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Propertizing European Copyright

History, Challenges and Opportunities

Caterina Sganga

With an acceleration in the last decades, the language of property, piracy and theft has become mainstream in copyright matters. Scholars have argued that this latent propertization has progressively led to the undue expansion of copyright and an enclosure of knowledge, causing clashes with users’ fundamental rights and EU social and cultural policies. Challenging the validity of such critiques, Propertizing European Copyright demonstrates that these distortive effects are only the result of mishandled property rhetoric and that a commitment to copyright propertization could enable a more internally consistent and balanced development of EU copyright law.
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Index

History, Challenges and Opportunities

Caterina Sganga

abandonment rules 241–2, 243–5

abuse and misuse of copyright 35, 114, 118–19, 222, 223, 248, 254–60

acquisition of ownership 20–21, 37, 45, 53, 166, 177, 241, 262–3

Akkermans, B 14, 90, 117

Aldestein, R 30

Alexander, G 182, 183, 196

Allen, T 210, 211, 213, 214

Ammendola, M 174, 177

Anderson, M 162

Angelopoulos, C 252

Anglo-Saxon utilitarian approach 91–2, 93, 96–7, 98–9, 101, 102, 106, 107, 109

Antinori, M 193, 210

Are, M 44

Armstrong, E 63, 64

Ascarelli, T 44

Ascoli, V 44

Auteri, P 174, 175, 176

authors’ rights

authorship and CJEU 125–6

authorship and ownership issues, and harmonization 236–7, 246–7

copyright as defence tool for authors 242–3

copyright versus 11

as economic rights 44–5

and heirs 255

intellectual creation 123–5

Lockean theory (natural law) 18–19, 20–23, 24, 26, 30, 32–7, 57–8, 60, 81, 156

national copyright systems 160, 161, 164, 165–7, 172, 174–7, 181, 186, 188–9

natural law model 91–2, 94, 97, 98–9, 108, 109

propertization 17, 19, 23, 27, 33–5, 38–45, 46–8

propertization history see copyright, droit d’auteur and propertization history

reproduction rights, national copyright systems 171

see also books; ownership; publication rights

‘avoidance view of property’ 21–2

Bapper, W 81

Bartocci, U 52, 53

Becker, L 22

Belgium, copyright abuse 256

Bell, T 27, 29, 30

Bénabou, V 179, 180, 200

Benkler, Y 30, 31

Bennett, H 55

Bentham, J 19, 25

Bently, L 59, 148, 237, 239

Bertrand, A 37

Bilancia, F 218

Blagden, C 57

Blanc, E 34, 73

books

‘battle of the booksellers’ 59–60

digitization of out-of-commerce books 180–81

dissolution of association of Paris booksellers 69

e-books and e-lending 137

public libraries 140

see also authors’ rights

Borghi, M 75, 88

Boyle, J 53

Breyer, S 31

Burrell, R 242, 244

Busnelli, F 260

Buydens, M 256

Calabresi, G 156

Calmels, E 34, 35, 73

Candian, A 43

Carbonnier, J 9, 33, 194, 200

Carnelutti, F 43

Caron, C 255, 256

Carre, S 255

Caso, R 255

censorship 54–5, 64–6, 67–8, 70–72, 75–6, 78–9

Charter of Fundamental Rights (CFREU)

EU copyright model 3–4, 12–13, 89, 98, 110–15, 125, 130, 131, 144, 146, 147–8

and fair balance 252, 260

and social function of copyright 192, 193, 209, 218, 219–20, 223, 224, 231

civil law 7, 10, 17

national copyright systems see France; Germany; Italy

CJEU see Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU)

co-authorship 161, 165–7

see also authors’ rights

co-ownership 170, 172, 175, 235–8

see also ownership

Cohen, J 5

Cohen Jehoram, H 90

Colangelo, M 9

collective management 101–2, 107–8, 186, 242

collective works 165, 176–7, 235, 236, 237

Collins, H 192

Colombet, C 37

Comandé, G 192

common law 7, 17

national copyright system see UK

compensation see remuneration

competitiveness 29, 66–7, 92–3, 95–6, 102, 104–5, 107, 121, 186, 220, 248

Comporti, M 193

conflicting interests hierarchy 26, 138, 184, 205, 251, 258–9

constitutional propertization of copyright 191–2, 193, 222, 240–41, 244, 248–9

contractual overridability of exceptions 260–62

Cook, T 134

Copinger, W 160

copying, private 140–41, 179–80, 238, 242

see also reproduction rights

copyright, droit d’auteur and propertization history 50–87, 268

censorship and book market control 54–5

printing press introduction 53–4

Roman law 52–3

copyright, droit d’auteur and propertization history, English model, common law to statutory copyright 55–63

authorship rhetoric 58–63

‘battle of the booksellers’ 59–60

common law literary property 60–63

common law and perpetual, proprietary copyright 57

Copyright Act 63

Habeas Corpus Act 56–7

Indemnity and Oblivion Act 57

Monopolies Act and letters patent 56

Printing Act 57–8, 59

Stationers’ Company and Charter 55–7, 58–9, 60, 62

Statute of Anne 59–60, 62–3, 70, 72

copyright, droit d’auteur and propertization history, French model, and property rhetoric 63–74

