Show Less
You do not have access to this content

How Far to Nudge?

Assessing Behavioural Public Policy

Peter John

This book addresses the wave of innovation and reforms that has been called the nudge or behavioural public policy agenda, which has emerged in many countries since the mid-2000s. Nudge involves developing behavioural insights to solve complex policy problems, such as unemployment, obesity and the environment, as well as improving the delivery of policies by reforming standard operating procedures. It reviews the changes that have taken place, in particular the greater use of randomised evaluations, and discusses how far nudge can be used more generally in the policy process. The book argues that nudge has a radical future if it develops a more bottom up approach involving greater feedback and more engagement with citizens.
Show Summary Details
This content is available to you


Assessing Behavioural Public Policy

Peter John

Adams, Jean, Oliver Mytton, Martin White and Pablo Monsivais (2016), ‘Why are some population interventions for diet and obesity more equitable and effective than others? The role of individual agency’, PLoS Med, 13 (4), e1001990.

Ainslie, George (1975), ‘Specious reward: A behavioral theory of impulsiveness and impulsive control’, Psychological Bulletin, 82 (4), 463–496.

Ainslie, George (1991), ‘Derivation of “rational” economic behavior from hyperbolic discount curves’, American Economic Review, 81, 134–140.

Ajzen, Icek (1985), ‘From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behaviour’, in Julius Kuhl and Jürgen Beckman (eds), Action-Control: From Cognition to Behaviour, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 11–39.

Akerlof, George (2002), ‘Behavioral macroeconomics and macroeconomic behavior’, American Economic Review, 92 (3), 411–433.

Alemanno, Alberto and Anne-Lise Sibony (eds) (2015), Nudge and the Law, London: Bloomsbury.

Allison, Graham T. (1971), Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, New York: HarperCollins.

Altman, Daniel (2002), ‘A Nobel that bridges economics and psychology’, New York Times, 10 October.

Anderson, Joel H. (2010), ‘Review of Thaler and Sunstein, “Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness”’, Economics and Philosophy, 26, 369–406.

Anderson, Joel H. (2016), ‘Structured nonprocrastination: Scaffolding efforts to resist the temptation to reconstrue unwarranted delay,’ in Fuschia M. Sirois and Timothy A. Pychyl (eds), Procrastination, Health, and Well-Being, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 43–63.

Annis, Helen M., Howard D. Cappell, Frederick B. Glaser, Michael S. Goodstadt and Lynn T. Kozlowski (1990), Research Advances in Alcohol and Drug Problems, Vol. 10, Berlin: Springer.

Argyris, Chris (1993), Knowledge for Action: A Guide to Overcoming Barriers to Organizational Change, joint publication in the Jossey-Bass management series and the Jossey-Bass social and behavioral science series, 1st edn, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ariely, Dan (2015), Irrationally Yours: On Missing Socks, Pickup Lines, and Other Existential Puzzles, New York: HarperCollins.

Baicker, Katherine, Sendhil Mullainathan and Joshua Schwartzstein (2015), ‘Behavioral hazard in health insurance’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 130 (4), 1623–1667.

Bambra, Clare, Matt Egan, Sian Thomas, Mark Petticrew and Margaret Whitehead (2007), ‘The psychosocial and health effects of workplace reorganisation. 2. A systematic review of task restructuring interventions’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61, 1028–1037.

Banerjee, Abhijit V. and Esther Duflo (2014), ‘The experimental approach to development economics’, in Dawn Langan Teele (ed.), Field Experiments and Their Critics: The Uses and Abuses of Experimentation in the Social Sciences, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, pp. 78–114.

Baumgartner, Frank R. and Bryan D. Jones (1993), Agendas and Instability in American Politics, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Becker, Gary S. (1968), ‘Crime and punishment: An economic approach’, Journal of Political Economy, 76, 169–217.

Behavioural Insights Team (2012), Fraud, Error and Debt: Behavioural Insights Team Paper, London: Cabinet Office.

Behavioural Insights Team (2015), The Behavioural Insights Team Update Report 2013–2015, London: Behavioural Insights Team.

Bell, Chris (2013), ‘Inside the Coalition’s controversial “Nudge Unit”’, Telegraph, 11 February.

Benartzi, Shlomo (2012), Save More Tomorrow: Practical Behavioral Finance Solutions to Improve 401(k) Plans, New York: Portfolio.

Benartzi, Shlomo and Richard H. Thaler (2013), ‘Behavioral economics and the retirement savings crisis’, Science, 339, 1152–1153.

Benjamin, Alison (2013), ‘David Halpern: We try to avoid legislation and ordering’, Guardian, 5 February.

Berns, Gregory S., David Laibson and George Loewenstein (2007), ‘Intertemporal choice – toward an integrative framework’, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 482–488.

Blattman, Christopher, Julian C. Jamison and Margaret Sheridan (2017), ‘Reducing crime and violence: Experimental evidence on cognitive behavioral therapy in Liberia’, American Economic Review, 107 (4), 1165–1206.

Blume, Toby and Peter John (2014), Using Nudges to Increase Council Tax Collection: Testing the Effects through a Randomized Controlled Trial, London: Lambeth London Borough Council.

Borins, Stanford (2002), ‘Leadership and innovation in the public sector’, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 23 (8), 467–476.

Bovens, Luc (2009), ‘The ethics of nudge’, in Till Grüne-Yanoff and Sven Ove Hansson (eds), Preference Change: Approaches from Philosophy, Economics and Psychology, Berlin: Springer Science and Business Media.

