS) 175–7

Intergovernmental Agreement (1998) 95–6, 167–9, 176

limitation to 169–72

foreign IP rights 170–171

forum non conveniens169–70, 171–2

object launched into outer space 47–8, 83, 84, 85, 167

personal/general 151–6, 176

United Kingdom 153–6, 171, 174, 176

United States 151–3, 158

quasi-territorial 50, 51, 95–6, 167–9, 186, 195–6, 206, 211, 214, 215

state of registry 14, 15, 47, 55, 83, 85, 87–8, 95, 167, 168–9, 175

subject-matter/specific 156–69, 170, 177

forum delicti158–64

multiple defendants 164–6

outer space (quasi-territorial) 167–9

validity 156–8

territoriality 5, 35, 36–7, 45–8, 55, 83, 84, 96, 169, 192–3, 198, 211, 212, 213–14, 215

United Kingdom see jurisdiction under United Kingdom

United States see jurisdiction under United States

Kalfelis v. Bankhaus Schroder165

Kirin-Amgen73

laboratories, orbital 2

Lagardere191

Landsat satellite 130

Law of the Sea Convention (1982) 23

lex contractus179, 194

lex fori179, 183, 193, 194, 195, 199, 200, 204, 207

lex loci delicti186–7

lex loci protectionis178–9, 181–2, 183, 184, 185–6, 215–16

outer space activities 184, 187, 188, 189–90, 191, 192, 194, 196–200

lex originis179, 180, 181, 183, 216

outer space activities 192–3, 194–5, 196, 197, 199, 200

Liability Convention (1972) 12, 15, 25

licensing 217

International Space Station 98

Moon, Helium-3 and nuclear power 20

remote sensing 118

Lucasfilm Ltd. v. Ainsworth171

McKay, Ex Parte85

manufacturing in space 3

see also electronics industry; pharmaceuticals

Marconi Wireless Telco. v. USA (1942) 85

Mars: hypothetical cases

transmission of sounds and images to Earth by astronauts 142–4

work created on earth and infringed in outer space 191–6, 204–5

Mars Inc. v. Nippon Conlux Kabushiki-Kaisha159–60, 170

Martinez v MGN Ltd161–2

medical treatment, methods of 79

Meltwater115

Meshwerks Inc. v. Toyota Motor Sales U.S.A. Inc.119–20

methodology 5–6

Moon 50–51, 88

choice of law: hypothetical cases 188–91, 196–9

common heritage of mankind 14, 21–2, 23–6

Helium-3: nuclear power 9, 27, 28, 31, 59, 209–10

non-appropriation principle 20

patents 43, 62–3, 213

jurisdiction: hypothetical case 172–3

Moon Agreement (1979) 12, 15–16, 17–19, 21–2, 23–4, 25–6, 27

equitable sharing of benefits 24–5, 30

policing regime 25, 26

public benefit principle 53

ratification 21, 25

non-appropriation 16, 17–20

province of all mankind 16, 25–6, 27

sample collection 18

most-favored nation (MFN) principle 38, 51, 55, 211–12, 217

National Football League v McBee & Bruno’s Inc.125

National Football League v. Primetime 24 Joint Venture142–3, 190

national treatment 48–51, 55, 217

choice of law 182, 183

copyright 35, 38, 48, 50–51, 126, 211–12

neighboring rights 36

patents 34, 38, 48, 49

space-created works

hypothetical case studies 49–51

TRIPs Agreement 38, 48, 126

nationality 217

Antarctica 194

Brussels I Regulation (recast) 154

choice of law 179, 180, 197, 200

copyright 101, 111, 135, 136, 174–5, 197

jurisdiction 5, 156, 174–5, 177, 206

flag-state 83, 167

Registration Convention (1976) 15

ships and aircraft 15, 83, 167

The Newspaper Licensing Agency Ltd and Others v Meltwater Holding BV and Others115