Arrêts réglementaires67–8, 71

authors’ rights 66–73

censorship activities and privileges 64–6, 67–8, 70–72

Code de la Libraire65–6

Conseil du Roi65–6, 67–8

copyright as social contract 67

Décret relatif aux spectacles and disposal of works 69–70

dissolution of association of Paris booksellers 69

dualist model 24, 25, 36, 42–3, 73–4, 76, 84, 165, 167–8, 174, 183

free competition effects 66–7

letters patent 63–4, 65–6

Mémoire de d’Héricourt and literary property 66–7, 68–9, 73

monopoly concerns 64–6, 67, 73

moral rights 73

natural law approach 69–72

Parliament of Paris 63–4, 65

personality right 72, 73–4

physiocrats’ influence 67–8

proof of publication and seizure of bad-quality prints 66

property and authors’ rights 66–7, 68–9, 70–71, 72–3

Roman law reworking 71

transferable economic rights of reproduction and distribution 73

utilitarian and functionalist rationale 69–70, 71–3

copyright, droit d’auteur and propertization history, German model and Urheberrecht harmonization 74–5, 81–6

authors’ rights 83–6

Civil Code 85

civil law property 81

Copyright Act 84–5, 86

Federal Act 81–2

freedom of the press 82

literary property 81–2, 84

Locke’s labour theory 81

moral rights 85

natural law 82, 86

personality theory 84, 85

protection of authors and publishers against reprinting 82

Prussian Act 83–4, 85

traditional privileges 83

utilitarianism 82

copyright, droit d’auteur and propertization history, Italian model and diritto d’autore74–80

censorship and royal privileges 75–6, 78–9

Civil Code 76–7, 80

dualist model 76

exclusive rights and fair compensation 79–80

Kingdom of Sardinia legislation 75

literary property 77–9

moral rights 76

naturalism and legal positivism 76–7

paternity right 75–6, 77

Royal Patents 75–6

copyright law within the property framework, building and harmonizing 233–66, 271–2

abandonment rules 241–2, 243–5

abuse and misuse of copyright 35, 114, 118–19, 222, 223, 248, 254–60

authorship and ownership issues 236–7, 246–7

co-ownership provisions 236

collaborative ownership 235, 238

collective management 101–2, 107–8, 186, 242

constitutional propertization of copyright 193, 240–41, 244, 248–9

contractual overridability of exceptions 260–62

copyright and competition law 248

copyright as defence tool for authors 242–3

Database Directive 236–7, 238, 240, 261

Digital Single Market Directive proposal 108, 229, 243–4

economic rights 245–50, 255–6

End User License Agreement (EULA) clauses 260, 261–2

exclusive rights 242, 246–9

extended licensing schemes 242, 243–4

fair balance of interests 138, 155–6, 252, 260, 261

‘harmonization-by-stealth’ 237

informational and technical works 239

InfoSoc Directive see InfoSoc Directive

joint ownership of exclusive rights 236–7

‘legitimate interest’ focus 253, 254, 257

mandatory licensing schemes 242

modernization proposal 233–4

moral rights 236, 242, 255–7

and national courts 237, 238, 243, 256-7, 261, see also individual countries

‘new public’ concept 127–32, 245–6, 247, 250

numerus clausus principle 246–7, 264

object of the right, definition and regulation 238–45

Orphan Works Directive 106–7, 108, 243

patents and trademarks comparison 241

proportionality test 244–5, 252, 260–61

protection levels 249

remuneration levels 238, 242, 248–9

rental and lending 238

secondary markets and exhaustion of licence 247–8

social function doctrine 240, 244, 247, 248–9, 251–2, 253–4, 259, 260–61

Software II Directive 135, 136, 236–7, 238, 240, 261

sports events 124, 130, 156, 239

subject definitions 235–8

three-step test 253–4, 257, 260

copyright law within the property framework, building and harmonizing, and CJEU

authorship decisions, scarcity of 237–8, 240–41

distribution rights 54, 63, 73, 85, 116–17, 132–7, 155, 168, 245–6

propertization of copyright and interpretation of exceptions 250–62

public interest goals 247–8

reproduction rights 249–50

right-holders’ dysfunctional conduct 257–8

three-step test 253–4

copyright model, EU see EU copyright model

copyright as property right 152–8, 163–4

Cornish, W 63, 162

Costantino, M 208

Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU)

activism in copyright harmonization see EU copyright model, CJEU activism in copyright harmonization

intellectual property protection 3–4, 113–14

and property framework see copyright law within the property framework, building and harmonizing, and CJEU