Bovens, Mark, Paul ‘t Hart and B. Guy Peters (2001), Success and Failure in Public Governance: A Comparative Analysis, New Horizons in Public Policy, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Bowles, Samuel (2016), The Moral Economy: Why Good Incentives Are No Substitutes for Good Citizens, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Branca, Francesco, Haik Nikogosian and Tim Lobstein (eds) (2007), The Challenge of Obesity in the WHO European Region and the Strategies for Response, Copenhagen: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe.

Braybrooke, David and Charles E. Lindblom (1963), A Strategy of Decision: Policy Evaluation as a Social Process, Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

Brehm, Jack W. (1966), A Theory of Psychological Reactance, New York: Academic Press.

Brehm, Sharon S. and Jack W. Brehm (1981), Psychological Reactance: A Theory of Freedom and Control, New York: Academic Press.

Brest, Paul (2013), ‘Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? Debiasing the policy makers themselves’, in Eldar Shafir (ed.), The Behavioral Foundations of Public Policy, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 481–493.

Broockman, David and Joshua Kalla (2016), ‘Durably reducing transphobia: A field experiment on door-to-door canvassing’, Science, 352 (6282), 220–224.

Brook Lyndhurst (2006), Triggering Widespread Adoption of Sustainable Behaviour, Behaviour Change: A Series of Practical Guides for Policy-Makers and Practitioners No. 4, London: Defra.

Bruns, Hendrik, Elena Kantorowicz-Reznichenko, Katharina Klement, Marijane Luistro Jonsson and Bilel Rahali (2016), Can Nudges Be Transparent and Yet Effective?, WiSo-HH Working Paper Series No. 33, (accessed 12 June 2017).

Burch, Martin and Ian Holliday (1996), The British Cabinet System, London: Prentice-Hall.

Burd, Hannah (2016), ‘Five factors for supporting people to take a more active role in health and wellbeing’, Behavioural Insights Team blog, (accessed 19 June 2017).

Cabinet Office and Charitable Aid Foundation (2013), Applying Behavioural Insights to Charitable Giving, London: Cabinet Office, (accessed 12 June 2017).

Cabinet Office – Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit (2004), Personal Responsibility and Changing Behaviour: The State of Knowledge and Its Implications for Public Policy, London: Cabinet Office.

Camerer, Colin F. (2003), Behavioral Game Theory: Experiments in Strategic Interaction, Roundtable Series in Behavioral Economics, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Camerer, Colin, Samuel Issacharoff, George Loewenstein and Ted O’Donoghue (2003), ‘Regulation for conservatives: Behavioral economics and the case for “asymmetric paternalism”’, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 151, 1211–1254.

Caplan, Nathan S. (1975), The Use of Social Science Knowledge in Policy Decisions at the National Level: A Report to Respondents, Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.

Caplan, Nathan S. (1979), ‘The two-communities theory and knowledge utilization’, American Behavioral Scientist, 22 (3), 459–470.

Carey, Nessa (2011), The Epigenetics Revolution: How Modern Biology Is Rewriting Our Understanding of Genetics, London: Icon Books.

Cartwright, Edward (2011), Behavioral Economics, London: Routledge.

Chabris, Christopher and Daniel Simons (2010), The Invisible Gorilla: And Other Ways Our Intuition Deceives Us, London: HarperCollins.

Chater, Nick, Mike Oaksford, Ramin Nakisa and Martin Redington (2003), ‘Fast, frugal, and rational: How rational norms explain behaviour’, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 90, 63–86.

Chen, Frances S., Julia A. Minson, Maren Schöne and Markus Heinrichs (2013), ‘In the eye of the beholder: Eye contact increases resistance to persuasion’, Psychological Science, 24, 2254–2261.

Chetty, Raj and Emmanuel Saez (2013), ‘Teaching the tax code: Earnings responses to an experiment with EITC recipients’, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 5 (1), 1–31.

Chetty, Raj, Adam Looney and Kory Kroft (2009), ‘Salience and taxation: Theory and evidence’, American Economic Review, 99 (4), 1145–1177.

Cialdini, Robert B. (2009), Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion, London: HarperCollins.

Cialdini, Robert B., Raymond R. Reno and Carl A. Kallgren (1990), ‘A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58 (6), 1015–1026.

Coelho, Miguel and Vigyan Ratnoo with Sebastian Dellepiane (2015), Political Economy of Policy Failure and Institutional Reform, London: Institute for Government.

Conly, Sarah (2013), Against Autonomy: Justifying Coercive Paternalism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dalton, Russell J. (2005), ‘The social transformation of trust in government’, International Review of Sociology, 15, 133–154.

Darton, Andrew (2008), Reference Report: An Overview of Behaviour Change Models and Their Uses, London: Government Social Research.

Davis, Rachel, Rona Campbell, Zoe Hildon, Lorna Hobbs and Susan Michie (2014), ‘Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: A scoping review’, Health Psychology Review, 9 (3), 323–344.

Defra (2008), A Framework for Pro-environmental Behaviours, London: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

DellaVigna, Stefano (2009), ‘Psychology and economics: Evidence from the field’, Journal of Economic Literature, 47 (2), 315–372.