non-appropriation principle 13–14, 16, 17–21, 22, 23, 61, 209–10, 211, 217

intellectual property 19–20

private appropriation 13–14, 18, 19

non-discrimination 16, 30, 48, 121, 217

NTP v. RIM46

nuclear power 9, 27, 28, 31, 59, 209–10

non-appropriation principle 20

patents 213

novelty 43

subject matter 62–3

orbits, geostationary 11–12, 210

limited natural resource 20

orbital slot: patentable subject matter 43, 59–62

use of natural resources 28

Outer Space Treaty (1967) 3–4, 12–14, 16–17, 18, 21, 22–3, 27

jurisdiction: object launched into space 47, 83, 85, 167, 168, 175

public benefit principle 53

ratification 21

remote sensing 29

Owusu v. N.B. Jackson172

Painer v Standard Verlags GmbH118–19

Paris Convention (1883) 33–4, 38, 45, 52, 53, 67

choice of law 182, 185

national treatment 34, 48, 49

choice of law 182

temporary presence 54, 89, 90

patents 4–5, 32, 56–100, 169, 212–14, 217

animal varieties 80

application to space activities 40, 43–4

choice of law 177–8

hypothetical case 184–7

infringement 182

proprietary matters of IP rights 180, 181, 199–200

enforcement 55

independence of 53–4

infringement 82–8, 94, 97–8

exceptions 89–93

International Space Station 93–9, 100

infringement 82, 84, 88, 91, 92, 93, 94, 97–8

novelty 65, 69–70, 71–2, 73, 213

prior use defense 93

repairs 92

subject matter 64

temporary presence 91, 98–9

joint invention 82

novelty 43, 44, 53, 63, 65–73, 75, 99, 213

ownership of 80–2

Paris Convention (1883) 33–4, 38, 45, 52, 53, 67

choice of law 182, 185

national treatment 34, 48, 49, 182

temporary presence 54, 89, 90

Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) 34

Patent Law Treaty (PLT) 34

patentability 57–8, 64–5, 99

exclusions 79–80

industrial application 77–9, 100, 213

inventive step 74–7

novelty 43, 44, 53, 63, 65–73, 75, 99, 213

subject matter 43, 58–64

plant varieties 80

priority rights 34, 52, 67–8

repair 92

temporary presence 54, 55, 89–91, 98–9, 214

territoriality 55, 83, 96, 213–14

quasi- 50, 95–6, 214

United States 46

TRIPS Agreement 38, 43, 45

patentability 57, 58, 65

Pennoyer v. Neff151

pharmaceuticals 3, 9, 27, 31

choice of law: hypothetical case 184–7

non-appropriation principle 21

patents 213

industrial application 78

inventive step 76

novelty 43, 44, 63, 72–3, 213

subject matter 63

Pinckney v. KDG Mediatech AG162–3

plant varieties 80

Pozzoli SPA v. BDMD SA & Anor75

prior use defense 93

priority

patents 34, 52, 67–8

single ‘international’ application 34

private international law 50, 55, 88, 149, 206–7, 216

choice of law see separate entry

jurisdiction see separate entry

recognition and enforcement of foreign judgements 200–206

private non-commercial uses 92–3

proposals 216–18

choice of law 199–200, 207, 216–17

province of all mankind 13, 14, 16, 21, 22

application to outer space activities 27–9, 30, 31

common heritage of mankind and 25–6

Moon Agreement (1979) 16, 25–6, 27

moral obligation 22–3

public benefit principle 53–4

public policy 203, 205

quasi-territoriality principle 50, 51, 95–6, 167–9, 186, 195–6, 206, 211, 214, 215