social function of copyright as property right 214–18, 223, 230–31

Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), cases

ACI Adam139, 155

Airfield128

Alliance for Natural Health216

Art & Allposters136–7

BestWater130

Bonnier Audio144, 155, 157–8

British Horseracing Board (BHB)118, 121, 122, 124

BSA124

Butterfly118

C-More Entertainment130

Circul Globus Bucuresti128

Coditel I and Coditel II116–17, 136, 248

Commission v Belgium217

Commission v France217

Commission v Germany217

Commission v Portugal217

Commission v United Kingdom217

Copydan Bankdopi142

Coty Germany154

Deckmyn139–40, 225

Deutsche Grammophon115–16

Dimensione Direct Sales134, 155, 245

Donner134, 245

DR and TV2 Danmark138

EGEDA118, 141

EMI Electrola117

ERSA216

Eugénie-les-Bains260

FAPL124, 137–8, 247, 248, 252, 253, 254

Filmspeler131

Fixtures Marketing118, 121

Football Dataco124, 156

Foreningen118, 157

Germany v Council216

Golden Shares217

GS Media130–31, 154–5, 246, 247, 249

Hauer215, 216

IMS Health118, 119

Infopaq123, 126, 137, 155, 238

Kokopelli217

Lagardère118, 127

Land Hessen118, 119

Laserdisken113, 154

Luksan125–6, 142, 155–6, 192, 237

Magill118, 119, 120

McFadden145–6, 155

Megakini139

Meltwater139, 155

Metronome Musik118, 120–21, 155, 187, 247, 248

Montis Design157–8

Murphy v Media Protection Services247

Musik-Vertrieb Membran116, 153, 248

Neptune Distribution217

Netlog144–5, 154–5, 192

Nold215–16

OSA131–2, 139, 155

Oscar Bronner118

Padawan140–41

Painer124, 138

Patricia117

Peek & Cloppenburg132–4, 136, 154, 155, 245, 250

Phil Collins118, 119, 248

Promusicae143–4, 145, 154, 155, 192, 223, 252, 253

Radio Telefis Eirean (RTE)118

Reha Training132

Reprobel141

Rioglass and Transremar248

SABAM144, 155

SAS Institute125

Scarlet Extended4, 144–5, 154–5, 157, 192, 247

SCF128–9, 131–2, 156, 158

SENA118

SGAE127–8, 246

Sky Österreich155, 157, 260

Soulier and Doke180, 243, 245

Stitching de Thuiskopie141

Svensson129–30, 249

Tod’s118, 119

TVCatchup129, 246

Ulmer140, 251–2

Unitymark217

UPC Telekabel145–6

Uradex118, 157

UsedSoft134–5, 137, 158, 247, 248, 258

UTECA248

Van den Bergh Foods216

VG Wort141

VOB137, 251–2

Wachauf216–17

Warner Brothers117, 153, 248

Craig, P 219

creative works 76–7, 80, 92, 102, 123–5, 228–9

‘crisis’ of property 194–5, 200

cultural heritage 93–4, 97, 99, 102, 105, 107, 108–9, 180–81

Database Directive 95, 118, 121, 123, 156–7, 168, 236–7, 238, 240, 261

Davies, G 17, 161, 162

Davison, M 121

De Beaumanoir, P 7

De Burca, G 219

De Cupis, A 44

Deazley, R 57

Degli Alberti, M 77, 78

Demsetz, H 28

Derclaye, E 119, 125, 126, 152, 156, 168, 240

Desbois, H 22, 33

Diderot, D 66–7

Dietz, A 277

Digby, K 7

digital exhaustion questions 134–7

Digital Single Market Directive proposal 108, 229, 243–4

digitization

e-books and e-lending 137

E-Commerce Directive 145

hyperlink access to protected work 130–31

out-of-commerce books 180–81

public library collections 140

distribution rights 54, 63, 73, 85, 116–17, 132–7, 155, 168, 245–6

Dock, M 64, 65, 67

dominant position abuse 118–19

see also abuse and misuse of copyright

Drago, G 202

Drahos, P 21

Dreier, T 2, 14, 40, 41, 89, 114, 133, 150, 237, 256

droit d’auteur see authors’ rights

dualist model 24, 25, 36, 42–3, 73–4, 76, 84, 165, 167–8, 174, 183

Duguit, L 221

dysfunctional behaviour 222, 225, 257–8

E-Commerce Directive 145

Easterbrook, F 21

economic crisis effects 105

economic justifications 27–32

economic rights

copyright law within the property framework 245–50, 255–6

exclusive 126–37, 153–4, 156

incentivizing effects of property 28, 313

market-oriented approach 89, 91–110

passim117, 120–21, 127–9, 131–2

similar but conflicting economic interests 198

social function of copyright 205

Edelman, B 17, 19, 51, 64, 65, 66, 67

Eisenstein, E 52

End User License Agreement (EULA) 260, 261–2

see also licensing

Enforcement Directive 96–7, 98, 113, 152–3, 172

Epstein, R 20

Escarra, J 36, 70

EU copyright model 88–149, 268–9

Anglo-Saxon utilitarian approach 91–2, 93, 96–7, 98–9, 101, 102, 106, 107, 109

Article 295 EC 90, 115, 116, 117

‘Books and reading: a cultural challenge for Europe’ 92–3

Charter of Fundamental Rights see Charter of Fundamental Rights

collective management organizations (CMOs) 101–2, 107–8, 186, 242

‘Copyright and the Challenge of Technology’ Green Paper 91–2

‘Copyright in the Knowledge Economy’ Green Paper 101–2

‘Copyright and Related Rights in the Information Society’ Green Paper 93–4

‘Creative content online in the single market’ 100

cultural heritage 93–4, 97, 99, 102, 105, 107, 108–9, 180–81

Database Directive 95, 118, 121, 123, 156–7, 168, 236–7, 238, 240, 261

Digital Single Market Directive proposal 108, 229, 243–4

‘Digital single market strategy for Europe’ 103

E-Commerce Directive 145

economic crisis effects 105

Enforcement Directive (IPRED) 96–7, 98, 113

‘European agenda for culture in a globalizing world’ 100

exclusive rights 92, 115, 121, 134

freedom of contract and stakeholders’ agreements 104

freedom to receive information 113

fundamental rights 110, 113–14, 120–21, 133–4, 137, 140, 143, 145–6

harmonization issues 89–96

horizontal phase of evolution (2001–2008) 95–100

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) monitoring 108

InfoSoc Directive see InfoSoc Directive

innovation stimulation 93, 96, 101, 102–3, 107

intellectual property as property right 98

legislative history and evolution 90–110

licensing agreements 105, 134–5

market-oriented approach 89, 91–110

moral rights 91, 97, 119–20

multi-level phase of evolution (2008–today) 99, 100–110

natural law model and droit d’auteur91–2, 94, 97, 98–9, 108, 109

Orphan Works Directive 106–7, 108, 243

patents, trademarks and copyright inclusion 111–12

personality rights 95, 98, 106, 124