Demeritt, Allison and Karla Hoff (2015), ‘Small Miracles’ – Behavioral Insights to Improve Development Policy: World Development Report 2015, Washington, DC: World Bank,

Denford, Sarah, Charles Abraham, Jane Rebecca Smith, Sarah Morgan-Trimmer, Jenny Lloyd and Katrina Wyatt (2016), ‘Intervention design and evaluation: Behaviour change imperatives’, in Fiona Spotswood (ed.), Beyond Behaviour Change, Bristol: Policy Press, pp. 49–70.

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills and Cabinet Office (2014), Growth Vouchers Trial Protocol, London: Department for Business and Skills and Cabinet Office, (accessed 12 June 2017).

Department of Energy and Climate Change (2013), Removing the Hassle Factor Associated with Loft Insulation: Results of a Behavioural Trial, London: Department of Energy and Climate Change, (accessed 12 June 2017).

Dobson, Andrew (2011), Sustainability Citizenship, Weymouth: Green House.

Dolan, Paul and Matteo M. Galizzi (2015), ‘Like ripples on a pond: Behavioral spillovers and their implications for research and policy’, Journal of Economic Psychology, 47, 1–16.

Dolan, Paul, Michael Hallsworth, David Halpern, Dominic King, Robert Metcalfe and Ivo Vlaev (2012), ‘Influencing behaviour: The MINDSPACE way’, Journal of Economic Psychology, 33, 264–277.

Dowding, Keith and Desmond King (eds) (1995), Preferences, Institutions, and Rational Choice, Oxford: Clarendon.

Downs, Anthony (1957), An Economic Theory of Democracy, New York: Harper.

Dryzek, John S. (2000), Deliberative Democracy and Beyond: Liberals, Critics, Contestations, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dubner, Stephen J. (2016), ‘The White House gets into the nudge business’, Freakonomics Radio,

Duckworth, Angela L., Christopher Peterson, Michael D. Matthews and Dennis R. Kelly (2007), ‘Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92 (6), 1087–1110.

Dunleavy, Patrick (1995), ‘Policy disasters: Explaining the UK’s record’, Public Policy and Administration, 10 (2), 52–70.

Dunsire, Andrew (1993), Manipulating Social Tensions: Collibration as an Alternative Mode of Government Intervention, Discussion Paper No. 93/7, Köln: Max-Planck-Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung.

Dworkin, Gerald (1988), ‘Paternalism: Some second thoughts’, in The Theory and Practice of Autonomy, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 121–129.

Eisenstein, Hester (1991), Gender Shock: Practising Feminism on Two Continents, Sydney: Allen & Unwin.

Ekelund, Ulf, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Wendy J. Brown, Morten Wang Fagerland, Neville Owen, Kenneth E. Powell, Adrian Bauman and I-Min Lee (2016), ‘Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised meta-analysis of data from more than 1 million men and women’, Lancet, Physical Activity Series 2 Executive Committee, Sedentary Behaviour Working Group,

Engber, Daniel (2016), ‘The irony effect: How the scientist who founded the science of mistakes ended up mistaken’, Slate, 21 December, (accessed 29 December 2016).

Engelen, Lina, Haryana M. Dhillon, Josephine Y. Chau, D. Hespe and A.E. Bauman (2016), ‘Do active design buildings change health behaviour and workplace perceptions?’, Occupational Medicine, 66 (5), 408–411.

Farrell, Henry and Cosma Shalizi (2011), ‘“Nudge” policies are another name for coercion’, New Scientist, 2837, 2 November.

Feitsma, Joram and Thomas Schillemans (2016), ‘Behaviour experts in Dutch government: From newcomers to professionals?’, unpublished paper.

Felsen, Gidon, Noah Castelo and Peter B. Reiner (2013), ‘Decisional enhancement and autonomy: Public attitudes towards overt and covert nudges’, Judgment and Decision Making, 8 (3), 202–213.

Fieldhouse, Ed, Dave Cutts, Paul Widdop and Peter John (2013), ‘Do impersonal mobilisation methods work? Evidence from a nationwide Get-Out-the-Vote experiment in England’, Electoral Studies, 32, 113–123.

Fieldhouse, Ed, Dave Cutts, Peter John and Paul Widdop (2014), ‘When context matters: Assessing geographical heterogeneity of Get-Out-the-Vote treatment effects using a population based field experiment’, Political Behavior, 36, 77–97.

Fishbein, Martin and Icek Ajzen (1975), Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behaviour: An Introduction to Theory and Research, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing.

Fiskin, James (1995), The Voice of the People: Public Opinion and Democracy, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Flinders, Matthew (2013), ‘The tyranny of relevance and the art of translation’, Political Studies Review, 11 (2), 149–167.

Frey, Bruno S., Matthias Benz and Alois Stutzer (2004), ‘Introducing procedural utility: Not only what, but also how matters’, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 160, 377–401.

Fung, Archon (2006), Empowered Participation: Reinventing Urban Democracy, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Gabaix, Xavier (2016), ‘A behavioral new Keynesian model’, unpublished paper, (accessed 14 January 2017).

Gardner, Frances and Daniel S. Shaw (2008), ‘Behavioral problems of infancy and preschool children (0–5)’, in Michael Rutter, Dorothy V.M. Bishop, Daniel S. Pine, Stephen Scott, Jim Stevenson, Eric Taylor and Anita Thapar (eds), Rutter’s Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 882–893.

Gerber, Alan S. and Donald P. Green (2012), Field Experiments: Design, Analysis, and Interpretation, New York: William Norton.

Gerber, Alan S., Donald P. Green and Christopher W. Larimer (2008), ‘Social pressure and voter turnout: Evidence from a large-scale field experiment’, American Political Science Review, 102 (1), 33–48.