Registration Convention (1976) 12, 15, 91

remote sensing 3, 8, 27

analyzed information 41, 105–6, 130

originality 120–121

applications of 103

copyright 40, 41, 148, 214

authorship of work 127–31, 148

duration 138

employer/employee 133

fixation 123–4

hypothetical case 141–2

infringement 140

joint authors 135

originality 116–21, 148

subject matter 103–8

non-appropriate principle 20

primary or raw data 41–2, 104–6, 130

originality 117–20, 121, 148

processed data 41, 105–6, 130

originality 120–121

province and common heritage principles 28–30

sui generis database right 41–2

use of outer space resources 28

repairs 92

res communis14, 16, 17, 18, 22, 167

res nullius18

Rescue Agreement (1968) 12, 14

Roche Nederland v. Primus165

Rome Convention (1961) 36–7, 40–41

definition of broadcasting 109, 110

duration 137–8

national treatment 36, 48, 50–51, 126

territoriality 36–7, 45

root-copy theory 188

Rosen v. NASA87

Russia 1, 94

Moon Agreement 21

sample collection from Moon 18

Sarony119, 121, 127

satellite broadcasting 3, 30, 163

Brussels Satellites Convention 37

choice of law 184, 188–91

copyright 40–41, 103, 214

authorship of work 131

duration 138, 139

employer/employee 133

fixation 124–7

infringement 140, 142–3

joint authors 135

originality 121–2

subject matter 109–10

jurisdiction 172–3

patents 44

satellite navigation signals 213

patentability 64

satellite remote sensing see remote sensing

satellite telecommunication 3, 8, 27

Brussels Satellites Convention 37

EU Satellite and Cable Directive 38–9, 142, 189

non-appropriation principle 20

patents 212–13

subject matter: orbital slot 43, 59–62

province and common heritage principles 30

use of outer space resources 28

Sender Felsberg191

sharing of benefits see equitable sharing of benefits

Shevill and Others v. Press Alliances SA161

smartphones 50–1, 175–7

Smith v. United States194

software 35, 40

EU Software Directive 39

writing new code 28

software games

copyright: hypothetical case

copying games while on board spacecraft in outer space 144–5

Solvay v. Honeywell166

songs 42, 111

choice of law: hypothetical case

work created on earth and infringed in outer space 191–6, 204–5

copyright: hypothetical case

astronauts’ works created in outer space and infringed in outer space 145–6

jurisdiction: hypothetical case

work created on earth, infringed in outer space and on the earth 173–5

sovereignty 11–12, 17, 144, 167

over natural resources 29

Soviet Union 1, 10

Moon Agreement 19

stay of proceedings 98, 172

Steele v. Bulova Watch Co.46

SubaFilms Ltd v. MGM-Pathe Communications Co.160, 182

Synthon BV v SmithKline Beecham69

telecommunication see satellite telecommunication

Temple Island Collections Limited v New English Teas118

temporary presence 54, 55, 89–91, 98–9, 214

territoriality 5, 35, 36–7, 45–8, 55, 83, 84, 96, 169, 192–3, 198, 211, 212, 213–14, 215