privacy protection 97

protection levels 91–5, 96–8, 99–100, 101, 103, 106–7, 108, 112–14, 123–5

regulation of exceptions and limitations 99, 103–4, 105, 108, 109

remuneration rights 99–100, 106, 107, 108–9, 118, 120–21, 125–6, 128

Rental I Directive 94, 118, 120, 128, 132, 168, 175, 187

Satellite and Cable Directive 118, 128

‘Single market for intellectual property rights’ 102

Software I Directive 94, 95, 123

Software II Directive 135, 136, 236–7, 238, 240, 261

sui generis right 95, 121–2

Term Directive 94–5, 118

Term III Directive 106

‘Towards a modern, more European copyright framework’ 103

‘Trade growth and IP’ 102–3

vertical phase of evolution (1988–2001) 91–5

see also individual countries

EU copyright model, CJEU activism in copyright harmonization 89, 115–46

‘author’s own intellectual creation’ and conditions of protection 123–5

authorship 125–6

communication to the public 127–32

digital exhaustion questions 134–7

digitizing public library collections 140

distribution and exhaustion 132–7

e-books and e-lending 137

exclusive economic rights 126–37

existence–exercise dichotomy 115–16

fair balance of interests 138, 155–6, 252, 260, 261

fair remuneration 137–42

freedom to do business and right to property 120–21

harmonization decade (2006–2016) 122–46

idea–expression dichotomy 119–20

internet hyperlink access to protected work 130–31

Interregnum (1991–2006) 117–22

ISP liability and enforcement 142–6

non-discrimination and abuse of dominant position 118–19

parallel imports 116

parody as autonomous concept of EU law 139–40

primary EC law (1971–1991) 115–17

private copying and fair compensation 140–41

proportionality test 121

reproduction rights 126

right-holder’s attempt to segment internal market 116–17

secondary EC law 120–21

software and graphic user interface (GUI) protection 124

three-step test 138–9

EU and national constitutional property models relationship 209–18

EU vs Member States 150–90, 269–70

Charter of Fundamental Rights see Charter of Fundamental Rights

copyright as property right 152–8

Database Directive 95, 118, 121, 123, 156–7, 168, 236–7, 238, 240, 261

distribution rights 54, 63, 73, 85, 116–17, 132–7, 155, 168, 245–6

Enforcement Directive 96–7, 98, 113, 152–3, 172

exclusive economic rights 153–4, 156

fair balance definition 155–6

InfoSoc Directive see InfoSoc Directive

investment protection 156–7

moral rights 153

national copyright systems and ‘legal irritants’ 158–9

post-modernism and EU copyright model 151–9

preventive rights 100, 121, 132, 156

protection levels 154, 156, 158

Rental I Directive 94, 118, 120, 128, 132, 168, 175, 187

sui generis right on databases 156–7

three-step test 155, 180

Wittem Code 152

see also individual countries

EU vs Member States, copyright within framework of constitutional property, France 178–81

authors’ rights as special form of property 181

digitization of out-of-commerce books 180–81

national cultural heritage access 180–81

right-holder’s power to prevent private copying of protected work 179–80

trademarks and tobacco products 179

EU vs Member States, copyright within framework of constitutional property, Germany 181–5

artistic freedom and right to property 185

Civil Code 182–3

intellectual property 181–2

patrimonial rights 183

property as fundamental right 182

public interest and social role issues 184–5

quotation exception interpretation 184–5

reprints of excerpts of literary and musical works 183–4

Weimar Constitution 181–2

EU vs Member States, copyright within framework of constitutional property, Italy 186–9

Civil Code 186

collective management and enforcement of authors’ rights 186

Copyright Act 187

copyright as intellectual property 188

personality rights 188

protection of authors’ rights as matter of public interest and social utility 186, 188–9

publication of protected pictures and freedom of expression 186–7

rental rights 187–8

right of publicity 186

trademarks 189

EU vs Member States, national copyright systems and property concepts, French propriété littéraire as bridge between civil and common law experiences 162–9

co-authorship and exploitation rights 166–7

Code de la Propriété Intellectuelle (CPI) 163–4, 165, 166–7

Copyright Act 163–4

copyright ownership in case of marriage 166–7

copyright as property 163–4

droit d’auteur164

‘droit de destination’ 167–9, 171, 172, 187

dualist model adoption 167–8

joint authorship works 165–6

‘possession equals title’ rule 164–5

EU vs Member States, national copyright systems and property concepts, Germany and anti-proprietary resistance 169–73

author’s exclusive rights 172

author’s reproduction rights 171

co-ownership 170, 172

intellectual property, use of term 172–3

moral rights 170

personalist theory 169, 170, 171

transfer of exploitation rights 169

EU vs Member States, national copyright systems and property concepts, Italian diritto d’autore as hybrid, second-generation model 173–8

authors’ exploitation rights 174

authors’ right of first publication 175–6

authors’ rights as property 174–7

Civil Code 173, 174, 175, 177

co-ownership 175

collective works 165, 176–7, 235, 236, 237

conflicts of acquisition 177

Copyright Act 177

intellectual property, use of term 177–8

moral rights 175

rental right 175

transfers of exploitation rights 177

EU vs Member States, national copyright systems and property concepts, UK, copyright as common law property 160–62

authors’ rights 160, 161

Copyright Act 160

Copyright, Design and Patents Act (CDPA) 160, 161, 162

joint authorship and co-authorship distinction 161

Stationers’ Company 160

European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 9, 111, 113, 193–4, 203–4, 206, 207, 209

European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)