Gigerenzer, Gerd (2003), Reckoning with Risk: Learning to Live with Uncertainty, London: Penguin.

Gigerenzer, Gerd and Henry Brighton (2009), ‘Homo heuristicus: Why biased minds make better inferences’, Topics in Cognitive Science, 1, 107–143.

Gneezy, Urim and John A. List (2006), ‘Putting behavioral economics to work: Testing for gift exchange in labor markets using field experiments’, Econometrica, 74 (5), 1365–1384.

Gneezy, Urim and John A. List (2013), The Why Axis: Hidden Motives and the Undiscovered Economics of Everyday Life, New York: Public Affairs/HarperCollins.

Goldacre, Ben (2008), Bad Science, London: Fourth Estate.

Goldstein, Noah J., Robert B. Cialdini and Vladas Griskevicius (2008), ‘A room with a viewpoint: Using social norms to motivate environmental conservation in hotels’, Journal of Consumer Research, 35, 472–482.

Gollwitzer, Peter M. (1999), ‘Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans’, American Psychologist, 54, 493–503.

Goodin, Robert E. (1982), Political Theory and Public Policy, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Goodwin, Tom (2012), ‘Why we should reject “nudge”’, Politics, 32, 85–92.

Graham, Erin R., Charles R. Shipan and Craig Volden (2013), ‘The diffusion of policy diffusion research in political science’, British Journal of Political Science, 43 (3), 673–701.

Green, Donald P. and Alan S. Gerber (2003), ‘The underprovision of experiments in political science’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 589, 94–112.

Green, Donald P. and Alan S. Gerber (2015), Get Out the Vote: How to Increase Voter Turnout, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Green, Donald P. and Ian Shapiro (1994), Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory: A Critique of Applications in Political Science, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Grether, David M. and Charles R. Plott (1979), ‘Economic theory of choice and the preference reversal phenomenon’, American Economic Review, 69 (4), 623–638.

Grose, Christian (2010), ‘Priming rationality: A theory and field experiment of participation in legislatures’, paper presented at New York University–Cooperative Congressional Elective Study Experimental Political Science Conference, 5–6 February, New York.

Grose, Christian (2014), ‘Field experimental work on political institutions’, Annual Review of Political Science, 17, 355–370.

Grüne-Yanoff, Till and Ralph Hertwig (2016), ‘Nudge versus boost: How coherent are policy and theory?’, Minds and Machines, 26, 149–183.

Gueron, Judith M. and Howard Rolston (2013), Fighting for Reliable Evidence, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Hagman, W., D. Andersson, D. Västfjäll and G. Tinghög (2015), ‘Public views on policies involving nudges’, Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 6 (3), 439–453.

Hallsworth, Michael and Michael Sanders (2016), ‘Nudge: Recent developments in behavioural science and public policy’, in Fiona Spotswood (ed.), Beyond Behaviour Change, Bristol: Policy Press, pp. 113–134.

Hallsworth, Michael, David Halpern, Dominic King and Ivo Vlaev (2010), MINDSPACE: Influencing Behaviour through Public Policy, London: Cabinet Office and Institute for Government.

Hallsworth, Michael, Dan Berry, Michael Sanders, Anna Sallis, Dominic King, Ivo Vlaev and Ara Darzi (2015), ‘Stating appointment costs in SMS reminders reduces missed hospital appointments: Findings from two randomized controlled trials’, PLoS ONE, 10 (9), e0141461.

Hallsworth, Michael, John A. List, Robert D. Metcalfe and Ivo Vlaev (2017), ‘The behavioralist as tax collector: Using natural field experiments to enhance tax compliance’, Journal of Public Economics, 148, 14–31.

Halpern, David (2015), Inside the Nudge Unit, London: W.H. Allen.

Halpern, David and Danielle Mason (2015), ‘Radical incrementalism’, Evaluation, 21, 143–149.

Halpern, David, Stewart Wood and Gavin Cameron (1996), Options for Britain: A Strategic Policy Review, Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing.

Harford, Tim (2005), The Undercover Economist, Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

Hargreaves-Heap, Shaun (2017), ‘Behavioural public policy: the constitutional approach’, Behavioural Public Policy, 1 (2), 252–265.

Harris, Christopher J. and David Laibson (2002), ‘Hyperbolic discounting and consumption’, in Mathias Dewatripont, Lars Peter Hansen and Stephen J. Turnovsky (eds), Advances in Economics and Econometrics: Theory and Applications, Vol. 1, Eighth World Congress, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 258–298.

Haynes, Laura, Ben Goldacre and David Torgerson (2012), Test, Learn, Adapt: Developing Public Policy with Randomised Controlled Trials, London: Cabinet Office.

Haynes, Laura, Donald P. Green, Rory Gallagher, Peter John and David J. Torgerson (2013), ‘Collection of delinquent fines: An adaptive randomized trial to assess the effectiveness of alternative text messages’, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 32, 718–730.

Heath, Joseph and Joel H. Anderson (2010), ‘Procrastination and the extended will’, in Chrisoula Andreou and Mark D. White (eds), The Thief of Time: Philosophical Essays on Procrastination, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 233–252.

Heller, Sara B., Anuj K. Shah, Jonathan Guryan, Jens Ludwig, Sendhil Mullainathan and Harold A. Pollack (2017), ‘Thinking, fast and slow? Some field experiments to reduce crime and dropout in Chicago’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 132 (1), 1–54.