Thailand 203, 205

choice of law

hypothetical cases 185, 186, 189–90, 192, 205

copyright 122, 126, 133–4, 136

duration 139

infringement 141, 142, 144

jurisdiction

hypothetical cases 172–5

time limits

copyright 136, 137–40

tort 154–5, 159, 160, 164, 173, 176, 193–4, 207

tourism 2, 192

trademarks 40, 217

trade secrets 32, 33

trademarks 32, 33, 40, 162, 199, 217

United States 159

territoriality 46

TRIPS Agreement 38, 41, 43, 45, 112

choice of law 182, 183

duration of copyright 139

enforcement procedures 54

extraterritoriality 47

most-favored nation (MFN) principle 38, 51

national treatment 38, 48, 126, 183

patentability 57, 58, 65

TRW v. ICO Global Communications43, 61

Tyburn v. Conan Doyle171

unfair competition law 114

United Kingdom 6, 7, 38

choice of law

hypothetical cases 185, 186, 189, 192

infringement 183

proprietary matters of IP rights 180, 181

copyright 41, 101, 143

authorship of work 127, 128, 129, 131

duration 138

employer/employee 132–3, 134

exceptions 142, 146–8

fair dealing 142, 146

fixation 122, 123–5, 143

government employees 111

infringement 115, 141, 142, 143

joint authors 135, 138

originality 112, 113–15, 118–19, 121

ownership 132

subject matter 102, 106, 107, 109, 115

domicile, definition of 176

foreign judgments: recognition and enforcement 201, 202, 203, 204, 206

jurisdiction 169

forum delicti160–164

forum non conveniens172

hypothetical cases 172–4, 176

limitation to 171

multiple defendants 165–6

person/general 153–6, 171, 174, 176

subject-matter/specific 156–7

patents 57

choice of law 185, 186

exclusions 79

industrial application 77

inventive step 74–5

joint inventions 82

novelty 66, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73

patentability 58–9, 62, 64–5, 66, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 74–5, 77, 79

state of art 66

temporary presence 89, 90–91

satellite broadcasts 41, 109, 121, 124–5, 131, 135, 138, 143

choice of law 189

United Nations

Charter 13

Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space

Legal Sub-Committee 9, 10

General Assembly

1962 Declaration 17, 23

non-appropriation principle 17

Resolution 37/9230

Resolution 41/6529

Resolution 1721 17, 23

registration of space objects 15

remote sensing 104

Principles 103–4

Secretary-General 14

United States 1, 3, 6, 7, 94

Antarctica 193–4

choice of law 216

hypothetical cases 185–6, 187, 190–191, 192, 193–4

infringement 182

proprietary matters of IP rights 180–181

Commercialization Act 121

Constitution

due process 151, 152, 153

copyright 101, 141

authorship of work 127–8, 129, 131

duration 138–9

employer/employee 132–3, 134

exceptions 142, 146–8

fair use 142, 146

fixation 122–3, 124, 125–6, 143, 190

government employees 111, 144

infringement 141, 142–4

joint authors 135, 138

originality 112, 115–16, 119–20, 121

ownership 132

qualifying conditions 136

remote sensing 104–5, 106–8, 119–20, 121, 124, 127–8, 129, 141

satellite broadcasting 109, 121–2, 125–6, 131, 139, 142–3, 190–191

subject matter 102, 104–5, 106–8, 109

foreign judgments: recognition and enforcement 201, 202, 203, 204–5, 206

jurisdiction 84–5

forum delicti158–60

forum non conveniens172

hypothetical cases 172–3, 175, 189

inventions in outer space 47, 58, 83–4, 85–6, 100, 213

limitation to 170

multiple defendants 164–5

person/general 151–3, 158

quasi-territorial 169

satellite broadcasting 189

subject-matter/specific 157–8, 170

Moon Agreement 19, 21

Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) 56, 60, 79, 85

patents 56, 57, 100, 169

choice of law 185–6

employees 81, 185–6

file-to-file system 66–7

industrial application 77, 79

infringement of 83–7, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93

inventions in outer space 47, 58, 83–4, 85–6, 100, 213

inventive step 76

ISS 95, 96, 97

joint inventions 82

NASA 81

novelty 66–7, 68, 69, 70

nuclear power 63

ownership 80–81

patentability 58, 60–61, 63, 65, 66–7, 68, 69, 70, 76, 77, 79

prior use defense 93

substantial test and localization 46

temporary presence 89, 90, 91

territoriality 46

province of all mankind 13

territoriality 46

trademarks 46, 159

TRIPS Agreement 126

University of London Press Ltd v. University Tutorial Press Ltd113, 114

Voda v. Cordis Corporation170

Williams Electronics Inc. v. Artic International Inc.124

Wintersteiger162, 163

World Film Services v. RAI Radiotelvisione Italiana152

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 95, 129–30

Copyright Treaty (1996) 35–6

Performances and Phonograms Treaty (1996) 37, 109–10

World-Wide Volkswagen Corp. v. Woodson153