Anheuser-Busch. v Portugal111

Appleby v United Kingdom209, 213

Aral v Turkey111

Belvedere Alberghiera v Italy207, 213

Beyeler v Italia211

Binotti v Italy207

Bramelid and Malmstrom v Sweden211

Carbonara e Ventura v Italy207, 213

Chassagnou v France214

Dima v Romania111

Erkner and Hofauer v Austria211

Gasus Dosier-Und Fordertechnik v Netherlands212, 214

Handyside v United Kingdom210

Hentrich v France212

Iatridis v Greece211

Immobiliare Saffi v Italy206

James v United Kingdom211, 212, 213

Lallement v France214

Lenzing v United Kingdom111

Loizidou v Turkey211

Lunari v Italy206

Mellacher v Austria212

Melnychuck v Ukraine111

Neij and Kolmisoppi225

Öneryıldız v Turkey211

Picone v Italia211

Pressos Compania Naviera SA v Belgium211

Pye v United Kingdom211

Scollo v Italy206

Scordino v Italy207

Scozzari and Giunta v Italy207

Serrilli v Italy207

Smith Kline & French Lab. Ltd. v Netherlands111

social function of copyright as property right 210–14, 215, 218, 230

Sporrong210–11, 212

Stran Greek Refineries v Greece211

Tanganelli v Italy206

Tre Traktorer Aktiebolag v Sweden212

Venditelli v Italy214

exclusive rights

copyright law within the property framework 242, 246–9

creative sector 228

EU copyright model 92, 115, 121, 126–37

EU vs Member States 153–4, 156, 172

and fair compensation 79–80

joint ownership 236–7

exploitation rights 166–7, 169, 174, 177

expropriation cases 176, 195–6, 198, 200, 201–2, 203, 205–6, 207, 209–10, 211

extended licensing schemes 242, 243–4

see also licensing

Fabiani, M 52

fair balance of interests 138, 155–6, 252, 260, 261

Falk, H 65, 66, 67

Favale, M 122, 152, 223

Favoreu, L 204

Feather, J 59

Fechner, F 41, 170, 172, 181

Ferrajoli, L 205

Ferrara, F 44

France

abuse of economic and moral rights by authors’ heirs 255

Code Civil 200

Code de la Libraire65–6

Code de la Propriété Intellectuelle (CPI) 163–4, 165, 166–7

Code Napoléon 200

Conseil du Roi65–6, 67–8

constitutional property see social function of copyright as property right, French constitutional property jurisprudence without constitutional property clause

constitutional property framework see EU vs Member States, copyright within framework of constitutional property, France

copyright abuse and misuse 256–7

Copyright Act 163–4

copyright and conceptual property theories, French debate 32–8

Décret relatif aux spectacles and disposal of works 69–70

HADOPI Act 203

Mémoire de d’Héricourt and literary property 66–7, 68–9, 73

Parliament of Paris 63–4, 65

property concepts see EU vs Member States, national copyright systems and property concepts, French propriété littéraire as bridge between civil and common law experiences

property rhetoric see copyright, droit d’auteur and propertization history, French model, and property rhetoric

property system history 8–9

France, cases

Chiavarino256

Delprat73

Edition Montparnasse256

HADOPI180

Lacordaire73

Lecocq74

Masson73

Vergne73

Whistler74

Franceschelli, R 43, 44

Franchi, L 77

Francon, A 17, 37

Frantziou, E 192

freedom of contract 104, 206, 260

freedom of expression 186–7, 203, 209, 213

freedom of the press 82

freedom to do business 120–21

freedom to receive information 113

functionalism, and property rhetoric 69–70, 71–3

fundamental rights protection

EU copyright model 110, 113–14, 120–21, 133–4, 137, 140, 143, 145–6

fair balance 252, 261

property as 182

social function of copyright as property right 191–2, 193, 196, 199, 201, 202–3, 204, 208–9, 218, 219–20, 223, 226

Furubotn, E 28

Gambaro, A 46

Garben, S 105

Gastambide, A 34, 35, 73

Gaudrat, P 37

Gautier, P 163

Gazzanica, K 7

Geiger, C 6, 70, 71, 111, 112, 113, 114, 191, 222, 224, 251, 252, 253

Germany

artistic freedom 185

Civil Code 85, 182–3

co-ownership 236

common law property and Germanic customary property rights 7

constitutional property see social function of copyright as property right, German constitutional property model and internal social obligation

constitutional property framework see EU vs Member States, copyright within framework of constitutional property, Germany

Copyright Act 84–5, 86

Federal Act 81–2

property concepts see EU vs Member States, national copyright systems and property concepts, Germany and anti-proprietary resistance

property system history 9

Prussian Act 83–4, 85

social bounds of private law 222

trademark law as transferable property right 41

unitary personality right 36, 38–42

Urheberrecht harmonization see copyright, droit d’auteur and propertization history, German model and Urheberrecht harmonization

Weimar Constitution 181–2, 195–6

Germany, cases

Besitzrecht des Mieters197

Bibliotheksgroschen184

Boxberg198

Feldmühle198

Germania 3184–5

Hamburg Flood Control196–7

Kirkenmusik184

Kleingartenentscheidung197–8

Mauer-Bilder243

Metall auf Metall185

Microcensus196

Mitbestimmungsentscheidung197

Schulbuchprivileg183–4

Vergleichsmiete I197

Gervais, F 242, 253

Ghidini, G 119, 239

Ghiron, M 44

Giannini, A 44

Gieseke, L 27, 38, 81, 82, 83

Ginossar, S 8

Ginsburg, J 17, 27, 68, 70, 72, 152

Godt, C 115

Goldstein, P 235

Gomez-Arostegui, H 56, 59

Gordley, J 8, 46

Gordon, W 19, 20, 21, 22, 29, 30

Götting, H 42, 173, 181

Gotzen, M 167

Greco, P 174, 175, 176, 177

Griffiths, J 111, 113, 114, 123, 192, 252

Grosheide, F 18, 19

Guibault, L 18, 26, 27, 28, 99, 104, 256, 259, 261

Guiffrey, G 33, 34, 64, 65, 66, 68

harmonization

CJEU activism in copyright harmonization see EU copyright model, CJEU activism in copyright harmonization

and copyright law see copyright law within the property framework, building and harmonizing