Henderson, Mark (2012), The Geek Manifesto: Why Science Matters, London: Bantam Press.

Hertwig, Ralph (2017), ‘When to consider boosting: Some rules for policymakers’, Behavioural Public Policy, 1 (2), 143–161.

HM Treasury (2011), The Magenta Book: Guidance for Evaluation, London: HM Treasury,

Hood, Christopher and Helen Margetts (2007), The Tools of Government in a Digital Age, Basingstoke: Macmillan.

House of Lords (2011), Behaviour Change, Science and Technology Select Committee 2nd Report of Session 2010–12, London: HMSO.

Jackson, Tim (2005), Motivating Sustainable Consumption: A Review of Evidence on Consumer Behaviour and Behavioural Change, report to the Sustainable Development Research Network, Brighton: University of Sussex,

John, Peter (2011), Making Policy Work, London: Routledge.

John, Peter (2013a), ‘All tools are informational now: How information and persuasion define the tools of government’, Policy and Politics, 41 (4), 605–620.

John, Peter (2013b), ‘Political science, impact and evidence’, Political Studies Review, 11, 168–173.

John, Peter (2013c), ‘My nudge tour of Australia’, (accessed 15 January 2017).

John, Peter (2014), ‘Policy entrepreneurship in British government: The Behavioural Insights Team and the use of RCTs’, Public Policy and Administration, 29 (3), 257–267.

John, Peter (2017a), Field Experiments in Political Science and Public Policy, New York: Routledge.

John, Peter (2017b), ‘Behavioural science, randomised evaluations and the transformation of public policy: The case of the UK government’, in Jessica Pykett, Rhys Jones and Mark Whitehead (eds), Psychological Governance and Public Policy: Governing the Mind, Brain and Behaviour, London: Routledge, pp. 136–152.

John, Peter and Toby Blume (2017), ‘Nudges that promote channel shift: A randomized evaluation of messages to encourage citizens to renew benefits online’, Internet and Policy, early view, (accessed 13 June 2017).

John, Peter and Tessa Brannan (2008), ‘How different are telephoning and canvassing? Results from a Get Out the Vote field experiment in the British 2005 General Election’, British Journal of Political Science, 38, 565–574.

John, Peter and Liz Richardson (2012), Nudging Citizens towards Localism?, London: British Academy.

John, Peter and Gerry Stoker (2017), ‘From nudge to nudge plus: The future of behavioural policy’, unpublished paper.

John, Peter, Sarah Cotterill, Alice Moseley, Liz Richardson, Graham Smith, Gerry Stoker and Corinne Wales (2011), Nudge, Nudge, Think, Think: Experimenting with Ways to Change Civic Behaviour, London: Bloomsbury Academic.

John, Peter, Michael Sanders and Jennifer Wang (2014), ‘The use of descriptive norms in public administration: A panacea for improving citizen behaviours?’,

Johnson, Eric and Daniel Goldstein (2003), ‘Do defaults save lives?’, Science, 302, 1338–1339.

Jones, Bryan (1995), Reconceiving Decision-Making in Democratic Politics, Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.

Jones, Bryan and Frank Baumgartner (2005), The Politics of Attention, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Jones, Rhys, Jessica Pykett and Mark Whitehead (2013), Changing Behaviours: On the Rise of the Psychological State, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Jung, Janice Y. and Barbara A. Mellers (2016), ‘American attitudes toward nudges’, Judgment and Decision Making, 11 (1), 62–74.

Just, David R. and Brian Wansink (2009), ‘Smarter lunchrooms: Using behavioral economics to improve meal selection’, Choices, 29 (3), 1–6, (accessed 12 June 2017).

Kahn, Emily B., Leigh T. Ramsey, Ross C. Brownson, Gregory W. Heath, Elizabeth H. Howze, Kenneth E. Powell, Elaine J. Stone, Mummy W. Rajab, Phaedra Corso and the Task Force on Community Preventive Services (2002), ‘The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity: A systematic review’, American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 22, 73–107.

Kahneman, Daniel (1973), Attention and Effort, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Kahneman, Daniel (2011), Thinking, Fast and Slow, London: Penguin.

Kahneman, Daniel and Amos Tversky (1979), ‘Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk’, Econometrica, 47 (2), 263–291.

Kahneman, Daniel, Paul Slovic and Amos Tversky (1982), Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kahneman, Daniel, Jack L. Knetsch and Richard H. Thaler (1990), ‘Experimental tests of the endowment effect and the Coase theorem’, Journal of Political Economy, 98 (6), 1325–1348.

Kahneman, Daniel, Jack L. Knetsch and Richard H. Thaler (1991), ‘Anomalies: The endowment effect, loss aversion, and status quo bias’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5 (1), 193–206.

Kelman, Steven (2005), Unleashing Change: A Study of Organizational Renewal in Government, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Kimbell, Lucy (2015), Applying Design Approaches to Policy Making: Discovering the Policy Lab, Brighton: University of Brighton.

King, Anthony and Ivor Crewe (2013), The Blunders of Our Governments, London: Oneworld Publications.

Kingdon, John (1984), Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies, Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

Kotler, Philip and Gerald Zaltman (1971), ‘Social marketing: An approach to planned social change’, Journal of Marketing, 35 (3), 3–12.

Kundakovic, Marija and Ivana Jaric (2017), ‘The epigenetic link between prenatal adverse environments and neurodevelopmental disorders’, Genes (Basel), 8 (3), 104.

Leggett, Will (2014), ‘The politics of behaviour change: Nudge, neoliberalism and the state’, Policy and Politics, 42, 3–19.

Levitt, Steven D. and Stephen J. Dubner (2005), Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything, New York: William Morrow.

Levitt, Steven D. and John A. List (2007), ‘What do laboratory experiments measuring social preferences reveal about the real world?’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21 (2), 153–174.

Lewis, Michael (2016), The Undoing Project: A Friendship That Changed the World, London: Allen Lane.

Lilley, Rachel, Mark Whitehead, Rachel Howell, Rhys Jones and Jessica Pykett (2014), Mindfulness Behaviour Change and Engagement in Public Policy: An Evaluation, (accessed 1 May 2017).

Lindblom, Charles E. (1959), ‘The science of muddling through’, Public Administration Review, 19, 79–88.

Lindblom, Charles E. (1965), The Intelligence of Democracy, Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

List, John A. (2002), ‘Preference reversals of a different kind: The more is less phenomenon’, American Economic Review, 92 (5), 1636–1643.

List, John A. (2011), ‘Why economists should conduct field experiments and 14 tips for pulling one off’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 25 (3), 3–16.

Lodge, Martin and Kai Wegrich (2016), ‘The rationality paradox of nudge: Rational tools of government in a world of bounded rationality’, Law and Policy, 38 (3), 250–267.

Loewen, Peter John, Lior Sheffer, Stuart Soroka, Stefaan Walgrave and Tamir Shaefer (2014), ‘Expertise and efficacy in elite political decision making’, unpublished paper, (accessed 15 January 2017).

Loewenstein, George (1987), ‘Anticipation and the valuation of delayed consumption’, Economic Journal, 97 (387), 666–684.

Loewenstein, George, Joelle Y. Friedman, Barbara McGill, Sarah Ahmad, Suzanne Linck, Stacey Sinkula, John Beshears, James J. Choi, Jonathan Kolstad, David Laibson, Brigitte C. Madrian, John A. List and Kevin G. Volpp (2013), ‘Consumers’ misunderstanding of health insurance’, Journal of Health Economics, 32, 850–862.

Loewenstein, George, Cindy Bryce, David Hagmann and Sachin Rajpal (2015), ‘Warning: You are about to be nudged’, Behavioral Science and Policy, 1 (1), 35–42.

Lunn, P. (2014), Regulatory Policy and Behavioural Economics, Paris: OECD Publishing.

Margetts, Helen, Peter John, Scott Hale and Taha Yasseri (2016), Political Turbulence: How Social Media Shape Collective Action, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Marteau, Theresa M., David Ogilvie, Martin Roland, Marc Suhrcke and Michael P. Kelly (2011), ‘Judging nudging: Can nudging improve population health?’, British Medical Journal, 342, 263–265.

Martin, Steve J., Noah J. Goldstein and Robert B. Cialdini (2014), The Small Big: Small Changes That Spark Big Influence, London: Penguin.

McConnell, Allan (2010), Understanding Policy Success: Rethinking Public Policy, Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Michie, Susan, Maartje M. van Stralen and Robert West (2011), ‘The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions’, Implementation Science, 6 (42), 2–11.

Mols, Frank, S. Alexander Haslam, Jolanda Jetten and Niklas K. Steffens (2015), ‘Why a nudge is not enough: A social identity critique of governance by stealth’, European Journal of Political Research, 54 (1), 81–98.

NAO (National Audit Office) (2009), Innovation across Central Government, report by the Comptroller and Auditor General, HC 12 Session 2008–2009, London: HMSO.

Newell, Benjamin R., David A. Lagnado and David R. Shanks (2007), Straight Choices: The Psychology of Decision Making, London: Psychology Press.

Nooteboom, Bart (2000), Learning and Innovation in Organizations and Economies, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Norman, Donald (1988), The Design of Everyday Things, New York: Basic Books.

Nozick, Robert (1974), Anarchy, State, and Utopia, New York: Basic Books.

Nyhan, Brendan and Jason Reifler (2010), ‘When corrections fail: The persistence of political misperceptions’, Political Behavior, 32 (2), 303–330.

Nyhan, Brendan and Jason Reifler (2015), ‘The effect of fact-checking on elites: A field experiment on U.S. state legislators’, American Journal of Political Science, 59, 628–640.

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2017), Behavioural Insights and Public Policy: Lessons from Around the World, Paris: OECD.

Oliver, Adam (ed.) (2013a), Behavioural Public Policy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Oliver, Adam (2013b), ‘From nudging to budging: Using behavioural economics to inform public sector policy’, Journal of Social Policy, 42 (4), 685–700.

Oliver, Adam (2017), The Origins of Behavioural Public Policy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ostrom, Elinor (1990), Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ostrom, Elinor (1997), ‘Behavioral approach to the rational choice theory of collective action: Presidential address, American Political Science Association, 1997’, American Political Science Review, 92 (1), 1–22.

Panagopoulos, Costas (2011), ‘Thank you for voting: Gratitude expression and voter mobilization’, Journal of Politics, 73, 707–717.

Park, Andreas and Hamid Sabourian (2011), ‘Herding and contrarian behavior in financial markets’, Econometrica, 79, 973–1026.

Petrescu, Dragos C., Gareth J. Hollands, Dominique-Laurent Couturier, Yin-Lam Ng and Theresa M. Marteau (2016), ‘Public acceptability in the UK and USA of nudging to reduce obesity: The example of reducing sugar-sweetened beverages consumption’, PLoS ONE, 11 (6), e0155995.