EU copyright model 89–96

Harrison, W 7

Hegel, G 19, 23–5, 34, 38–9

Helfer, L 112

Hepp, F 36, 37, 163

Herrmann, C 203

Hesse, C. 51, 52, 68, 69

Hesselink, M 151

Hilty, R 255, 256

housing, ‘right to decent housing’ 203

Hubmann, H 40, 170, 181

Hudson, E 242, 244

Hugenholtz, P 2, 26, 121, 133, 138, 152, 235, 237, 238, 246, 251, 253

Hughes, J 1, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 57, 58, 70, 150

human dignity principle 196, 203

Husovec, M 138

hybrid models 3, 9, 19–20, 36–7, 47, 76–7, 84–5, 93–6, 99, 100–101, 105, 107–8, 130–31, 173–8

information

communication to the public 127–32

freedom to receive 113

informational and technical works 239

pre-modern societies and transmission of knowledge 51–3

information society Service Providers (ISPs) monitoring 108

InfoSoc Directive

copyright law within the property framework 237–8, 245, 247, 250–51, 252, 253, 255, 260, 261

EU copyright model 96–8, 99, 101, 104, 118, 122, 123, 126–40

EU vs Member States 152–3, 154, 157

innovation stimulation 93, 96, 101, 102–3, 107

intellectual property

Chicago School 28, 30

cultural heritage protection 93–4, 97, 99, 102, 105, 107, 108–9

EU vs Member States 181–2, 188

as property right 98

protection, Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) 3–4, 113–14

use of term 172–3, 177–8

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 96, 127, 133, 134, 135

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 110–11, 226

investment protection 156–7, 228–9

ISP liability and enforcement 142–6

Italy

Austro-Sardinian Convention and literary property 77–9

Civil Code 8, 76–7, 80, 173, 174, 175, 177, 186

constitutional property see social function of copyright as property right, Italy, social function of constitutional property

constitutional property framework see EU vs Member States, copyright within framework of constitutional property, Italy

Copyright Act 177, 187

copyright law 37

diritto d’autore see copyright, droit d’auteur and propertization history, Italian model and diritto d’autore

Kingdom of Sardinia legislation 75

property concepts see EU vs Member States, national copyright systems and property concepts, Italian diritto d’autore as hybrid, second-generation model

Royal Patents 75–6

theoretical debate 42–5

Izzo, U 54, 55

Jänich, V 41, 173

Jaszi, P 58

Joerges, C 192

joint authorship 161, 165–7

see also authors’ rights

joint ownership 170, 172, 175, 235–8

see also ownership

Josserand, L 221, 222

Kant, I 19, 23–5, 34, 38–9

Kase, F 33

Kawohl, F 82

Keeling, D 90

Kempees, P 214

Kenyon, F. 51

Kerever, A 70, 239

Kleyn, D 6

Klostermann, R 40

Koelman, K 253

Kohler, J 39, 40, 169, 222, 224

Kommers, D 182, 183, 196, 198

Kramer, W 38, 81

Krug, W 38, 81

Laboulaye, E 33, 34, 51, 64, 65, 66, 68

Laligant, O 70

Landes, W 22, 29, 31

Lange, M 39

Leczykiewicz, D 192, 223

legal irritants 158–9

legal positivism 76–7

‘legitimate interest’ focus 253, 254, 257

Lehmann, H 28, 40, 170

Leistner, M 117, 118, 121, 122, 126, 128, 129, 133, 140, 143, 223

Lemley, M 150

letters patent 63–4, 65–6

Libchaber, R 200

licensing 105, 134–5, 242, 243–4, 247–8, 260, 261–2

Liivak, O 241

literary property 33, 34, 36, 37, 38–9, 40, 77–9, 81–2, 84, 183–4

Litman, J 20

Ljungman, S 31

Llewelyn, D 63, 162

Locke, J. 18–19, 20–23, 24, 26, 30, 32–7, 57–8, 60, 81, 156

Locré, J 69, 70

Loewenheim, U 38, 125, 170, 172

Lowenstein, J 58, 59

Lucas, A 36, 125, 162, 163, 164, 165, 167, 168, 239, 253

Mackaay, E 28

Macpherson, C 33

Madero, M 53

Maduro, M 192

majoritarian doctrine 35, 45, 80, 169, 174, 222

Mak, C 198, 221

Margoni, T 235

market failures 19, 27, 28, 30–31, 109, 242

market-oriented approach 89, 91–110

marriage, copyright ownership in case of 166–7

Mattei, U 5, 8, 10, 241

May, C 54

Mazziotti, G 90

McDonagh, L 111, 113, 114, 252

Melamed, A 156

Member States see EU vs Member States

Merges, R 29, 30

Merland, G 201

Michelman, F 21, 25

Micklitz, H 192

Miller, R 182, 183, 196, 198

Milly, T 114

monopoly concerns 64–6, 67, 73

Montagnani, M 88

moral rights

copyright law within the property framework 236, 242, 255–7

EU copyright model 91, 97, 119–20

national copyright systems 170, 175

and propertization history 73, 76, 85

Morillot, A 36, 73–4

Mortati, C 205

Moscati, L 58, 79

Mossoff, A 1, 18, 27, 150

Moyse, P 35

music, reprints of excerpts of literary and musical works 183–4

national systems

codification process 8–9

courts and property framework 237, 238, 243, 256–7, 261

Member States see EU vs Member States

social function of copyright as property right 209–18

see also individual countries

Natoli, U 205, 222–3

natural law model

EU copyright model 91–2, 94, 97, 98–9, 108, 109

Lockean theory 18–19, 20–23, 24, 26, 30, 32–7, 57–8, 60, 81, 156

and propertization history 69–72, 76–7, 82, 86

Nérisson, S 255

Netanel, N 26, 29, 31

‘new public’ concept 127–32, 245–6, 247, 250

Nordemann, W 170

normative property theories 18–32

North, D 54, 56

numerus clausus principle 246–7, 264

Ohly, A 126, 173

Olivecrona, K 20

Orphan Works Directive 106–7, 108, 243

Ourliac, P 7

ownership

in case of marriage 166–7

co-ownership 170, 172, 175, 236–7

copyright law within the property framework 235, 236–7, 238, 246–7

see also authors’ rights

Pahlow, L 39, 42, 173

Palmer, T 27

Palombella, G 192

Pardessus, J 73

Parent, A 64

parody 139–40

patents 63–4, 65–6, 75–6, 111–12, 241

paternity right 75–6, 77, 183, 201

Patterson, L 1, 55, 56, 57, 59, 62, 63

Pawlowski, H 196

Peeler, C 70, 72

Pejovich, S 28

Penalver, E 241

Peretz, S 30

Perfumi, C 203

Perry, M 235

personality rights

EU copyright model 95, 98, 106, 124

EU vs Member States 169, 170, 171, 188

and propertization history 72, 73–4, 84, 85

social function of copyright as property right 208, 225

theoretical framework 23–5, 33, 34, 36–7, 38–42, 43

unitary 36, 38–42

Perzanowski, A 134

Peukert, A 1, 4, 89, 98, 113, 114, 126, 191, 210, 225, 250

Pfister, L 34, 66, 67

Philip, L 204

Picard, E 35

Piola Caselli, E 44, 76, 174

Pollaud-Dulian, F 167

Portugal, abuse of economic and moral rights by authors’ heirs 255

Posner, R 22, 29, 31

‘possession equals title’ rule 164–5

post-modernism and EU copyright model 151–9

Pothier, R 7–8

Pottage, A 53

Pouillet, E 34, 71

Prescott, P 60

preventive rights 100, 121, 132, 156

printing press introduction 53–4

privacy protection 97, 208–9

private copying 140–41, 179–80, 238, 242

see also reproduction rights

privileges 64–6, 67–8, 70–72, 75–6, 78–9, 83

property

and copyright law see copyright law within the property framework, building and harmonizing

copyright as property right 152–8, 163–4

and droit d’auteur see copyright, droit d’auteur and propertization history

EU copyright model 89, 114, 120–21, 126

and social function see social function of copyright as property right

terminology concerns 5–6, 11

theoretical framework 20–21, 24–5

proportionality test 121, 211–12, 244–5, 252, 260–61

protection levels

copyright law within the property framework 249

EU copyright model 91–5, 96–8, 99–100, 101, 103, 106–7, 108, 112–14, 123–5, 124, 130–31

EU vs Member States 154, 156, 158, 186, 186–7, 188–9

social function of copyright as property right 197, 203–4, 225, 228

and social utility 26–7, 29–31

public, ‘new public’ concept 127–32, 245–6, 247, 250

public interest 184–5, 186, 188–9, 205, 247–8

publication rights 66, 81, 82, 175–6, 186–7

see also authors’ rights

Pugliatti, S 44, 222

quotation exception interpretation 184–5

Radin, M 19, 23

Rahmatian, A 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 239, 241

Ramaekers, E 14, 90, 117

Rasmussen, H 223

Recht, P 37, 68

regulation of exceptions and limitations 99, 103–4, 105, 108, 109

Rehbinder, M 83

remuneration

copyright law within the property framework 238, 242, 248–9, 258

EU copyright model 99–100, 106, 107, 108–9, 118, 120–21, 125–6, 128, 137–42

and propertization history 79–80

tools, social function of copyright as property right 227–8

Renouard, A 33–4, 52, 64, 65, 67, 69, 70, 73

Rental I Directive 94, 118, 120, 128, 132, 168, 175, 187

rental rights 175, 187–8, 206–7, 238

reproduction rights 82, 126, 171, 183–4, 249–50

copying, private 140–41, 179–80, 238, 242

res corporales and res incorporales, distinction between 6, 7, 53

Rescigno, P 176

Revet, T 179

Rideau, F 64, 65, 66, 67

Ripert, G 221

Rodotà, S 8, 193, 194, 218

Roman law 52–3, 71

Rose, M. 51, 56, 58, 60, 62

Roubier, P 35–6

Rufner, T 39

Samuelson, P 54

Sandulli, A 205

Santoro-Passarelli, F 43

Satellite and Cable Directive 118, 128

Scalzini, S 228, 254, 260

Schabas, W 211

Schmid, K 38, 81

Schönherr, F 253

Schovsbo, J 134

Schricker, G 38, 125, 170, 172

Schroff, S 243

Schubert, W 169

Schultz, J 134

Schutte, C 214

Scialoja, A 79

Seifert, F 173

Seignette, J 22

Senftleben, M 2, 21, 26, 27, 30, 31, 47, 99, 138, 139, 251, 253

Sfetea, J 73

Sherman, B 53, 239

Smith, H 30

social contract, copyright as 67

social function of copyright as property right 191–232, 270–71

and Charter of Fundamental Rights see Charter of Fundamental Rights

common social function for EU property law 218–20

constitutional property model 193

Court of Justice of the European Union 214–18, 223, 230–31

creative production and investment sustainability 228–9

Digital Single Market Directive proposal 108, 229, 243–4

EU and national constitutional property models relationship 209–18

European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 9, 111, 113, 193–4, 203–4, 206, 207, 209

European Court of Human Rights 210–14, 215, 218, 230

freedom of expression 213

functions of EU copyright law 227–9

fundamental rights protection 191–2, 193, 218, 219–20, 223, 226

horizontal application of constitutional clauses 191–2, 222

personality rights 225

private law, social bounds of 222–3

proportionality test 211–12

protection levels 225, 228

remuneration tools 227–8

resource-specific properties 221, 222–3

right-holder’s dysfunctional behaviour 222, 225, 257–8

solidarist approach 225–6

vertical and horizontal effects 220–27, 231–2

social function of copyright as property right, French constitutional property jurisprudence without constitutional property clause 199–204