Pike, Tony, Andrea Collier, Andrew Cotterill, Tim Everett, Rachel Muckle and Amy Vanstone (2010), Understanding Behaviours in a Farming Context: Bringing Theoretical and Applied Evidence Together from across Defra and Highlighting Policy Relevance and Implications for Future Research, Defra Agricultural Change and Environment Observatory Discussion Paper, London: Defra.

Pressman, Jeffery L. and Aaron Wildavsky (1973), Implementation: How Great Expectations in Washington Are Dashed in Oakland, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Rabin, Matthew (1998), ‘Psychology and economics’, Journal of Economic Literature, 36, 11–46.

Reis, Rodrigo S., Deborah Salvo, David Ogilvie, Estelle V. Lambert, Shifalika Goenka, Ross C. Brownson and Lancet Physical Activity Series 2 Executive Committee (2016), ‘Scaling up physical activity interventions worldwide: Stepping up to larger and smarter approaches to get people moving’, Lancet, 388 (10051), 1337–1348.

Richardson, Liz and Peter John (2012), ‘Who listens to the grass roots? A field experiment on informational lobbying in the UK’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 14 (4), 595–612.

Rimfeld, Kaili, Yulia Kovas, Philip S. Dale and Robert Plomin (2016), ‘True grit and genetics: Predicting academic achievement from personality’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111 (5), 780–789.

Ritz, Adrian, Gene A. Brewer and Oliver Neumann (2016), ‘Public service motivation: A systematic literature review and outlook’, Public Administration Review, 76, 414–426.

Rogers, Everett M. (1983), Diffusion of Innovations, 3rd edn, London: Collier Macmillan.

Ross, Heather (1970), ‘An experimental study of the negative income tax’, Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Economics, (accessed 12 June 2017).

Rothengatter, J.A. and John A. Groeger (1998), ‘Traffic psychology and behaviour’, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 1, 1–9.

Sanders, David (2010), ‘Behavioural analysis’, in David Marsh and Gerry Stoker (eds), Theory and Methods in Political Science, 3rd edn, Basingstoke: Macmillan, pp. 23–41.

Sanders, Michael, Raj Chande and Eliza Selley (2017), Encouraging People into University, London: Department for Education.

Sartori, Giovanni (1970), ‘Concept misformation in comparative politics’, American Political Science Review, 64 (4), 1033–1053.

Savani, Manu (2017), ‘The effectiveness of commitment devices: Field experiments on health behaviour change’, Ph.D. thesis, University College London.

Schmidt, Andreas T. (2017), ‘The power to nudge’, American Political Science Review, 111 (2), 404–417.

Schwartz, Barry (2005), The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less, New York: Harper Perennial.

Sedlmeier, Peter and Gerd Gigerenzer (2001), ‘Teaching Bayesian reasoning in less than two hours’, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 380–400.

Segall, Marshall H. (1976), Human Behavior and Public Policy: A Political Psychology, New York: Pergamon Press.

Sent, Esther-Mirjam (2004), ‘Behavioral economics: How psychology made its (limited) way back into economics’, History of Political Economy, 36 (4), 735–760.

Service, Owain and Rory Gallagher (2017), Think Small, London: Michael O’Mara Books.

Service, Owain, Michael Hallsworth, David Halpern, Felicity Algate, Rory Gallagher, Sam Nguyen, Simon Ruda and Michael Sanders with Marcos Pelenur, Alex Gyani, Hugo Harper, Joanne Reinhard and Elspeth Kirkman (2014), EAST: Four Simple Ways to Apply Behavioural Insights, London: Behavioural Insights Team.

Shafir, Eldar (ed.) (2013), The Behavioral Foundations of Public Policy, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Shafir, Eldar and Sendhil Mullainathan (2013), Scarcity: Why Having Too Little Means So Much, London: Allen Lane.

Shah, Hetan and Emma Dawney (2005), Behavioural Economics: Seven Principles for Policy-Makers, London: New Economics Foundation.

Shu, Lisa, Nina Mazar, Francesca Gino, Dan Ariely and Max H. Bazerman (2012), ‘Signing at the beginning makes ethics salient and decreases dishonest self-reports in comparison to signing at the end’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (38), 15197–15200.

Silva, Antonio and Peter John (2017), ‘Social norms don’t always work: An experiment to encourage more efficient fees collection for students’, PLoS ONE, 2 (5), e0177354,

Silva, Antonio, Michael Sanders and Aisling Ni Chonaire (2016), Does the Heart Rule the Head? Economic and Emotional Incentives for University Attendance, London: Behavioural Insights Team.

Simon, Herbert A. (1947), Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organization, 1st edn, New York: Macmillan.

Simon, Herbert A. (1955), ‘A behavioral model of rational choice’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 69, 99–118.

Skinner, B.F. (1938), The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis, Cambridge, MA: B.F. Skinner Foundation.

Smith, Adam ([1776] 1904), An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, London: Methuen, (accessed 10 June 2017).

Smith, Graham (2009), Democratic Innovations: Designing Institutions for Citizen Participation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Smith, Graham, Peter John and Patrick Sturgis (2013), ‘Taking political engagement online: An experimental analysis of asynchronous discussion forums’, Political Studies, 61, 709–730.

Sousa, Joana Lourenço, Emanuele Ciriolo, Sara Rafael Almeida and Xavier Troussard (2016), Behavioural Insights Applied to Policy: European Report 2016, EUR 27726 EN, Luxembourg: European Commission.