Code Civil 200

Code Napoléon 200

‘crisis’ of property 194–5, 200

expropriation cases 176, 195–6, 198, 200, 201–2, 203, 205–6, 207, 209–10, 211

freedom of expression 203

fundamental rights 199, 201, 202–3, 204

general interest concept 201–2, 203

human dignity principle 203

‘objectives of constitutional value’ 202–3

patrimonial rights 201

protection levels 203–4

‘right to decent housing’ 203

social function of copyright as property right, German constitutional property model and internal social obligation 195–9

definition of role of property 196–7

fundamental rights 196

historical evolution of the social obligation 197–8

human dignity principle 196

private relations, horizontal application 198–9

protection levels 197

similar but conflicting economic interests, balancing 198

Weimar Constitution 195–6

social function of copyright as property right, Italy, social function of constitutional property 205–9

conflicting interests hierarchy 26, 138, 184, 205, 251, 258–9

economic focus 205

freedom of expression 209

fundamental rights 208–9

future expropriation and time-limited restrictions 206

personality rights 208

privacy and property, balance between 208–9

‘private goods of public interest’ 205

public authorities and constructive expropriation 207–8

rental issues 206–7

social function doctrine 240, 244, 247, 248–9, 251–2, 253–4, 259, 260–61

social utility 26–7, 29–31, 186, 188–9

software and graphic user interface (GUI) protection 124

Software I Directive 94, 95, 123

Software II Directive 135, 136, 236–7, 238, 240, 261

Spain

abuse of economic and moral rights by authors’ heirs 255, 257

Megakini257

Specht, I 256

‘special cases’ 253–4

Spector, H 19, 21

sports events 118, 121, 122, 124, 130, 156, 239

Sterk, S 31

Stolfi, N 80

Strömholm, S 39, 40, 52, 59, 70, 71, 73, 74, 167, 169

Strowel, A 17, 19, 20, 21, 26, 27, 28, 33, 62, 63, 66, 71, 86, 99, 168, 200, 256, 259

Suchman, M. 51

sui generis rights 22, 24, 35, 95, 121–2, 156–7

Tafforeau, P 163

Term Directive 94–5, 118

Term III Directive 106

terminology concerns 5–11

theoretical framework 17–49, 267–8

acquisition of ownership 20–21, 37, 45, 53, 166, 177, 241, 262–3

authors’ rights see authors’ rights

‘avoidance view of property’ 21–2

Chicago School and intellectual property 28, 30

civil and common law approaches see civil law; common law

copyright and conceptual property 32–45

copyright history role 46–8

economic justifications 27–32

free will effects 23–4

individual merit and justification for property 20–23, 33

individuals as rational market players 28

Kantian and Hegelian arguments 19, 23–5, 34, 38–9

labour activities 21–2, 25–6

literary property 33, 34, 36, 37, 38–9, 40, 77–9, 81–2, 84, 183–4

Lockean theory 18–19, 20–23, 24, 26, 30, 32–7, 57–8, 60, 81, 156

majoritarian doctrine 35, 45, 80, 169, 174, 222

market failures, legislative provision of exceptions and limitations 19, 27, 28, 30–31, 109, 242

normative property theories 18–32

path dependency, distortive effects 17–18

personality rights see personality rights

philosophical justifications 20–27

property, understanding of 20–21, 24–5

and social utility 26–7, 29–31

social welfare goals 26–7

sui generis rights 22, 24, 35, 95, 121–2, 156–7

supranational standardization 19–20, 47

trademark law as transferable property right 41

utilitarianism 19, 25–7, 29–30

Thomas, R 54, 56

three-step test 138–9, 155, 180, 253–4, 257, 260

Torremans, P 237

trademarks 41, 111–12, 179, 189, 241

Travis, H 57

Ubertazzi, L 75, 77, 79, 174, 175, 176, 177

UK

Anglo-Saxon utilitarian approach 91–2, 93, 96–7, 98–9, 101, 102, 106, 107, 109

common law to statutory copyright see copyright, droit d’auteur and propertization history, English model, common law to statuory copyright

Copyright Act 63, 160

Copyright, Design and Patents Act (CDPA) 160, 161, 162

Habeas Corpus Act 56–7

Indemnity and Oblivion Act 57

Monopolies Act and letters patent 56

property concepts see EU vs Member States, national copyright systems and property concepts, UK, copyright as common law property

Stationers’ Company 160

Stationers’ Company and Charter 55–7, 58–9, 60, 62

Statute of Anne 59–60, 62–3, 70, 72

UK, cases

Donaldson v Becket62–3, 68

Fisher v Brooker162

Jeffreys v Boosey63

Millar v Kinkaid60

Millar v Taylor61–2, 68

Tonson v Collins60–61

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 110–11, 226

US

fair use doctrine 139

Harper & Row Publisher v Nation Enterprises26

utilitarianism 19, 25–7, 29–30, 69–70, 71–3, 82, 91–3, 96–9, 101–2, 106–7, 109

Van Den Broek, P 210

Van der Walt, A 197

Van Eechoud, M 2, 88, 91, 152, 223, 236, 237

Van Erp, S 14, 160

Van Gompel, S 241

Van Velze, S 246

Vanbrabant, B 256

Vassalli, F 221

Vercellone, P 174, 175, 176, 177

Vilbois, J 162

Vivant, M 37, 112, 179, 180, 220, 239

Vogel, M 38, 39, 81, 85

Von Bar, C 9, 14

Von Gamm, O 40, 86, 169, 173

Von Gierke, O 39–40, 222

Von Lewinski, S 235, 238, 245

Wadle, E 84, 173

Walter, M 235, 238

Watson, A 17, 48

Weber, W 9, 194

Weiler, J 192

Weinreb, L 20, 21, 22

Westkamp, G 115, 240

Wieaker, F 8

Witcombe, C 54

Wittem Code 152

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 96, 127, 133, 134, 135

Xalabarder, R 257

Zenati, F 8, 33, 70, 71, 194, 200

Zimmermann, R 151