Spencer, Charles and Jon Driver (2004), Crossmodal Space and Crossmodal Attention, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Spotswood, Fiona (2016), ‘Introduction’, in Fiona Spotswood (ed.), Beyond Behaviour Change, Bristol: Policy Press, pp. 1–8.

Stone, Diane (1996), Capturing the Political Imagination: Think Tanks and the Policy Process, London: Frank Cass.

Sugden, Robert (2004), ‘The opportunity criterion: Consumer sovereignty without the assumption of coherent preferences’, American Economic Review, 94, 1014–1033.

Sugden, Robert (2008), ‘Why incoherent preferences do not justify paternalism’, Constitutional Political Economy, 19 (3), 226–248.

Sugden, Robert (2016), ‘Do people really want to be nudged towards healthy lifestyles?’, International Review of Economics, 64 (2), 113–123.

Sunstein, Cass R. (ed.) (2000), Behavioral Law and Economics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sunstein, Cass R. (2014a), Why Nudge?, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Sunstein, Cass R. (2014b), Simpler: The Future of Government, New York: Simon & Schuster.

Sunstein, Cass R. (2016), The Ethics of Influence: Government in the Age of Behavioral Science, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sunstein, Cass R. (2017a), Human Agency and Behavioral Economics: Nudging Fast and Slow, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan/Springer.

Sunstein, Cass R. (2017b), ‘Nudges that fail’, Behavioural Public Policy, 1 (1), 4–25.

Sutherland, Stuart (1992), Irrationality: Why We Don’t Think Straight!, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Tapp, Alan and Sharyn Rundle-Thiele (2016), ‘Social marketing and multidisciplinary behaviour change’, in Fiona Spotswood (ed.), Beyond Behaviour Change, Bristol: Policy Press, pp. 135–156.

Thaler, Richard (1980), ‘Toward a positive theory of consumer choice’, Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization, 1, 39–60.

Thaler, Richard H. (1994), The Winner’s Curse, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Thaler, Richard H. (1999), ‘Mental accounting matters’, Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 12, 183–206.

Thaler, Richard H. (2015), Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioural Economics, New York: Allen Lane.

Thaler, Richard H. and Shlomo Benartzi (2004), ‘Save More Tomorrow: Using behavioral economics to increase employee saving’, Journal of Political Economy, 112, 164–187.

Thaler, Richard H. and H.M. Shefrin (1981), ‘An economic theory of self-control’, Journal of Political Economy, 89 (2), 392–406.

Thaler, Richard H. and Cass R. Sunstein (2008), Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Tummers, Lars G., Asmus Leth Olsen, Sebastian Jilke and Stephan G. Grimmelikhuijsen (2016), ‘Introduction to the virtual issue on behavioral public administration’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Virtual Issue 3, 1–3.

Tversky, Amos and Daniel Kahneman (1971), ‘Belief in the law of small numbers’, Psychological Bulletin, 76 (2), 105–110.

Tversky, Amos and Daniel Kahneman (1974), ‘Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases’, Science, 185 (4157), 1124–1131.

Tversky, Amos and Daniel Kahneman (1981), ‘The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice’, Science, 211 (4481), 453–458.

Tversky, Amos and Richard H. Thaler (1990), ‘Preference reversals’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 4 (1), 193–205.

Uchitelle, Louis (2001), ‘Following the money, but also the mind’, New York Times, 11 February.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2010), Healthy People 2010, conference edn, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Van de Vyver, Julie and Peter John (2017), ‘A field experiment: Testing the potential of norms for achieving behavior change in English parishes’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 47, 347–352.

Varazzani, Chiara (2017), ‘The risks of ignoring the brain’, Behavioral Science, (accessed 28 June 2017).

Wansink, Brian (2006), Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think, London: Hayhouse.

Wansink, Brian and P. Chandon (2006), ‘Can “low-fat” nutrition labels lead to obesity?’, Journal of Marketing Research, 43, 605–617.

Ward, Hugh and Peter John (2013), ‘Competitive learning in yardstick competition: Testing models of policy diffusion with performance data’, Political Science Research and Methods, 1 (1), 3–25.

Webb, Eugene J., Donald T. Campbell, Richard D. Schwartz and Lee Sechrest (1966), Unobtrusive Measures: Nonreactive Research in the Social Sciences, Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.

Weiss, Carol H. (1977), ‘Research for policy’s sake: The enlightenment function of social research’, Policy Analysis, 3 (4), 531–545.

Whitehead, Mark, Rhys Jones, Rachel Howell, Rachel Lilley and Jessica Pykett (2014), Nudging All Over the World, Swindon: Economic and Social Research Council.

Wiebe, G.D. (1951–1952), ‘Merchandising commodities and citizenship on television’, Public Opinion Quarterly, 15 (4), 679–691.

Wildavsky, Aaron (1966), ‘Toward a radical incrementalism: A proposal to aid Congress in reform of the budgetary process’, in Congress: The First Branch of Government, Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, pp. 115–165.

Wilkinson, T. Martin (2013), ‘Nudging and manipulation’, Political Studies, 61 (2), 341–355.

World Bank (2015), World Development Report 2015: Mind, Society, and Behavior, Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Health Organization (2009), Interventions on Diet and Physical Activity: What Works, summary report, Geneva: World Health Organization.

Zamir, Eyal and Doron Teichman (eds) (2014), The Oxford Handbook of Behavioral Economics and the Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.